Military Review

How to sew for the front and what is the "sad birthday"

31
I offer you, dear readers, some pictures of everyday life sewing factories in our country during the Great Patriotic War. According to them, these pictures, one can clearly see the complete commitment of those who worked on sewing clothes for the soldiers.


Sarapul Garment Factory (Udmurt Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic)
In the first ten days of the war alone, has labor productivity more than doubled here. Now the increased daily rates were no longer issued by individuals, but by entire brigades and even workshops. Here is an excerpt from the newspaper of the time “Red Kama Region”: “... Worker of workshop No. XXUMX Meshcheryakova said at the nearly thousandth rally:“ I led two sons to the front to fight for the Motherland. I punished them: “Beat the enemy mercilessly!” And here, in production, I will also beat the enemy with Stakhanov's work. I previously fulfilled the norm of not less than one hundred and twenty percent, now I will give at least one hundred and fifty percent of the norm daily ... "

After work, women rushed to nursing courses. And twenty-three factory workers studied to become air defense and chemical defense instructors. In addition, electricians, drivers, and mechanics went to the front. All these professions have been mastered by women, and in record time, therefore the production did not fail for a day (this can be said about all the factories that will be discussed here).

But there were still huge problems with electricity. Therefore, the factory asked the plant number XXUMX in order to get a temporary use of diesel. He gave out electricity within fifty kilowatts, and the factory worked in two shifts, for twelve hours each, and only sometimes - ten. Therefore, the diesel worked almost all day and night.

Another serious problem was the interruption of fittings and spare parts for sewing machines, since the factory has not received anything since the beginning of the war. But here we found a way out. Buttons began to make of aluminum waste, which asked the plant number XXUMX. Think about it: more than six million buttons were made from this waste! Likewise, they coped with the manufacture of hooks, loops, and even some parts for sewing machines.

The factory sewed literally everything that our soldiers needed: from overcoats to underwear and covers for flasks. Moreover, enterprising women made slippers, handkerchiefs and even children's shirts from production waste and packing tissue.

The workers contributed a rather large amount to the country's Defense Fund. To do this, starting from the beginning of August 1941 and until the end of the war, they worked on the collective farm several days a month.

The factory also had its own subsidiary farm: 52 with half a hectare of sown area and 12 hectares of grassland. The great harvest of vegetables, oats, and peas was received by women victims, but they did not take anything for themselves. The main part was transferred to the canteen of the enterprise and about forty percent to the kindergarten. Often gave out food and families in dire need of nutrition.

And another fact: during the "rest" from the change of women rushed to the hospital. They set up a duty here and helped the local medical staff.



Syzran garment factory (Saratov region)
Until the summer of 1942, this factory was a sewing factory. By the beginning of World War II, nearly six hundred people worked here. And by the autumn 1941 of the year - less than three hundred. But despite this, the factory overfulfilled the plan by 30 percent in the first two years of the war. Moreover, in the autumn of 1942, the workers took up a new business for them - sewing overcoats. They mastered it in just ten days and in the last two months of this year they released almost fifty one thousand overcoats.

Desperately not enough machines for cutting fabrics. It was necessary to fold fifteen layers of matter, then cut manually. Machines could not cope, and the hands were kept ...

Not enough and raw materials. To avoid downtime, women additionally sewed from what was, bloomers and gymnasts. The company employed women workers with young children, to the homes to which the funerals came. These families harvested and brought firewood. Especially for them, only in 1943 a year they sewed about a hundred pairs of children's shoes (although the factory itself was not a shoe, but we also learned this).

Only in 1945, the plan failed. But this was due to the fact that there was a new, improved cloth for overcoats. Now tailoring required more time allotted for the plan. In addition, just before the Victory, the factory received a conveyor, which had long dreamed of. True, to install it, it was necessary to remove the stone wall connecting the two sewing shops, move the furnaces and rebuild several entrances. Who did this? Also women. That is why their labor productivity decreased in that year. However, the verb "decreased" can be safely put in quotes ...

Tyumen garment factory
Before the Great Patriotic War, gymnasts and wide trousers were sewed here for military schools of Tyumen. But already at the beginning of July 1941, cartridge belts, shoulder straps, buttonholes, covers for flasks, and underwear were added to these products. Productivity increased to 170 percent per year. A custom was introduced at the factory: one day a week was declared “family” (family day Ivanov, Petrov and so on). It was about women workers with young children who received a death notice or a notice of missing her husband. On this day, everyone who could, brought gifts (they considered everything as good - from cereals and vegetables to sugar). And after the end of the working day, specially appointed attendants went home to the “birthdays”, helped with the housework, worked with the children, and cleaned. Each mother had the right to leave a request for such “her” day, if she saw that her family was in distress. None of the factory workers did not check whether the family really had no food or money. They believed everything to the word and knew that in such a difficult time no one would pretend. Among the "sad birthday boy" was cutter Tatiana Ermolova, at the very beginning of the war received a death note for her husband and two brothers and the rest with four children. The general decision of the assembly of seamstresses to the Yermolovs began to come necessarily once every ten days - without further reminders. So the kids and managed to feed themselves.

Garment factories of Kyrgyzstan
During the war years, not only "their" factories were located here (there were nine of them by June 1941), but also evacuated from the cities of Russia and Ukraine. In addition, at this time they created a sheepskin, pelt and glue factory, hosiery and haberdashery factories. They built a spinning mill and a tannery. In general, by the summer of 1945, there were already twenty factories in Kyrgyzstan, which in four years produced about six million garments and nearly a million pairs of stockings and socks.

We will dwell more on the Mikoyan knitting factory, which in October 1941 moved from Kharkov to Frunze. At the time of the move, the building allocated for accommodation was not completed. However, neither the workers who came from Kharkov (seventy people), nor the local workers were going to wait for the completion of construction. And at the first meeting they decided to work in unfinished premises. The main thing for them was to supply things to the front: sweatshirts, T-shirts, T-shirts, underwear. Moreover, construction was barely completed in the shortest possible time, as workers (mostly women were) began to produce knitwear, stockings, and socks. And by the end of 1942, these products already had more than forty items, and from year to year the volume of products increased.

And one should not forget that not all women initially worked at a garment factory. In the first days of the war, several thousand former housewives came to work here, who had no specialty or experience. We studied on the move, and the percentage of marriage was almost zero.

Vologda factory "1 May"
The women working here worked, as a rule, in two shifts in a row. First sewed gymnastics, padded jackets, pants, jackets. And in the second they were engaged in repairing clothes. She was specially sent from the front in huge batches. And we are not talking about small cuts or holes - the fighters coped with this themselves, on the ground. No, they sent things to the factory that literally had to give a second life. During the war years, the workers repaired about thirty thousand pieces of clothing! There is a known case when the sewing team (the oldest in it was Tatyana Anatolievna Shvetsova) did not leave the workshops for more than three days. We slept in turn for an hour and a half. Only two members of the brigade were sent home: they had small children.

In his spare time (even the phrase itself sounds strange, but, nevertheless) went to the forest to collect spruce and pine needles. Delivered it to the pharmaceutical items for the manufacture of medicinal tinctures. In the summer, they collected chamomile, St. John's wort, coltsfoot, plantain. Again, not for myself - for pharmacies and hospitals. It seems that the reflexive pronoun "me" was very rarely used in the war years ...
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  1. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 26 January 2016 06: 17
    +7
    Thanks so much for the article.
    Everything for Victory !! Women, children participated, fought !!
    And as for many factories subsequently equipped with modern equipment --- what happened to them later?
    What about the military uniform? New standards have appeared. Actually, this is a very important topic. Regards.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. siberalt
      siberalt 26 January 2016 18: 34
      +1
      In the late 70s, he worked as a legal adviser for one of the sewing firms. The name "firm" alone was cool. And in fact an ordinary garment factory. The first floor was engaged in cutting, the second was sewing a citizen, and the third was "green" - a cotton uniform for the army. For the third floor, there was a special full-time state receiver with a rank almost higher than the factory director and higher in salary. And the second drove the defective nylon jackets with buttons and rivets for adults, and the same school uniform made of p / w. And what has changed?
  2. qwert
    qwert 26 January 2016 07: 23
    11
    Quote: Reptiloid
    And as for many factories subsequently equipped with modern equipment --- what happened to them later?

    There are now shopping centers. Another country, different values, different people. So that Putin does not talk about the succession of generations, it is destroyed.

    Sophie, thanks for the article. These are exactly the ones I want to see on Topvar more often
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 26 January 2016 07: 45
    +3
    Everything for the front, everything for the victory .. All and across the country ... Thank you, Sophia ...
  4. semirek
    semirek 26 January 2016 08: 19
    +4
    The unity of the front and the rear - allowed during the war years to gain major victories over Nazi Germany, including the defeat of fascism.
    "Days and nights at open-hearth furnaces, our homeland did not close its eyes ..."
    This day we brought closer as we could!
  5. ism_ek
    ism_ek 26 January 2016 08: 26
    -8
    The bulk of clothing for the army was made not by state enterprises, but by private artels.
    Great-grandmother worked as a seamstress. Awl quilted jackets. The war began for her in 1939. For several delays, they tried. For truancy, including due to illness, the child was given five years in camps, children were sent to an orphanage.
    1. Wheel
      Wheel 26 January 2016 12: 32
      10
      Quote: ism_ek
      . For several delays, they tried. For truancy, including due to illness, the child was given five years in camps, children were sent to an orphanage.

      Well, well.
      Decree of June 26, 1940.
      For absenteeism without good reason, workers and employees of state, cooperative and public enterprises and institutions are put on trial and, by the verdict of the people's court, are punished with correctional labor at the place of work for up to 6 months with deduction from wages of up to 25%.
      A sick child with a certificate is a good reason, they have not been tried.
      1. ism_ek
        ism_ek 26 January 2016 19: 57
        +1
        In December 1941, penalties were tightened. Absenteeism was equated with desertion.
    2. a housewife
      a housewife 26 January 2016 13: 11
      10
      Judged for truancy in a private artel? Hard to believe. And grandmothers will not tell you that. Once my girlfriend’s grandmother, watching on TV how the miners go down to the mine, suddenly gave out - they all lie on TV, I saw in Donetsk how they go down to the mine, they are tied with chains under their armpits and lowered one by one, they hold five people . What she saw - who knows, but spoke confidently. And here at VO some spoke that they didn’t do anything special at the production facilities in the rear, and worked two shifts to get more money. I didn’t even answer him, what to take with a fool.
      1. Vladimirets
        Vladimirets 26 January 2016 17: 30
        +2
        Quote: housewife
        They didn’t do anything special at the production facilities in the rear, and worked in two shifts to get more money.

        Maybe they had grandmothers on that front line?
        1. ism_ek
          ism_ek 27 January 2016 08: 23
          0
          Quote: Vladimirets
          Maybe they had grandmothers on that front line?

          Earnings were different. The artels had no fixed wages. Artelshiki received a percentage of the profits. As a result, it turned out that some were starving receiving 200 g of grain per workday, and some bought tanks for surplus for the front. The income of collective farmers in neighboring regions could differ by five ... ten times. After the 1948 reform, some were stoked with bills.
          The problem is that it was possible to transfer to another enterprise only in the direction of the party bodies or the NKVD.
    3. semirek
      semirek 26 January 2016 20: 25
      +2
      No artels of such a quantity of uniforms and equipment would ever have produced.
      1. ism_ek
        ism_ek 26 January 2016 22: 04
        -1
        Quote: semirek
        No artels of such a quantity of uniforms and equipment would ever have produced.
        Where do such conclusions come from? There were practically no state enterprises in agriculture. In 1940 there were 236,9 thousand collective farms and only 4,2 thousand state farms. The number of production cooperatives totaled hundreds of thousands. Artels produced radios, televisions, 70% dishes, 100% children's toys. About a hundred design bureaus, 22 experimental laboratories worked in the business sector.
        1. a housewife
          a housewife 27 January 2016 01: 40
          +1
          I wonder where this information comes from? Specifically about toys - the "Vesna" toy factory was built at the height of the war, so that children had something to play with, especially evacuees, in particular from Leningrad. The factory was state-owned. By the way, it still works, produces beautiful dolls. Unfortunately, there is not enough for the whole country. Dolls are not a trifle, but an element of education, by the way. And the Union understood this.
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. ism_ek
            ism_ek 27 January 2016 06: 27
            0
            Toy Factory “Vesna” counts its history from June 26, 1942 from the date of foundation of the “Toy” artel. Today, Vesna is one of the leaders in the production of dolls in Russia; more than a million dolls come off the assembly line every year.

            http://www.vesna.kirov.ru/about/history/
        2. a housewife
          a housewife 27 January 2016 01: 40
          0
          I wonder where this information comes from? Specifically about toys - the "Vesna" toy factory was built at the height of the war, so that children had something to play with, especially evacuees, in particular from Leningrad. The factory was state-owned. By the way, it still works, produces beautiful dolls. Unfortunately, there is not enough for the whole country. Dolls are not a trifle, but an element of education, by the way. And the Union understood this.
  6. nimboris
    nimboris 26 January 2016 08: 28
    +3
    The Soviet rear is the second front
    1. semirek
      semirek 26 January 2016 20: 15
      0
      Quote: nimboris
      The Soviet rear is the second front


      But there was one more front: labor armies, for some reason it is not customary to write about them.
  7. Vladycat
    Vladycat 26 January 2016 10: 26
    +2
    People are flint. I repeat, but materials of similar content should be brought to the younger generation.
  8. Leader
    Leader 26 January 2016 10: 28
    +1
    Quote: qwert
    Another country, different values, different people.

    Now nobody will plow like that - there is no single, unifying goal; no people overcome incredible difficulties for the sake of high ideals.
    The final conclusion? The capitalist system is destruction for Russia.
  9. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 26 January 2016 11: 13
    +2
    Quote: qwert
    Quote: Reptiloid
    And as for many factories subsequently equipped with modern equipment --- what happened to them later?

    There are now shopping centers.

    I heard about expensive, broken equipment, about the destruction of the industry, however, I didn’t read it, at the household level I heard
    What happened before --- I remembered that I had read about the theft of Schliemann, Pikul also wrote about this, but I find it difficult to say for sure.
    1. Koshak
      Koshak 26 January 2016 18: 33
      0
      In Ufa, instead of the firms "Mir", "8 Marta", KBC - shopping and entertainment centers. Probably, this is a typical picture, what to write about it?
      1. semirek
        semirek 26 January 2016 20: 23
        +3
        Quote: Koshak
        In Ufa, instead of the firms "Mir", "8 Marta", KBC - shopping and entertainment centers. Probably, this is a typical picture, what to write about it?


        Respected! after all, we ourselves began to dress up in bright Chinese rags already from the year 90, when all the knitwear factories were still working at full load, instead of buying domestic, we began to support the Chinese - the result is known, and that's what we are talking about now speech?
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 27 January 2016 13: 26
          +1
          Among the older relatives and their acquaintances there are such employees. It is difficult to listen to their stories about the destruction of the industry. It matters because what the Russian warrior is wearing! What clothes and shoes are handed over. Who is dressing the army now? There were so many conversations about the clothes of Ukrainian soldiers. I am often amazed by stories about the past deficit, about fashion. In my opinion, there were programs on this topic on TV. I wanted synthetics, bright colors, unusual styles, new. China is fast. Everything is new. And we, as they say, on each line there is thin advice, coordination, regulation.
  10. Serg koma
    Serg koma 26 January 2016 17: 19
    +5
    Somewhere when that material came across, during the Great Patriotic War, the industry of the USSR did not produce a single meter of "civilian" fabric ... "Everything for the front - Everything for Victory"! Low bow to all those: children, women, the elderly, disabled men (injured and not only) who, in a difficult time for the Fatherland, took upon themselves hard work in the fields, factories, factories, throughout OUR country, at all enterprises and brought to their hands Victory to OUR Warriors!
  11. Azim77
    Azim77 26 January 2016 18: 16
    +5
    http://www.iacis.ru/mainevents/god_veteranov_uzbekistan/

    From the very first days of the war, Uzbekistan has taken the most advanced positions in providing defense. During the war, the population of the republic donated 649,9 million rubles in cash to the defense fund, a cash loan of 4 billion 226 million rubles, 52,9 kg of gold and silver. 7 518 800 tunics, 2 639 700 cotton quilted jackets, 2 221 200 pairs of boots and boots were sent to the front. The Ministry of Light Industry alone supplied the front with 246 918 700 rubles.

    At the beginning of the 1942 year, more than 4 thousand units of warm clothes, about 10 thousand pairs of socks and mittens, 5 660 thousand warm hats, 2 750 trousers, 3 thousand sheep fur coats, 18,5 thousand liters of wine, several tons of dried fruit. At the beginning of the 1943 year, about 8 thousand kg of flour and wheat, 5 496 kg of grain, 1 160 kg of rice, 418 sheep, 8 510 kg of dried fruits, and cash in the amount of 224 XNUM 916 and 21 were also sent from Andijan to Leningrad 614 5 kg of wheat, 819 3 kg of meat, 700 20 kg of rice. Muinak fish factory in Karakalpakstan transferred to the XNUMX front one million cans of canned meat and fish.
    1. Serg koma
      Serg koma 28 January 2016 07: 11
      0
      Quote: Azim77
      and from Karakalpakstan cash in the amount of 224 916 soums

      On July 20, 1930, the Kara-Kalpak Autonomous Region was withdrawn from the Kazak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and became directly subordinate to the RSFSR, and on March 20, 1932 it was transformed into the Kara-Kalpak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (KKASSR, part of the RSFSR).
      In 1933, the city of Nukus became the capital of the KKASSR.
      On December 5, 1936, the Kara-Kalpak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (KKASSR) became part of the Uzbek SSR.
      In 1964 it was renamed the Karakalpak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (KKASSR).
      On December 14, 1990, the Declaration of Sovereignty was adopted.


      Apparently a typo, not 224 916 soums, but 224 916 RUBLES.
  12. Koshak
    Koshak 26 January 2016 18: 30
    +5
    Isakovsky, Mikhail Vasilievich
    Russian woman


    ... But can you tell me about it?
    What years did you live in!
    What immense gravity
    I fell on women's shoulders! ..

    That morning said goodbye to you
    Your husband or brother or son
    And you with your fate
    Left alone.

    One on one with tears
    With uncompressed bread in the field
    You met this war.
    And that's it - endlessly and without counting -
    Sorrows, labors and worries
    I fell for you on one.

    For you alone - willy-nilly -
    And you have to keep up everywhere;
    You alone at home and in the field
    One you cry and sing.

    And the clouds hang ever lower
    And the thunders rumble closer
    More and more bad news.
    And you are in front of the whole country
    And you before the whole war
    I said what you are.

    You walked with bitter grief
    The harsh way of labor.
    The whole front, from sea to sea,
    You fed your bread.

    In cold winters, in snowstorms,
    That one has a distant trait
    The soldiers warmed their greatcoats
    That you sewed carefully.

    Threw in a roar, in a smoke
    Soviet soldiers in battle,
    And the enemies of the stronghold crumbled
    From the bombs stuffed by you.

    You undertook everything without fear.
    And, as in a saying,
    You were both a spinner and a weaver
    She knew how - with a needle and a saw.

    Chopped, drove, dug -
    Are you really scrambling?
    And in letters to the front she assured
    What if you live well.

    The soldiers read your letters,
    And there, at the forefront,
    They understood well
    Your holy untruth.

    And a warrior going to battle
    And meet her ready
    Like an oath, whispering like a prayer
    Your distant name ...
  13. north67
    north67 26 January 2016 20: 38
    +6
    Thanks a lot. These are my grandmothers and my mother who worked to make us live now. Thanks a lot for the article. This is a molecule from the work and hardships that our relatives went through for the sake of victory. Glory to our ancestors who won this terrible war. Let us be worthy of them and will not surrender our Motherland in these difficult years. Shame and damnation to the fifth column and the "elite" READY TO BETRAY AND GIVE UP US. It's time to cleanse the Motherland of traitors, let them go to their owners and hang themselves like a Birch.
  14. Igor V
    Igor V 26 January 2016 23: 03
    +4
    Marshal Meretskov wrote. On the Volkhov front in the near rear were the Recreation Center for military personnel - hospitals for recovering. When the danger to the life and health of the wounded was over, they were sent there to communicate with the population and see how it lives. The soldiers who saw how people live in the rear had wounds healed twice as fast and their hatred of the enemy increased.
  15. Stoler
    Stoler 26 January 2016 23: 09
    +4
    Employees of "TYLA" !!!! It is high time to equate these PEOPLE with FRONT VEHICLES !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! DESERVED !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
  16. valerei
    valerei 27 January 2016 01: 11
    +5
    My father went through the whole war, all four years and on May 9 he raised the first glass for Victory, the second for those who did not return, and the third for the rear, i.e. for my mother, who also worked throughout the war for Victory. My father said so: "Without you, we would not have done anything at the front."