Military Review

In the fight you will find your right

25
In the fight you will find your right



Labor legislation in Russia improved most actively when workers frightened power

The era of Alexander II - the time of industrial recovery. The abolition of serfdom led to the rapid growth of the wage labor market: many “liberated” simply did not have land for cultivation, while others could not feed the family with the help of a plot for which they still owed the landlord. From a semi-patriarchal feudal country, it quickly turned into a capitalist country, where production was based on the system of wage labor. In the course of the industrial revolution, a new class of permanent workers was formed, concentrated in the largest industrial centers of the country. If earlier the workers were in many respects the same peasants who left the city at the time of the end of the seasonal agricultural work, now the core of the working class was people who were deprived of the means of production and had broken the connection with the land. If in the 1860 year in Russia there were about 0,72 million workers of large capitalist enterprises, by the beginning of the XX century their number was close to 3 million.

Such a rapid increase in the number of workers raised the question of their rights. This problem was very acute. On the eve of the 1861 reform, a third of the Russian workers were serfs, who had no right to leave the factories, mines and mines to which they were assigned. After the abolition of serfdom, workers began to be hired by enterprises on the terms of free employment. However, the word "free" in this case is deceptive. While settling for work “from Easter to Easter,” the man gave his passport to the factory office, after which he was actually deprived of his liberty: entrepreneurs could delay his salary, pay it not fully, make him work all day, punish him for offenses with a rod and at any time fire him for cheeky behavior. The “humane” 12-hour working day acted at the majority of factories in the Moscow province, while at the enterprises of other provinces it most often lasted from 12 to 15 hours.


Alexander II liberates serfs. Illustration in the book "The Kings of Russia", a picture of Lebedev

There was no regularity in the payment of salaries: most of the owners paid it only twice a year - at Easter and Christmas. As a result, workers were forced to purchase products on credit, and then the manufacturer again "came to the rescue": it was only possible to be credited in the factory shop, where high prices for products were set. As later researchers have shown, many business owners made the main profit from the work of shops, and not from production. No laws limit the size of fines levied by the owners at their discretion. This made the work of the workers almost free: they enriched the employer and, after paying the debt to the shops, they remained with miserable pennies. Often, the contract concluded between the employee and the employer was oral, and even after the expiration of a one-year period the person could not substantiate the complaint against the former boss. This order, somewhat reminiscent of the position of the serfs until the abolition of St. George's Day, was maintained in most enterprises until the 1880-s. Let's not forget that child labor was widely used: about two thirds of workers began to work before the age of 14. Child labor was accompanied by severe injuries, and the epidemics, which were frequent guests in the barracks where the workers lived, annually killed hundreds of small workers.

Revolution under the cloth

The working question was repeatedly raised by democratically-minded publicists even before the abolition of serfdom, and from the end of 1850's was widely discussed in various government commissions. One of the first documents that laid the foundations of labor legislation in Russia was the “Draft Rules for Factories and Plants in St. Petersburg and the County”, which prohibited children from working up to 12 age and limited employer's rights to adolescents (they could not work more than 10 hours and at night), some sanitary standards were introduced in factories and residential areas and for the first time in stories determined the responsibility of entrepreneurs for accidents with workers. A specially appointed factory inspection was supposed to check the rules. The government intended to extend these rules to the whole country, but their discussion by officials and manufacturers revealed sharp contradictions: the liberal authors of the draft law even provided workers with the right to strike, which the manufacturers were afraid of like fire. That is why the first projects pleased the cloth.

The workers themselves urged on the further legislative activity of the officials. The two largest strikes — at the St. Petersburg Neva Cotton Mills in 1870 and at the Krengolm Manufactory in Narva in 1872 (the last 7 thousand people took part) frightened both the authorities and the manufacturers. The new commission, chaired by Adjutant General Nikolai Ignatiev, insisted on limiting the arbitrariness of employers, but its most humane ideas, such as prohibiting child labor, were even criticized by representatives of the liberal public, who claimed that this decision would lead to hunger and the impoverishment of the children of workers themselves . Like the previous one, the commission was unable to find a compromise solution that could be understood by both the manufacturers and the workers. The same failure awaited the next commission, which worked until 1875 of the year. By the end of the second post-reform decade, Russia had approached without labor legislation and with bad baggage of discontent of the rapidly growing working class.

In 1880, this discontent rapidly increased due to the economic crisis: the costs of the 1877 – 1879 Russian-Turkish war and several failures in a row caused the agrarian first and then the industrial crisis. To the old problems of the working people was added a new one - unemployment: tens of thousands of proletarians were thrown into the streets, the rest were faced with a sharp decline in wages. Under these conditions, the government finally began introducing long-established provisions: the law of 1 June 1882 set a ban on children’s work to 12 years, limited the work time for teenagers 12 – 15 8 years to hours (with a mandatory interruption and a total ban on work during the night hours). The manufacturers were forbidden to use child labor in hazardous industries and ordered to provide the opportunity to study in a single-school public school to illiterate children. The law of 3 June 1885 of the year forbade night work of adolescents to 17 years and women in a number of industries. The control over the implementation of the laws was to be carried out by the factory inspection that was finally established. Which, by the way, soon discovered that even a few years after the adoption of laws, their provisions were largely ignored by industrialists, and sometimes demonstratively.

The culmination of grumbling in the work environment was the Morozov strike 1885 of the year. In just two years, starting with the first crisis 1882, manufacturers have consistently reduced wages five times, while constantly introducing new fines, sometimes “eating up” half of their earnings. The rise of the strike activity following the suppression of the Morozov strike frightened the government, and it hurried in 1886 to adopt a new factory law, where the whip was next to the gingerbread.


Morozovskie weavers discuss the requirements on the eve of the strike. Photo: State Museum of Political History of Russia

On the one hand, the “Rules on the mutual relations of manufacturers and workers” introduced long-conceived progressive rights of workers. They received payment books, where the terms of the contract with the employer were fixed. The procedure for hiring and firing was regulated: entrepreneurs were obliged to warn workers of dismissal two weeks in advance; wages should have been paid at least once or twice a month. The worker could demand termination of the contract of employment if the employer delayed the salary or if his representatives caused verbal insults and beatings to the person. An important improvement was the restriction of arbitrariness in determining the amount and procedure for levying fines: the total amount of fines could not exceed one third of the salary, and the money collected should be used for the needs of other workers.

These progressive measures were compensated by other, extremely tough, aimed at suppressing strikes. For incitement to worker strikes, they could have been imprisoned for up to 8 months, for participation - up to 4 months. Comparable penalties were provided for damage to factory property, threats to the administration and owners of the enterprise.

Hidden threat


The last decade of the XIX century brought with it new opportunities and difficulties: the country's recovery from the crisis and the unprecedented rise of industry put the challenging task for Finance Minister Sergei Witte to smooth out the contradictions between industrialists and workers, to achieve stable economic development while simultaneously suppressing the spread of socialist ideas among the proletariat. The new takeoff of the strike movement, which began in the middle of the 1890, took place on a scale that ten years ago would have seemed terrifying: for example, 1896 thousands of people joined the citywide strike of the St. Petersburg workers in May 30 in just a few days. Among the main requirements put forward by the workers were a reduction in working hours from 12 – 14 hours to 10,5 hours, a ban on salary delays, an increase in tariffs for various jobs, etc. Witte used the current situation to put pressure on the government and industrialists, who were desperately opposed to the drafting of a law on the regulation of the working day. At the end of the year, a commission was set up under the Ministry of Finance to devise a law. Initially, she proposed setting the maximum working day in 11 hours, shortened to 9 hours for those workers who were used in night work. However, industrialists led by Savva Morozov defended the 12-hour day for everyone, no matter what time of day they worked.

As a result, the law “On the Duration and Distribution of Working Time in Factory Industry Institutions”, published on 2 June 1897, was of a compromise nature: the working day could not last longer than 11,5 hours, and on the holidays and Saturdays - over 10 hours. The issue of night work in the law was almost not addressed: they were not prohibited, but only limited to 10 hours. In addition, the document applied only to permanent industrial workers, of which there were no more than 20% of the total number.

Government policy has not taken the edge off the issue. To compensate for the reduction in working hours, industrialists came up with a number of tricks: for example, they increased the rate of output per day, and also used the right to work overtime, for which a special contract was drawn up. By the end of the 19th century, the position of the Russian proletarians was much harder than that of their European and American counterparts: while in England, the USA, Denmark and Norway the working day lasted 9 – 10 hours, and in France, Germany and Sweden - 10 hours, in Russia on average, it was only slightly shorter than the legal maximum of 11,5 hours. Workers' wages (excluding fines and debts in factory shops) were in Russia in 2 times lower than in England, and in 4 times lower than in the USA. In the next century, workers' discontent will promote the widespread dissemination of revolutionary ideas among them and lead first to the 1905 revolution of the year, which improved their situation for a short time, and then to the 1917 revolution of the year that destroyed the state that did not find a solution to the working question.
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  1. dmi.pris
    dmi.pris 26 January 2016 15: 34
    +4
    History repeats itself ... The current owners of the steamer factories behave in exactly the same way as a hundred years ago ..
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. The comment was deleted.
      1. zennon
        zennon 26 January 2016 16: 18
        0
        Quote: Al_oriso
        With 100% certainty, we can say that the owners of enterprises pay only a small part of what workers produce as wages. So we are not far from past centuries.

        Well, everything is in your hands. Establish a company, take a loan, organize production and give people the right to work as you consider fair. That is, most of the profit. I’m sure we will all be happy for you. I really have serious doubts that we see the fruits of your work ... So what better way is a sofa critic?
        1. Damask
          Damask 26 January 2016 16: 35
          +3
          But what about the payment to the doctors, the sofa expert itself, there are no words about small business, they write about production
        2. Vladislav 73
          Vladislav 73 26 January 2016 17: 28
          +5
          zennon, Apparently, all the plants and factories that are now owned by different managers and "effective managers" are, in your opinion, organized by them? And the development of the subsoil is apparently also organized for bank loans ... Before you fence something, work on the production yourself , plunge into lawlessness under modern "capitalism". It is desirable in hazardous production, and try to "legally" demand the observance of your rights from the employer, you are a "no-couch" expert! negative
          1. zennon
            zennon 26 January 2016 18: 06
            -1
            Quote: Vladislav 73
            zennon, Apparently, all the plants and factories currently owned by different managers and "effective managers" are organized by them in your opinion?

            No, I don’t think so. I proceed from the fact that no one to worthy Mr. Al_oriso will give anything for nothing.
            Quote: Vladislav 73
            Before you fence something, work yourself in production, plunge into lawlessness under modern "capitalism"

            Do not believe me, I have been working in production all my life. I really can’t say that it’s very harmful. Although I can’t call tin-lead solder nectar.
            Quote: Vladislav 73
            , and try to "legally" demand the observance of your rights from the employer, you are an expert "not-couch"!

            He demanded. He didn’t agree with the authorities on this basis. He quit, but found a place no worse and with better conditions. By the way, I’m really couch. No objections. And you?
    3. Damask
      Damask 26 January 2016 16: 32
      +4
      True koment for what is minus, there is no payment in principle, but management s-ki 90% of the salary is eaten up, such a feeling on this site some employers
    4. MrK
      MrK 26 January 2016 18: 37
      +2
      Quote: dmi.pris
      History repeats itself ...

      Thanks dmi.pris. I read all the comments. And what struck me. There are even people on the patriotic website who justify the chaos of the new owners of the steamer factories. lie about how well revolutionaries lived. Of course - the bandits. Looks like these authors are ordinary Moscow thieves. Captured during privatization.
      It’s amazing.
    5. sherp2015
      sherp2015 26 January 2016 18: 55
      0
      Quote: dmi.pris
      History repeats itself ... The current owners of the steamer factories behave in exactly the same way as a hundred years ago ..


      Quote: Al_oriso
      With 100% certainty, we can say that the owners of enterprises pay only a small part of what workers produce as wages. So we are not far from past centuries.


      Quite right! Ever since the time when in our country they began to show the "slave Izaura" and the relationship between masters and slaves, it became clear even then that the Masons want to return our country to the past. into slavery
  2. mishastich
    mishastich 26 January 2016 15: 37
    +4
    It is sometimes hard to read and imagine the end of the 19th century, here you have the crunch of a French roll, and "For Faith, Tsar and Fatherland", and an industrial upsurge, and on the other hand, child labor for 12 hours, hunger, the well-known slogan "We ourselves are malnourished, but we will sell to the West ", total corruption and bribery.

    All this is sad. But clearly.

    Sincerely.
    1. zennon
      zennon 26 January 2016 16: 51
      -1
      Quote: mishastich
      It is sometimes hard to read and imagine, the end of the 19th century, here you have the crunch of a French roll, and "For Faith, Tsar and Fatherland", and an industrial upsurge, and on the other hand, child labor for 12 hours,

      You see, dear mishastich. You can’t get the fruits without growing the tree. This is because Moscow wasn’t built right away. This situation is where it’s a little better, where it was worse everywhere. Everywhere the working class demanded better working conditions. 8-hour working day . Six protesters were killed during the crackdown on such a demonstration in Chicago on May 4, 1886. Eight policemen were killed, at least 50 injured, and a minimum of five were injured in the ensuing firefight during a mass protest rally following the next day. four workers (according to some reports, up to fifty killed and wounded, several dozen people were injured. I like to look at the faces of stubborn Communists when you tell them that Friedrich Engels lived in the family of a prosperous textile manufacturer. He received his education at a local cotton mill, owned by his father and his business partner. He enjoyed the fruits of the labor of wage laborers, about whom he wrote so much happiness. And being a typical exploiter led a merry life. He was the first hangman, the soul of the company in the circle of such majors. He loved the hunt for fox, and when asked how do you imagine happiness, Chateau Margot was upset in 1848! And the question of Vice, which you easily forgive, answered was Excessiveness of all kinds. By the way, his first wife died of alcoholism. At the same time, he kept for decades not without the well-known sullen Jew who was first mentioned when they talk about them. He didn’t work at all. He didn’t work in scrap. Like the famous grandfather Lenin, he also wandered for decades in landones and cuts. According to tsurikhs and sorents. Living either on handouts of crazy industrialists, such as Sava Morozov, then on looted money, which he was supplied by a gangster Camo. And he lived like he should! In 1901, he rented a 4-room apartment with hot water and an elevator in Paris, where he lived with his sister, beckoning, in anticipation of his beautiful, visually-eyed, beautiful wife. then was this apartment worth ?!
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 26 January 2016 18: 07
        +4
        What is the connection? Engels was a rich man, this was not hidden
        under Soviet rule.
        And the workers (which Engels did not even know) simply
        wanted to improve their life. And in America, and in Europe, and in Russia.
        Russia later took the path of capitalism, the authorities were stubborn,
        here the reforms were delayed, and led to the 1905 revolution.
        1. zennon
          zennon 26 January 2016 18: 31
          -2
          Quote: voyaka uh
          What is the connection? Engels was a rich man, this was not hidden
          under Soviet rule.

          Really? And you tell it to the old Communists. The vast majority of this and do not know closely!
          Quote: voyaka uh
          here the reforms were delayed, and led to the 1905 revolution.

          That's just the point! They just lingered on for 100 years! The autocracy did not accept the thought of the need for timely reforms. It was necessary to respond promptly, gently to the challenges of the time, and there would not be any revolutions.
          1. MrK
            MrK 26 January 2016 18: 58
            0
            Quote: zennon
            Really? And you tell it to the old Communists. The vast majority of this and do not know closely!

            Mr. zennon. I am 65 years old. An ordinary member of the CPSU since 23 years. We all knew about this from 14 years. Too shy to ask: why do you hide in your data even the city in which you live? I'm not talking about the type of activity.
            1. zennon
              zennon 26 January 2016 19: 19
              0
              Quote: mrark
              We all knew about this from the age of 14.

              Speak for yourself! But I often talk with people of a very advanced age, more than yours. People don’t know! And I wrote about this exclusively for satus cum te-Begin with yourself!
              Quote: mrark
              I’m embarrassed to ask: why do you hide in your data even the city in which you live?

              I’m not hiding anything. I have been living in Moscow for the last 11 years. But I was born and lived for 41 years in Frunze, Kyrgyzstan. My parents were distributed there after universities.
              Quote: mrark
              I'm not talking about the type of activity.

              Engineer. Adjustment and repair of electronic devices.
              1. Was mammoth
                Was mammoth 26 January 2016 20: 50
                0
                Quote: zennon

                Speak for yourself! But I often talk with people of very advanced age, more than yours. People don’t know!

                "God forbid to see a Russian rebellion, senseless and merciless." Try asking around whose words. I am sure that many will not be able to answer that these are the words from "The Captain's Daughter" by A.S. Pushkin. Alas!
                If I’m not mistaken, back in the 60s there was a multi-volume G.Serebryakova about the life of K. Marx. By the way, the writer is from the repressed. No one hid.
                The legacy of K. Marx and F. Engels in their philosophical works that influenced humanity is not in their way of life.
        2. MrK
          MrK 26 January 2016 18: 52
          +3
          Thank you warrior. By the way, the October Revolution might not have happened. I will give one quote.
          "The merciless peasants in the destruction and fires then kept the landlords in such tension that General D.F., one of the main expressors of the landlord interests, was the commandant of the Tsar’s court. Trepov resolutely spoke out: “I myself am not a poor landowner,” he said, “but I will be very glad to give away half of my land for free, being convinced that only under this condition will I save the other half.”
          In 1905, the project of land alienation began to be developed. NN Kutler, a lawyer by training, was engaged in it.
          Lenin, being in exile, wrote then that success in alienating land in favor of the peasants would mean the victory of the protracted "Prussian path" of the development of capitalism in agriculture and would lead to a radical change in the co-relation of class forces in the country. In fact, this meant that the peasantry in Russia would not support the revolution !!! But Lenin understood that a revolution in Russia, in a peasant country, without the support of its peasants, is impossible.
          And, despite the fact that a huge ransom was envisaged from the peasants, Nikolai rejected the project. On which, by the way, there was a remarkable resolution of Witte, who was still heading the government: “It seems preferable for the landlords to give up part of the land and secure ownership of the rest of the land rather than lose everything.”
          But the Emperor deigned to write with his own hand on the report: "Private property must remain inviolable." And below: "Kutler from his post to remove"
          .
          So who is the culprit of all the events of 1917 of the year?
          I read it from Alexander Kurlandchik, on Proza.ru
          1. Pomeranian
            Pomeranian 27 January 2016 13: 34
            0
            Quote: mrark
            I read it with Alexander Kurlandchik

            He has a wonderful work. I’ll just supplement, NOBODY seriously dealt with the burning issue in the Russian Empire in the 20 century. Everything went either under the cloth or on the whistle ...
  3. Ingvar 72
    Ingvar 72 26 January 2016 15: 42
    +3
    Everything is complicated. Everyone knows how the strike of the Putilov (and not only) workers ended. As a result, the revolution and the collapse of the state with a very strong shrinking of territorial borders. On the other hand, if you don’t push the authorities, the guys are greyhound.
    I have the impression that the current situation with tension in society is artificially created, and smart people are crafty (have real power) play on the verge of a foul. And these dolls on strings, called the government of the Russian Federation, are nothing more than a screen.
    1. Pomeranian
      Pomeranian 27 January 2016 13: 33
      0
      Quote: Ingvar 72
      And these dolls on strings, called the government of the Russian Federation, are nothing more than a screen.

      Yegor Timurovich Gaidar (I hope that the most evil devils take care of him in hell) once said that "if you want to destroy an empire, then the most incompetent citizens should be promoted to the highest posts." You marvel at the man playing the role of the Russian prime minister. And the rest of the actors of this commedia dell'arte, with rare exceptions, are monstrously mediocre.
  4. boris-1230
    boris-1230 26 January 2016 16: 21
    +3
    All this is known, Gorky's novel "Mother" showed all the horror of the working-class suburb, where people who worked hard for 12 hours or more, where child labor was also used, earned only for physiological survival. It was only when they united by the idea of ​​changing the situation of the workers that their lives from drunkenness and hard labor became meaningful and human. Now the situation is really similar and there is no other way, except for the struggle for rights.
    In addition, at the beginning of the 20th century, Russia was economically strong, 13 years as a standard of well-being. But people lived poorly and went on strike by the thousands every year. So do not worry much about your homeland, with a strong economy and a weak one we will have to live modestly as it is now.
  5. Koshak
    Koshak 26 January 2016 18: 54
    0
    1913 is not a standard of well-being, but simply pre-war, like 1940, or pre-reform, like 1990 ....
  6. bober1982
    bober1982 26 January 2016 18: 55
    -1
    " In the struggle you will gain your right "- a beautiful Socialist-Revolutionary slogan (party of socialist-revolutionaries), official. All this struggle for their rights ended: bantitism, robberies, the death of the revolutionaries themselves and the even greater horror of the workers' suburb and the peasants and inhabitants who joined them.
  7. Pomeranian
    Pomeranian 27 January 2016 13: 29
    0
    As the ancients said: "History repeats itself twice. The first time is like a tragedy, the second time is like a farce." History has not taught the modern bourgeois anything, you don't have to go far for an example: take any supermarket and see how many unfortunate ladies are sitting at the cash register.