Military Review

The space of the tractor driver Napolova

19
The space of the tractor driver Napolova



Forty years ago, in October 1976, the very middle of Kazakhstan’s Lake Tengiz (length - 70 km, width - 40 km, depth to 8 m) flooded the descent vehicle of the Soyuz-23 spacecraft with cosmonauts Vyacheslav Zudov and Valery Rozhdestvensky. This was the first and only subdivision in the practice of domestic manned cosmonautics.
By coincidence, the author of the Motherland was on that night on the shore of a steppe reservoir ...


Spaceship Photo: Pushkarev Albert / TASS

Tselinograd. TASS message

“Due to the inadequate operating mode of the Soyuz-23 spaceship control system, the docking with the Salyut-5 station was canceled. The crew completes the flight and is preparing to return to Earth ...” - from the TASS message it was clear that a non-standard situation. But as far as non-standard, it would not occur to even the most dismal pessimist ...

... On that day, from the point of tracking the flight to Tselinograd (now Astana), I used to dictate to Komsomolskaya Pravda ahead the so-called “fish” - a blank about the successful landing of the astronauts. However, closer to midnight, a very nervous fuss began around me, and I realized that my “fish” was rotten. And then they told me in confidence that the astronauts landed in the lake. The main search team sits in Arkalyk and cannot fly to them - the weather is non-flying. And from Tselinograd to Tengiz - within reach ...

And I rushed there.

"Union-23". Bad signs


Ship commander Photo: Alexander Mokletsov / RIA News

The commander of the Soyuz-23 spacecraft Vyacheslav Zudov tells:

"Fatal bad luck began even before the flight. Initially, the launch of the ship was planned for October 8. But on the eve of the Northern test site, the launch of a similar rocket with a satellite was unsuccessful - a few seconds after the launch, the rocket exploded. Bad sign. It was urgent to understand the cause of the incident. Today I I understand that, perhaps, that explosion saved Valeriya Rozhdestvensky’s life. The start of Union-23 was postponed to October 14 - the day of the Intercession. They say that you can’t perform difficult on this big Christian holiday work. But then we were all atheists. "

Because they did not see another sign ...

There was a hundred meters to the launch site, when suddenly the bus stopped: engine breakdown! People ran up, tried to push the bus to the rocket. Did not work out. I had to push another bus, transfer astronauts to it. This has never happened before at Baikonur ...


Flight engineer Photo: Alexander Mokletsov / RIA Novosti

The flight engineer of Soyuz-23 Valery Rozhdestvensky:

“The launch and exit into orbit was normal. But when approaching the orbital station, the ship began to“ swing ”, moving from one plane to another. Automation failed, there was a large overrun of fuel intended for convergence. The fuel in the ship’s tanks was only for return. We had to turn off the automation and "leave" from the station. But it was supposed that we would work in orbit for two weeks. It was extremely disappointing ... "

Many astronauts compare the passage of dense layers of the atmosphere, when the ship is burning and trembling, with driving on cobblestone pavement. At an altitude of about 9 km, after a strong jerk, the main parachute panel lights up, the descent vehicle for a moment freezes in the air and, obeying the force of gravity, lowers itself to the ground. Usually the meeting with her is very tough. But search helicopters are already sitting next to them, they meet those who are waiting, ready to provide any help ...

This time everything did not happen according to the “scenario”.

The lander. Upside down


The astronauts, getting ready for a hard landing, suddenly felt themselves falling through. Water?! It could not be in principle. They opened one of the breathing holes and actually found water.

Having slipped through the calculated landing point, the apparatus sank heavily into the middle of a huge night lake in a fountain of splashes and steam. Suddenly, the reserve parachute system worked: this is the salt water of Tengiz closed contact relay. A huge parachute dome swelled over the lake (its area was more than 500 square meters) and, falling off, pulled along and turned the descent vehicle over. The astronauts inside the "saucepan" turned upside down ...

The abnormal situation in seconds became critical.

State Farm named after Abai. Holiday tractor


To Tengiz through the snow drifts I made my way through the car for two hours. Ashore fires were already blazing. Workers of the state farm named after Abay, excited and intoxicated, rushed around them; That evening, tractor driver Vyacheslav Napolova had a daughter, and this extraordinary event was noisily celebrated in the village. And then suddenly helicopters fell from the sky. Having understood that, by chance, they found themselves in the epicenter of state space affairs, the villagers immediately joined the rescue operation.

Frost was twenty degrees. In the blink of an eye, the virgin lands dismantled fences around their own gardens and laid out huge bonfires on the shore. They, as the helicopter pilots later admitted, served as beautiful landmark beacons. But this was no easier: the utter darkness, the heaviest clouds, the gusting wind did not allow the helicopters to approach the descent vehicle and tow it to the coast.

And no other evacuation options were envisaged.

Moscow demanded to act according to a previously approved plan. And how could he be that night? And then, and today I think that the drunken villagers understood the situation more thoroughly and realized the danger of delay. Experienced fishermen and hunters, they dragged a large boat from the village and began to lower it into the water. The military began to push Avgopravtsev. There was a skirmish.

- Save the guys need to freeze! - urged the military. They averted their eyes, but remained adamant. On the boat is not supposed to save!

Autumn that year was hot, a sudden drop in temperature caused another problem: a thick fog hung over the lake. From the search plane that was patrolling at a high altitude, the flashing light of the descent vehicle was still being viewed, but the helicopters were wandering in a dense haze that was blind and could not reach the target.

The flight engineer of Soyuz-23 Valery Rozhdestvensky:

- An hour has passed, the second, the third. No one was in a hurry to get us out of the descent vehicle. But the life support in it ended a long time ago, and the cold inside was doggy. We felt sprats in a tin can, which we mistakenly shoved into the freezer. Closer to the morning, we began broadcasting our sensations in plain text ...

I can confirm: the mat on the air was a virtuoso. I climbed into one of the helicopters to get warm, and the crew, allowing me to the headphones, let me listen to the "space concert without requests ..." Of course, everyone was not laughing. And this is very mildly.

The lander. Lifeguard Chernyavsky


Many years later, I visited Vyacheslav Zudov in Star City. And for the first time he told me about what actually happened inside the capsule.

The commander of the Soyuz-23 spacecraft Vyacheslav Zudov tells:

“We perfectly understood that, first of all, it was necessary to save electricity, it would not be long enough for the life support systems to work. Turning off all electrical appliances, even radio contact with the search group began to be released only at a strictly defined time. Synthetic material of space suits dressed in bare I didn’t protect the body from the cold. Therefore, we looked for a knife in the emergency reserve and, beating the suits, pulled them off. For fifteen minutes we got into woolen tracksuits. Why am I describing our actions in such detail? And you try two m climb, say, in the closet, turn it upside down and begin to change - then the exemplary environment inside the capsule, you will be more or less clear ...

Suddenly, outside there was a knock, and we heard: "Guys, are you alive?" This is the commander of one of the helicopters sailed to us in a rubber boat. But the hatch was under water and the lifeguard’s boat was single ...
We were most worried about the supply of oxygen. Valery began to teach me economical "diving breathing". After all, he was in the cosmonaut squad from a group of deep-water divers, which he headed in the Baltic emergency service fleet.

It took several hours. Suddenly, outside there was a knock, and we heard: "Guys, are you alive?" Finally! But the joy was premature. It turns out that the commander of one of the helicopters Chernyavsky sailed to us in a rubber boat. Toward the morning, an extremely strict team arrived from Moscow: "Save the crew!" - and he, as a disciplined officer, did it literally.

“Come out, I'll take you to the shore,” a tempting but impracticable offer was heard outside. After all, the hatch through which we could get out of the capsule was under water, and the air temperature on the lake was about minus 20. Yes, and the boat at the "rescuer" was single. Very quickly, Cherniavsky realized that he himself was caught in a trap: he would not be able to leave, because he was far from the coast and he would not have enough strength to row against the wind. There was another delicate circumstance. Unsuccessful, he chose the point of the initial “mooring” - the transmitter of a gamma ray altimeter worked on the body of our apparatus. Rigid directional irradiation. After a few explanatory words, understandable to any Russian peasant, Chernyavsky hastily re-chained his craft to a safer place ... "


The culmination of the rescue operation: towing the descent vehicle. Photo: TASS


Lake Tengiz. Towing


Toward the morning, scuba divers were brought to Tengiz and waited for at least a small weather "window". And it is - oh, a miracle! - appeared! Finally, the exact coordinates of the "object" were established. In a helicopter, scuba divers were brought to him. The most experienced pilots Nikolai Kondratyev (on this day he turned 34 of the year) and Oleg Nefedov hung over the astronauts and lowered the cable, the divers instantly fixed the halyard to the strand ...

The commander of the Soyuz-23 spacecraft Vyacheslav Zudov tells:

- On the metal parts inside the capsule frost appeared, it was possible to remove it and rub the temples. We felt that the air supply was running out, it was getting harder to breathe. When the forces were already completely at the end, again there was a knock. Had time all the same!

Divers, scuba divers first to board a helicopter frostbite Chernyavsky. Then we picked up our capsule to the cable and dragged us to the shore.

And this amazing flight began! Nikolai Kondratyev drove the car, Oleg Nefedov supervised the towed vehicle. A few kilometers from the coast, a helicopter with a precious cargo dangling on a leash overcame almost an hour. During this time we were exhausted and exhausted on the shore. The villagers brought from the village another flask of moonshine. They were in no hurry to use it: "This is for the guys, they are cold, poor fellows ..."

What a thunderous “hurray” we have met with extremely tortured guys! In the icy water of Tengiz, they spent more than ten hours ...

Moscow. Debriefing


Very nervously passed the analysis of space emergency. A special state commission was created. At first, they tried to hang all the dogs for failure on the carriage. The astronauts stubbornly repeated: they acted according to the instructions. Were behind them, but the Stars of Heroes, of course, flew past. The unlucky "rescuer" - the helicopter commander Chernyavsky had to be very tight, they were even going to be degraded "for his arbitrariness." Therefore, in the very first television interview, Vyacheslav and Valerii specifically and pointedly noted the highly professional actions of the helicopter pilot, thus preserving the guy's epaulettes ...

And on November 7, at the traditional ceremonial reception in the Kremlin, Leonid Brezhnev, General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, approached Zudova and Rozhdestvensky. "Why are our heroes without Gold Stars?" - the general secretary suddenly asked the retinue. And he added, addressing the guys: "We didn’t sleep either that night ... We were worried ..."

The next day, the astronauts were awarded the Golden Stars of Heroes of the Soviet Union. They didn’t have to go into space again.


November 8 astronauts were awarded Golden Stars Heroes of the Soviet Union. Photo: RIA News

VIEWS THROUGH THE YEARS

Night on Lake Tengiz

READ ALSO
Photo: NASA / nasa.gov
The date of the landing of Russian astronauts on the moon has become known.
Night is cold and blizzard,
And in the village they say:
"The astronauts flew
And now they sit in the water ... "

Got straight to the point.
It can be seen, this is your calculation ...
Oh you, little flowers,
There will be more berries ...

Not to see any, firstly,
Above the water, the fog hung ...
Nerve hunt group
It patrols Tengiz.

- The astronauts flew in! -
Lived shore. - How can I help you? -
Everyone seems to be in business
That October night.

Drag the boat. - Maybe swim?
We will manage completely ...
Like Valery there and Glory -
Do not swing on the wave?

Through interference barely
Distinct voices ...
- How do you, Slava and Valery?
- Well used now ... to dance.

What is the problem? Need - splyashem!
The circle is wider and - go ahead!
On the snow-covered "beaches",
On the Tengiz thin ice.

- Hey, come on! - and danced.
We now the devil himself is not a brother.
Like a dance that was saved
Freezing guys.

I remember this case -
And again the fires are burning ...
"Without fences, even better!" -
In that village they say.

PS In one of our meetings, Zudov, remembering that night, broke into a smile:
- But then we were not allowed to take the flask with moonshine as a gift. Offended, probably, men?
I honestly admitted that I did not notice the insults. But I do remember exactly that every single toast was for a soft Tengiz splashdown.
And one flask has not done.
Author:
Originator:
http://www.rg.ru/2016/01/14/rodina-kosmos.html
19 comments
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  1. Koshak
    Koshak 24 January 2016 07: 40
    13
    But to make a film with such a script - "it doesn't happen", "cinema". Reality is cooler than any fiction.
    Heroes and astronauts. and all participants in the rescue operation. good
  2. Walking
    Walking 24 January 2016 07: 53
    +2
    Due to the stubbornness of some individuals, they could well lose the astronauts.
  3. sasha pv
    sasha pv 24 January 2016 09: 16
    +5
    He lived in Arkalyk. If 'Syrian birds' appeared near the hotel and helicopters at the airport, then the cosmonauts would fall within a week.
    1. Arktidianets
      Arktidianets 24 January 2016 10: 33
      +3
      You are sealed, Blue birds - Zil 49061 hi
      1. sasha pv
        sasha pv 24 January 2016 17: 53
        +2
        I meant them.
  4. bear
    bear 24 January 2016 10: 47
    +5
    Quote: Koshak
    But to make a film with such a script - "it doesn't happen", "cinema". Reality is cooler than any fiction.
    Heroes and astronauts. and all participants in the rescue operation. good


    A cool movie would have turned out !!!
  5. oxotnuk86
    oxotnuk86 24 January 2016 11: 19
    +1
    They will not take it now, it’s not interesting, but they didn’t take it off before, and where it is leading and directing, it is impossible without it.
  6. max702
    max702 24 January 2016 12: 44
    +1
    Quote: Hiking
    Due to the stubbornness of some individuals, they could well lose the astronauts.

    This is from the same series as the "Armata" under the control of conscripts at the 70th Victory anniversary parade .. Someone will say that this is not so! Not guys just like that, inertness and inflexibility of thinking is just very strong and manifests itself in critical situations .. It is not easy to hide behind a word of order ... And then someone shows heroism ..
  7. semirek
    semirek 24 January 2016 13: 24
    +1
    He lived in Karaganda for a long time - the astronauts were brought after landing in a special hotel, because they landed in the Dzhezkazgan area, and the nearest airport is only in Karaganda.
  8. kvs207
    kvs207 24 January 2016 13: 54
    +2
    Quote: semirek
    He lived in Karaganda for a long time - cosmonauts were brought after landing in a special hotel

    On the Board of Honorary Citizens of the city of Karaganda, their names are entered. As a native of this glorious city, he saw repeatedly.
    As a child, he was interested in astronautics and collected newspaper clippings on the launches of our rockets.
    1. sasha pv
      sasha pv 24 January 2016 18: 04
      +3
      How the airport was built in Arkalyk, the astronauts landed within a radius of 60-70 km from the city. The 80s, 90s, 2000s until the airport died. Now they are landing near Dzhezkazgan, from there to Kustanai and Star City.
    2. semirek
      semirek 24 January 2016 18: 42
      +1
      There is a street in Karaganda named after Tereshkova, somewhere in the early 2000s she came to Karaganda, was well received, she was in Kazakhstan.
  9. Mikhail Krapivin
    Mikhail Krapivin 24 January 2016 17: 32
    0
    I do not want to offend anyone, but the absurdity of the Soviet regime in all its glory. A lot of fuss, a lot of bosses and no one dares to do something and take responsibility. Yes, they would have hooked it with a cable and pulled it out to the shore by a collective farm tractor, and all the short life.
    1. heal
      heal 24 January 2016 18: 32
      0
      Quote: Mikhail Krapivin
      I do not want to offend anyone, but the absurdity of the Soviet regime in all its glory.

      Has much changed now? And, yes, a lot, there was more absurdity.
    2. Pajamas
      Pajamas 24 January 2016 21: 30
      +5
      Quote: Mikhail Krapivin
      I do not want to offend anyone, but the absurdity of the Soviet regime in all its glory. A lot of fuss, a lot of bosses and no one dares to do something and take responsibility. Yes, they would have hooked it with a cable and pulled it out to the shore by a collective farm tractor, and all the short life.

      Oh, God forgive me, Dolbobob is enchanting, Lake Tengiz (length - 70 km, width - 40 km, depth up to 8 m) is several kilometers to the shore. The helicopter carried them for an hour, tell the tractor with a cable how long the cable is, imagine how much he should weigh, how to fix it, you won’t stretch it, you can’t drown the capsule that is lowered, the tractor will not have enough power for that weight, if you just think about the idea without evaluating its rationality.
  10. Robert Nevsky
    Robert Nevsky 24 January 2016 17: 55
    0
    Thanks to the author for the article!
  11. Igor V
    Igor V 24 January 2016 18: 37
    +2
    In February 1967, the third technological (no crew) Soyuz landed on the ice of the Aral Sea 11 kilometers from the coast and sank, although it should not sink. The evacuation was complicated by the fact that there was an "object detonation machine" on board with 10 kilograms of explosives.
  12. Pvi1206
    Pvi1206 24 January 2016 21: 06
    +2
    In critical situations, much depends on the savvy of those in distress and those who come to the first aid. 9 hours pulled a descent capsule from the lake - it ... Well, that ends well. So says folk wisdom.
    Thanks to the author for the informative article. And the editors - for its publication.
  13. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 25 January 2016 06: 21
    0
    good article . thank!!
  14. Old26
    Old26 25 January 2016 23: 49
    0
    Quote: Igor V
    In February 1967, the third technological (no crew) Soyuz landed on the ice of the Aral Sea 11 kilometers from the coast and sank, although it should not sink. The evacuation was complicated by the fact that there was an "object detonation machine" on board with 10 kilograms of explosives.

    In that situation, he just had to sink. Burnout occurred