We, Soviet, learned the biography of the largest figure of the twentieth century in the field of space rocket production and shipbuilding only a day after his death from an obituary in the newspaper.
I also remembered Korolev's departure for several reasons. At that time I studied at the Vinnitsa Railway College and was the secretary of the Komsomol Committee. Director Nechayuk set me and my deputy, Peter Chekotun, the task: to form a mourning frame for the newspaper Pravda with an obituary about Korolyov and install it on the stage of our club. There to collect all the students living in the dormitory. And it was Sunday, and even a hammer with nails to get it seemed problematic. Not to mention gathering an audience in the club for a mourning rally. But Petya and I tried our best. They understood: you see, a very big man died, if our director on the weekend gave such an order. Never before has this happened. By the way, Nechayuk himself later gave a very inspired speech. The frontline political instructor, the long-term secretary of the Vinnitsa regional party committee on ideology, Alexander Andreevich was, as they say, by vocation a fiery orator. And although I don’t remember exactly what he was telling us then - it’s still half a century past - but one thing I can say for sure: the great personality of Korolev in his presentation shook me. Further life only strengthened that youthful my delight. Somehow invisible threads were, and still remain, connected with this outstanding man.
In the newspaper "Krasnaya Zvezda" I became friends with the colonels: Lev Nechayuk - the nephew of our director of the technical school and Mikhail Rebrov. Both of them worked in the department of science and cosmonautics - no other media in the Soviet Union had such a department. And, of course, both knew Korolev. Moreover, the designer of the spacecraft paternal loved exactly Mikhail Fedorovich. He intended to send him and Golovanov, a journalist from Komsomolskaya Pravda into space, so that they professionally described the most subtle nuances and sensations of a person in weightlessness. The designer of the weakness of health could not tolerate space overload. Rebrov and Golovanov completed a full two-year course and were already preparing to put on their spacesuits, as Korolev died and his plan was lost. Subsequently, Rebrov wrote the book “Sergey Pavlovich Korolev. Life and extraordinary fate. She left after the death of my great friend. And Yaroslav Kirillovich, with whom we also maintained very good long-term relations, managed to publish the book “Korolev. Facts and myths.
Korolev was born on January 12, 1907 in the city of Zhytomyr. Father Pavel Yakovlevich is a teacher of Russian literature. Mother Maria Nikolaevna Moskalenko left the family when the boy was three years old. In 1915, Seryozha entered the preparatory classes of the Kiev gymnasium. Then he studied at the gymnasium of Odessa, where his mother and stepfather moved - George Mikhailovich Balanin. In addition to teaching, he had an engineering degree and was the first to notice the extraordinary technical abilities of his stepson, and developed them in every way. Back in school years, Sergei was interested in the new then aviation technique. In 1921, he met with pilots of the Odessa Hydro detachment and actively participated in aviation public life. From the age of 16 - as a lecturer on the elimination of air illiteracy of the population. And at 17 he himself invented the non-powered K-5 aircraft. The competent commission even recommended it for production. Having entered the Kiev Polytechnic Institute in the field of aviation technology, Korolev in two years mastered all engineering disciplines and became a glider. In the fall of 1926 he was transferred to the Moscow Higher Technical School (MVTU) named after N.E. Bauman. Here he showed truly remarkable abilities of an aircraft designer. On the glider "Firebird" designed by M.K. Tikhonravova Korolev became a "pilot-parry", and under the leadership of A.N. Tupolev defended his thesis - the project of the aircraft SK-4. Well-known aviators of the country started talking about the designed and built aircraft - the Koktebel, the Red Star gliders and the SK-4 light aircraft, designed to achieve record flight ranges. For the first time in the USSR, his glider SK-3 “Red Star” was specially designed for aerobatics and, in particular, the dead loop. As demonstrated by the pilot V.A. Stepanchenko in Koktebel October 28, 1930. If in other words to characterize the power of Korolev’s design breakthrough, it will be clear: he broke into a number of titans of aircraft construction such as S.V. Ilyushin, A.S. Yakovlev, S.A. Lavochkin, V.M. Petlyakov, A.I. Mikoyan, A.N. Tupolev.
However, fate prepared a brilliant young engineer another - the space path. And it began with Kaluga, where the most audacious dreamer of humanity, K.E. Tsiolkovsky.
Twenty-three year old Korolev came to him in the summer of 1929, for consultation on glider flights over long distances. They spent two days together, and during this time the Kaluga founder of astronautics convinced the young colleague to come to grips with solving the problems of space flight, and not with a glider - with yesterday. Addressing an energetic aviation enthusiast, Tsiolkovsky presented him with his latest book, Space Rocket Trains, and recommended to contact the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) engineer F.A. To zander:
"The providence itself sent you, Sergey Pavlovich," said the agitated Konstantin Eduardovich. - It seems that it is you who realize what I see here only in dreams. A lot of people come to me, but you are some kind of special. This is immediately apparent, without any words. I believe, believe in your bright future! I do not doubt that Zander will also appreciate you. ”
I know about this not from reference books and popular books - Tsiolkovsky's grandson, Alexey Veniaminovich Kostin told. We were friends for nearly sixteen years. From him I learned how the Chief Designer was extremely interested in the museum of his great teacher, as well as in his creative heritage.
Of course, the arrivals of the Chief Designer were strictly classified. Researcher Sofia Matveevna Zotov recalled: “On a summer morning on 1957, a car drove up to the museum. From it came a few people. I learned only the first secretary of the regional committee. A strong-built man approached me and introduced himself: “Sergey Pavlovich Korolev. Well, how is the repair going? ”I told him about all our troubles - I realized that a lot depends on him. Soon came the people who took seriously the repair. After some time, various materials and a new exposition of the museum were brought from Moscow by plane and bus. All works were led by Deputy Korolev on general issues Lev Avdeevich Malyshev - an intelligent and sympathetic person, an excellent organizer. We became friends. The work was nearing completion when it turned out that there was no carpet. Lev Avdeevich reported to Korolev. And he ordered: come and take her from my office! A few hours later, Sergei Pavlovich arrived at the museum with a large delegation. I led a tour, told representatives of the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences about the life and work of Tsiolkovsky. After the excursion ended, all of us - both those who worked in the museum and those who came from Korolev - carpenters, electricians, artists and other specialists - he personally thanked for the work. Preserved photograph about visiting SP Queen of the museum. And - our joint picture with the employees of the “Korolev firm”.
However, I strongly ran forward in the presentation of the biography of his hero. At the very beginning of the 1930s, Sergei Pavlovich’s own “firm” was almost further than the Moon’s walk. But it was then that he and another talented enthusiast in the field of rocket engines F.A. Zander achieved the creation in Moscow of the Group for the Study of Jet Propulsion (GIRD). She became the first state research and development laboratory for the development of missiles. In 1933, the Rocket Research Institute under the leadership of I.T. Kleymenov. Korolev is appointed his deputy in the rank of a divinger - under current concepts, a major general position. In 1935, he is the head of the rocket flying department. A year later, he brings cruise missiles to tests: anti-aircraft - 217 with a powder rocket engine and long-range - 212 with a liquid rocket engine. By 1938, together with his assistants, Korolev developed liquid cruise and ballistic long-range missiles, aircraft missiles for firing at air and ground targets and anti-aircraft solid-fuel missiles.
It seems that if it were not for the ominous events associated with mass repressions, we would have had the weapons to the beginning of the war, the invention of which German engineers approached only after its completion.
Meanwhile, in the new institute, criminal personnel games and insidious political intrigues begin. The directors of the Kleimenov Institute are shot. Korolev was first demoted, then arrested. Under intolerable torture (investigators Shestakov and Bykov break both his jaws to him) Sergey Pavlovich signs "confessions". At the trial (and the case was dealt with by the notorious “troika”) he would give up his confessions, but this would not help. Moloch repression grinds indiscriminately.
Korolev will suffer so much and so terrible that it’s hard to believe now: can one person endure so much trials.
He is judged in accordance with the famous 58 article by the so-called lettered points: PS - suspicion of espionage; NS - unproven espionage; SVPS - communications leading to suspicion of espionage. Verdict: 10 years of forced labor camps and 5 years of disqualification. Here are just some of the stages of his unimaginably heavy trials: Novocherkassk transit prison; Sevzheldorlag; the gold mine Maldyak of the Western Mining Administration of Kolyma; Vladlag Then a secondary court with a Special Meeting and an eight-year sentence, which Korolev serve is sent to the Moscow special prison of the NKVD TsKB-29. There, under the leadership of the same prisoner A.N. Tupolev, Sergey Pavlovich takes an active part in the creation of the Pe-2 and Tu-2 bombers. At the same time, it develops projects of guided aerotorpeda and a new version of a missile interceptor. The latter circumstance was the reason for the transfer of Korolev to another prison-type design bureau - OKB-16 at the Kazan Aviation Plant. So in 1942, Sergei Pavlovich finally gets the opportunity with his usual enthusiasm to engage in the practical use of rocket engines for the improvement of aviation. A year later, he was appointed chief designer of a group of jet plants. And only in July, 1944, the designer is prematurely released from the conclusion on the personal instructions of I.V. Stalin.
No matter how strange the following statement seems to be, but after all, Korolev was incredibly lucky in life.
Well, how else can we explain the fact that Sergei Pavlovich did not stay to spend the winter and did not die in the mine where the prisoners died hundreds, although he had to stay there? And what moved the hand of an unknown guard who lowered a barrier in front of Korolev’s face with the words: “Everything, this barrel is filled with herring!”? And the ship Indigirka, overloaded with seven hundred prisoners, departed from the Magadan pier, heading for Vladivostok. But I got caught in a storm and sank off the island of Hokkaido ... When in 1939, he was sent to a camp mine near Magadan, the famous pilots Valentina Grizodubova and Mikhail Gromov rushed to save him. First, they achieved his transfer to the Tupolev brigade, then to Kazan, to the position of Chief Designer for Flight Testing. And in the 1944 year, Valentine personally went to Stalin and, by his order, Korolev was released early.
In the summer of 1946, the SP Korolev is appointed Chief Designer of the Special Design Bureau No. 1, established in Kaliningrad, near Moscow, to develop long-range ballistic missiles. The first task: the creation of an analogue of the V-2 rocket from Soviet materials. But a year later, the required range of the flight of a domestic rocket increases to 3 thousands of kilometers, which in many ways surpasses Fau. Korolev successfully conducts tests of the P-1 ballistic missile, creating five of its modifications. By 1956, under his leadership, a two-stage intercontinental ballistic missile P-7 was created with a separating warhead in tons of 3 and a range of 8 thousands of kilometers. And in 1957, the first in stories mankind artificial earth satellite. His flight was a stunning success and created the highest international prestige for the Soviet Union.
“It was small, this very first artificial satellite of our old planet, but its ringing call signs spread throughout the continents and among all nations as an embodiment of the daring dream of mankind,” his Chief Designer will say later.
Of the outstanding space achievements of Korolev after the launch of the first satellite, one would have to write a separate material - so impressive. I will list only the major milestones of the incredible cosmic royal epic. So: the Elektron twin satellites for studying the Earth’s radiation belts. Three automatic stations to the moon. The first manned spacecraft "Vostok-1" with a citizen of the USSR Yuri Gagarin. Daily flight "Vostok-2" with German Titov. The joint flight of "Vostok-3" and "Vostok-4", piloted by A.G. Nikolayev and P.R. Popovich. Joint flight VF Bykovsky and V.V. Tereshkova on the ships "Vostok-5" and "Vostok-6". Flight of the Voskhod spacecraft with a crew of three people: V.M. Komarov, K.P. Feoktistov, bb Yegorov. Flight "Sunrise-2" with a crew of two. Cosmonaut A.A. Leonov was out of the ship 20 minutes. Launching a satellite with the dog Laika. The launch of a ballistic missile from a submarine. The project of the orbital station. Unfortunately, Sergei Pavlovich did not live to see his ideas embodied in the Soyuz spacecraft. Neither was it given to him to launch a man to the moon, although he had been carrying this idea since the early fifties.
... In life, the name of Korolev was considered super secret. But only for us, the Soviet people. The English MI-6 figured out our Chief Designer immediately after the war. The launch of the German V-2 rocket, among other specialists from the countries of the anti-Hitler coalition, was observed by the handsome artillery captain Sergeyev. He was new, with a needle shape, but without a single award. As the ancient Romans said: sapienti sat is enough for a smart man.
By the way, all his scientific publications, including in the Pravda newspaper, Sergey Pavlovich always signed modestly "Professor K. Sergeev."
One of them, published in the main party newspaper, was called “Steps into the Future”. Bright, kind, slightly even pathetic - yet published in the first days of 1966 of the year - ended with the words: “There are no barriers of human thought”.
For the eyes of Korolev most often called Ss-Pe. Not because laziness to pronounce the full name and patronymic. It so happened. Yes, he himself loved all sorts of cuts. The first satellite called "pesikom" (from PS - the simplest satellite), the rocket - just "seven" (from the digital index of the project). The launching pad, from which the first launches were conducted, is a “deuce”. And he was often called simply the Chief.
There is a legend among astronauts. Allegedly, after cremation of the body of Korolev, Gagarin and Komarov secretly selected part of his ashes to send to the interplanetary station in a special container with the emblem of the Soviet Union to the moon. Was it really, now no one will ever know. Komarov died tragically. A year later, Gagarin no less tragically died. By the way, both are favorites of the Chief. With each orbit of the space spiral, his name delighted some, others envious. But the indifferent around him was never observed. He died unexpectedly, on the operating table, having achieved an incredible rise of his fame, having briefly survived attempts to push him to the background in the galaxy of space designers. Or, more precisely, let's say this: a little before they reach the time of the implementation of the long-term orbital stations conceived by them, space tugboats and express cargoes, international space expeditions.
I think the opinion of the pilot-cosmonaut Alexey Leonov regarding Sergey Pavlovich will be shared by the overwhelming majority of those who knew him:
“He was never angry. I have never complained about anything, never cursed anyone, never scolded. He had no time for this. He understood that bitterness is not a creative impulse, but oppression. ”
This is the greatness of the truly Russian, cosmic soul, who believes the rancor of the Fatherland is a grave sin, Sergey Korolev was and will remain to us almost more than a unique technical genius. Because we remember some other academicians, who were treated with a system during their lifetime, are much more than my hero. We remember how they, in a frenzied frenzy, scattered their mosquito bites to grave front-line wounds and took revenge on the “system” of their evil enemies. At the same time, Sergei Pavlovich Korolev, who, from the end of his heart, suffered physically, even laughing was painful, and every visit to the dentist turned into serious torture, never in a word or half-word spoke of his offenses.
Of course, those in power tried in every way to “beseech” their sins before the living Korolev. It suffices to remind the reader that Sergei Pavlovich is the only person in the history of the USSR who received the title of Hero of Socialist Labor without being rehabilitated (the title was awarded to 20.04.1956, and he was rehabilitated to 18.04.1957). In addition to academic, he had the rank of colonel, three orders of Lenin, the Order of the Badge of Honor, six medals. He had the title of honorary citizen of Kaluga and Baikonur. An even greater honor to the academician and chief designer was given after his death. The coffin with the body of the deceased was installed in the Hall of Columns. Funeral with state honors took place on Red Square. Urn with ashes S.P. Koroleva buried in the Kremlin wall. The USSR Academy of Sciences established the S.P. Korolev "For outstanding achievements in the field of rocket and space technology." Scholarships of his name for university students were also established. Monuments to the scientist were built in seven cities, six memorial house-museums were created. Samara State Aerospace University, a city in the Moscow region, the streets of many cities (fifty-two!), Two research vessels, a high-mountain peak in the Pamirs, a pass on the Tien Shan, an asteroid, a large crater on the Moon are named after him. Nine postage stamps and a silver coin of the Bank of Russia were issued.
But this is, so to speak, a manifestation of state concern for the memory of an outstanding scientist and the largest organizer of socialist production. And there is also a people's memory, manifested exclusively at the behest of people's hearts.
Nine feature films and television films were shot on the life and work of Korolev. His image embodied: Kirill Lavrov, Vladimir Baranov, Oleg Tabakov, Steve Nicholson, Sergey Astakhov, Igor Sklyar, Alexey Yanin, Ivan Shabaltas. Filmed in the same way thirteen documentaries, which captured the most different periods of the life of the Chief Designer. For the filming of the movie about cosmonaut Boris Volynov in Star City, actor, author and performer Pavel Boloyangov wrote the song “Cosmos”, dedicated to the great dream and goal, the personification of which is Sergey Korolev. A clip in which cosmonaut Pavel Popovich says about Sergey Korolev was shot: “That was gigantic! Such people are born once in a hundred years. ” Truly true.