There are a lot of gypsies in Europe, but they also have many problems
Gypsies, which are quite numerous minorities in Eastern European countries, or, as they call themselves, “rum,” were in a disastrous socio-economic situation after the collapse of the socialist bloc. If in the era of socialism in the countries of Eastern Europe, the problem was at the very least trying to solve the state, dealing with housing and labor support for Roma minorities, then after the fall of socialist regimes in the region, the situation changed. First of all, the intelligible policy of modernizing the lifestyle and social behavior of Eastern European Roma is gone. It was replaced by either complete indifference to this minority, or perverted social and paternalistic policies that supposedly provide social assistance to Roma groups, and in fact, to a greater degree, cultivate social parasitism among them. As a result, mass migrations of the Roma population began in Europe. In search of a better share, the Roma from Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Yugoslavia and other Eastern European countries moved to Western Europe - first of all, to Germany, France and Italy. This led to a whole set of negative social consequences, primarily related to the criminalization of migrants, most of whom had neither a normal education, nor a profession, nor a distinct occupation. In 2010, a scandal erupted around the instructions of the then French President Nicolas Sarkozy to deport illegal migrants from the country - Eastern European Gypsies, primarily those who arrived in France from Romania. At that time, the European Commission condemned Sarkozy’s policy, whose members accused the French government that its work on the centralized deportation of Romanian citizens of Roma nationality does not comply with EU legislation.
In fact, the problem of the social and economic situation of Roma in modern Europe is very acute. Although the right-wing radicals and part of the inhabitants, in the first place, see the perpetrators of the gypsies themselves, who are accused of striving for parasitism, criminogenicity, inability to assimilate social norms of social life in a developed society, in reality the causes of the “gypsy problem” are much deeper and directly related not only to historical features of the life of gypsy minorities in European countries, but also with the economic and socio-political processes that took place in Eastern Europe at the end of the twentieth century. As a matter of fact, it is precisely with Eastern Europe that the "gypsy problem" of the EU countries is connected. It is in the countries of Eastern Europe, primarily the Balkan Peninsula, that the largest area of Roma settlement is located. The main resettlement countries for Roma groups are Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, to a lesser extent Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to various sources, gypsy groups in Romania can count from 0,7 to 2,5 million people. (from 3 to 11% of the population). According to the 2001 census, gypsies in Bulgaria make up 4,67% of the total population (370 people). However, given the past 910 years and the rapid growth of the gypsy population, in reality this figure may be much larger. In Hungary, the gypsy population officially makes up just over 15% of the total population, in Slovakia - 2%, in the Czech Republic - 1,7%, in Serbia - 0,3%, in Macedonia - 1,4%, in Greece - 2,9%. Thus, the Gypsy minority in Eastern Europe is very numerous, but in the political life of these countries Gypsies are practically not represented, most of them occupy marginal segments of the social hierarchy of Eastern European societies. Accordingly, the countries of Eastern Europe face many problems caused by the socio-economic situation of the Roma communities, but, as practice shows, they are not able to solve them. In turn, the social situation of the Roma, their lifestyle, in many respects, only contribute to the strengthening of stereotypes regarding this people.
Came from India, gone through slavery and genocide
First of all, it should be noted that modern Roma are not a single nation. Therefore, in ethnographic science people most often speak of “Gypsy and Gypsy-like” groups of the population, including both Gypsy subethnos and groups, strictly speaking, not being Gypsies, but leading a similar way of life (a typical example is the so-called “Shelta”, or “Irish travelers” residing in Ireland and the United Kingdom). In Eastern Europe, Gypsy groups appeared in the Early Middle Ages, moving from India, through Afghanistan and Iran, into the territory of the Byzantine Empire. It should be noted that not all Gypsy groups migrated to Byzantium - a significant part settled in the Middle East (“home”), in Central Asia (“mughat”, “lyulya”), in Transcaucasia (“Bosch”). From the Middle East, Roma infiltrated into Asia Minor and the Balkan Peninsula. A part of the Gypsy groups penetrated further into the countries of Western Europe, where they formed local Gypsy communities. Another, most of the Roma, settled in the Balkans and in Eastern Europe. It was here that the formation of those Gypsy groups that are currently well known in Russia — the serves, the Vlachur, the Ursars, the Chisinau, the Lovar, the Kaldaras, the Crimea, and so on. As early as the 15th century, a significant part of the Gypsies settled in Eastern Europe began to settle and settle in villages or suburbs on the outskirts of cities. In general, Roma engaged in crafts related to the processing of iron and precious metals, basket weaving. In addition, the traditional forms of earnings for the Gypsies and in the East - dances, circus performances, music, fortune-telling, remained.
The Ottoman conquest was a turning point for the Roma population of Eastern Europe. The Ottoman Empire pursued a rather soft policy towards the Roma. Since the Ottomans needed craftsmen, the work of the Roma remained in demand, and the desire for exemption from taxes led many groups of Eastern European Roma to accept Islam. This is how the Gypsies-Muslims, who today constitute a significant part of the Gypsy population of Eastern Europe, appeared (in Russia and Ukraine, the Crimea is practiced by the Crimean Gypsies). By the way, the Ottomans perceived the Roma as the most loyal, along with the Muslims - the Albanians, the group of the population of the Balkan Peninsula. Moreover, the semi-nomadic lifestyle of the Gypsy groups contributed to the condescending attitude - after all, the Ottoman Turks also in the past were nomads. However, the loyal attitude of the Ottomans led to the fact that the local Christian population began to perceive the Roma groups much more negatively than before. The most harsh treatment of the Roma was established in the Romanian Moldavian and Vallachian principalities, where the Roma were simply turned into slavery. Before 1833, the Roma did not even have the status of an individual, that is, any crime could be committed against them, not to mention the possibility of selling into slavery. Almost all Romanian Roma were in slave status, and only in 1864 was slavery in Romania abolished. The release of Roma, in turn, led to the beginning of their mass migration from Romania to neighboring countries, including the Russian Empire.
In Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, which fell under the power of the Habsburgs, the situation of Roma was different from that in the countries of the Balkan Peninsula. Austrian legislation in the spirit of the times (and Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries experienced a real "epidemic" in the fight against vagrancy and begging) outlawed all Roma. This led to the beginning of the Gypsy massacres. In 1710, the imperial governor in the Bohemian kingdom described as the measures applied: the execution of men; whip and ear cutting in women and children. In 1721, Emperor Charles VI ordered the hanging of women. Only under Empress Maria Theresa the anti-Gypsy policy of the Austrian authorities underwent major changes. Now the gypsy was supposed not to kill, but to assimilate. Maria Theresia issued decrees prohibiting the use of the word "Gypsy" itself. Instead, it introduced the designation of "Novovenger" or "new settler". Gypsy was banned, and all nomads were ordered to settle down. Of course, assimilation measures had a positive component - for example, all Roma received passports with new Hungarian or German names and surnames, which also meant giving the Roma population civil rights. Children were supposed to be removed from families in order to get rid of the influence of parents and the learning of Gypsy traditions, and to be placed in upbringing in Hungarian, Czech or Slovak peasant families. It was forbidden to keep horses and engage in horse breeding. However, the assimilation policy of Maria Theresa was never implemented until the end. Thus, Austria-Hungary, which planned to completely dissolve the Roma minorities in the Hungarian or Czechoslovak environment, thanks to a significant softening of the policy towards the Roma, has become one of the most comfortable countries for them. This contributed to the fact that a number of Gypsy groups were formed on its territory, whose representatives subsequently appeared on the territory of Russia - Magyars, Lovari, and partly Caldarai (this group was formed at the junction of the Hungarian, Romanian and Serbian borders).
The most serious test for the Gypsy population of Eastern Europe was the Nazi occupation. Roma became the second after the Jews people, which Hitler was going to completely destroy physically. The most brutal murders of gypsies were carried out in the Slavic countries of Eastern Europe and in the Baltic States. In Romania, local authorities have not switched to a policy of total extermination of the Roma population, allowing Roma even to roam on Romanian territory. According to recent studies, at least about 150 000 — 200 000 Roma in Central and Eastern Europe were exterminated by the Nazis and their allies. Among them, over 30 000 persons of Gypsy nationality were citizens of the Soviet Union who lived in the Nazi-occupied territories of Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus, the Baltic republics, and the RSFSR. During the war years, many Soviet Gypsies were drafted into the ranks of the active army, some participated in partisan resistance.
Socialists wanted to "include" Roma in society
The socialist policy towards the Gypsy population of Eastern Europe was controversial. On the one hand, the course was taken for a radical modernization of the social structure of the Roma groups. First of all, the authorities of the Soviet Union, and then the other socialist countries of Eastern Europe, set the task of fighting the nomadic way of life of the Roma population. For this, not only the nomadic way of life was criticized in every way and settled life was promoted, but real social and economic conditions were created. At the end of 1920-x - the beginning of 1930-s, a special pedagogical technical school was established in Moscow and Leningrad, and Roma schools were opened. In 1931, the world-famous Roma theater was organized. Work was done on the creation of the Gypsy writing, the publication of literature in the Gypsy language was organized. The activities of the Soviet government were not limited to cultural and educational activities. So, the Gypsy artels and collective farms were created, which were supposed to promote the settlement and employment of the Gypsy population. In the countries of Eastern Europe in the postwar years, the Gypsies tried to find employment in large industrial enterprises. Near them areas of typical high-rise buildings were built, in which Gypsy workers were provided with apartments. Naturally, this policy also contributed to the destruction of the traditional way of life of the Gypsy population and its partial assimilation. Nevertheless, given the significantly lower level of education and, more often, the lack of professional training, the Roma in Eastern European countries worked mainly in hard, low-skilled and poorly paid work. But, on the other hand, it was only in the socialist countries that any centralized policy was implemented to provide the Roma population with work and affordable education. After the end of 1980's. Eastern European countries began to move to a market economy, a huge number of enterprises in Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, Bulgaria were closed. Employees of enterprises were unemployed. Moreover, if the representatives of the titular nations could still find work, including because of higher qualifications, availability of education, and the national factor also played a role, the Roma were left on the sidelines of social space. As a result, there was a rapid return to the traditional way of life, the benefit of the transition to market democracy led to the rejection of tough repressive measures for vagrancy and lack of work.
Romania and Bulgaria - the most "gypsy" countries of Europe
The Roma of Romania are in the most difficult situation. As we noted above, the number of the Gypsy population in this country ranges from 3 to 11% of the total population of Romania. In any case, the gypsy here is a few million. The majority of Romanian Gypsies live below the poverty line - if there are enormous problems with the work of the Romanians themselves, then the representatives of the Gypsy minority are out of the question. At least 50% of Romanian Gypsies are unemployed, and among employed 60% are unskilled workers in construction sites, enterprises and in the housing and utilities sector. Among Romanian Gypsies, 58% of men and 89% of women do not have education and training, 27% of children are illiterate and do not learn to read. It is known that over 60% of Romanian Gypsies live in rural areas. Naturally, there can be no talk about any jobs in the Romanian village under conditions of mass unemployment. Therefore, many Roma, returning to the traditional way of life, are sent to the countries of Western Europe, especially to Italy and France, where they hope to make money by fortune-telling, begging and criminal activity.
The most serious problem of Romanian Gypsies in Italy and France became aggravated in the second half of the 2000-s, when tens of thousands of people from Romania set up their tent camps in Italian and French cities. The local press was flooded with reports of numerous crimes committed by persons of Gypsy nationality against representatives of the indigenous population and foreign citizens. It was these circumstances that forced French President Sarkozy to resort to a deportation strategy. At the same time, the French government not only agreed to pay the costs of transporting Roma families back to Romania, but also to pay each of them an allowance of € 300 per adult and 100 € per child.
The Gypsies in Bulgaria have a rather similar situation. About a million people of Gypsy nationality live here. This is the third largest nation in the country after the Bulgarians and Turks. According to official figures, Roma make up 4,7% of the country's population, according to unofficial data - up to 8%. The Gypsy population of Bulgaria is heterogeneous - some of it are Orthodox and more integrated into the Bulgarian environment, some - converted to Islam during the Ottoman Empire and, therefore, maintained closer ties with the Turkish communities of Bulgaria. It was for close cooperation with the Turks during the Ottoman rule that the Bulgarians did not like the Roma, especially the part that converted to Islam and actually merged with the Turkish community. Roma periodically become heroes of the criminal chronicles of the Bulgarian press. In 2011 in Bulgaria, one of the largest European demonstrations against the Gypsy community took place. 23 September 2011, a minibus that belonged to one of the most influential Roma authorities, shot down an 19-year-old Bulgarian Angel Petrov. After that, in the village of Katunitsy, where the tragedy occurred, mass riots began. The funeral of the knocked down youth of 25 September turned into all-Bulgarian protest demonstrations. In Plovdiv, Varna and a number of other cities, football fans and right-wing activists launched attacks on urban areas inhabited by Roma. In the end, under pressure from the public, they succeeded in arresting the owner of a minibus who shot down Angel Petrov. Despite the fact that the riots gradually subsided, the level of heat itself showed how complex the problem of interethnic relations in modern Bulgaria is. And one of the main reasons for this is the policy of the country's government, which, on the one hand, does not create real conditions for the social development of the Gypsy community, on the other hand, it implements the notorious “principles of tolerance”, which turn into preservation of enclaves and the permissiveness of ethnic criminal groups.
The absence of real programs for social modernization only contributes to the further criminalization of the Roma communities in Bulgaria (as, incidentally, in other Eastern European countries). Given the high birth rate, poverty, an unsatisfactory level of education and the lack of professional qualifications, this leads to very serious problems. The social programs that exist in Bulgaria and in a number of other Eastern European countries in relation to the Gypsy population only contribute to the further conservation of dependent tendencies. In particular, the practice of paying benefits to Roma families actually deprives them of an incentive to work, but does not in any way interfere with criminal and semi-criminal activities. Instead of creating jobs, creating conditions for education and training of children and young people, while also introducing serious measures in terms of responsibility for criminal behavior, the authorities prefer to “pay off” benefits, believing that this will partially solve the social problems of the Roma population. In fact, this practice only contributes to their rooting.
Magyars who are not exactly Magyars
The gypsy diaspora is very numerous in modern Hungary. According to some reports, Roma make up 8% of the country's population, although official data report significantly fewer numbers - roughly 2% of the population. But this may also be due to the fact that a significant part of Hungarian Gypsies identify themselves exclusively as Magyars (not to be confused with Hungarians-Hungarians!) And speak Hungarian. Gypsy language they have long forgotten, adopted Calvinistic or Catholic religion. Magyars are considered to be one of the sub-ethnic groups (“nations”) of the Gypsy population - in addition to Hungary, a significant number of Magyars live in neighboring Slovakia and the Transcarpathian region of Ukraine. Lifestyle and "southern" appearance - the only thing that distinguishes the Gypsy-Magyar from the rest of the Magyars. After the collapse of the USSR, the Gypsies-Magyars living in the Transcarpathian region of Ukraine - in the districts of the cities of Beregovo, Vinogradov and Mukachevo, were even worse off than the gypsies of Hungary. The Transcarpathian region has always been a dysfunctional and poor region, and the economic crisis that followed the collapse of the Soviet Union only contributed to the deepening of the social problems of its population.
As in other countries of Eastern Europe, in the socialist period of modern Hungarian history, all the inhabitants of the country were provided with work. Hungarian gypsies also worked, primarily in heavy industry enterprises. However, the transition to a market economy has contributed to the cessation of many enterprises. Workers were on the street, and gypsies were in the forefront of the new unemployed. Currently among Hungarian gypsies, up to 85% do not have a permanent job. The most difficult situation in the eastern and north-eastern regions of Hungary. Naturally, this factor cannot but affect the general level of economic well-being and the social behavior of Hungarian gypsies. Most gypsies in the country live on all sorts of benefits. However, in 2011, the Hungarian government launched a gypsy employment program - they were invited to take part in public improvement work for 150 euros per month. However, human rights defenders immediately declared this a violation of human rights, despite the fact that the lack of work, in their opinion, was obviously not a violation of human rights. As for Transcarpathian Magyars from Ukraine, they can often be found at train stations and bazaars of Russian cities - dirty, disheveled mothers with the same children asking for alms. For no other means of earning, new generations of Magyars returned to traditional begging, began to hunt with petty thefts, scattering across the vast expanses of Ukraine, and then Russia. Many Hungarian gypsies - Magyars, in turn, went to the countries of Western Europe. But most remain in Hungary, despite a number of problems.
As you know, Hungary is a country with a very developed nationalist movement, which enjoys a very large influence and support of the Hungarian population. This gives the Hungarian government the opportunity to maintain some independence in domestic and foreign policy compared to other EU countries. In particular, the Hungarian politicians constantly state the most tough position on the issue of the migration situation in Europe, and their position on the issue of relations with Ukraine and Russia is different. The new constitution stresses that Hungary is the Christian state of the Hungarians. Accordingly, the national minorities of the country, especially such as the Gypsies, meet a rather cool attitude on the part of the Hungarian government, not to mention the population and right-wing parties and movements. It is known that in many Hungarian cities there are “people's guards”, created by the Hungarian right and engaged in, among other things, “patrolling” the Gypsy neighborhoods. Liberals accuse these guards of nationalism and intimidation of local Gypsies, and representatives of the brigades, in turn, believe that they are engaged exclusively in maintaining public order and preventing crime. What can I say - a significant part of the Roma of Eastern Europe, including Hungary, is engaged in semi-criminal and criminal activities. Begging, fortune telling, collecting scrap metal (of course, often acquiring the nature of theft of scrap metal) are the most innocuous activities of Eastern European Roma. But they are not alien to the usual thefts, robberies, robberies. It is widely known about the activities of clans engaged in smuggling and drug trafficking. Gypsies living at the expense of criminal activity are favorably distinguished by their well-being from more law-abiding fellow tribesmen. In the very same beggars in Romania, Bulgaria, and Ukraine, in the settlements inhabited by Roma, among the surrounding poor houses, real palaces of local authorities stand out. Of course, some of them made a fortune not by criminal activity, but by trade, but very many expensive houses were built with dirty money. The surrounding population is well aware of this - hence the dislike for the national minority that stubbornly does not want to integrate into the European reality. Hungarians are worried that among newborn 20% are children from Gypsy families - compared to Hungarians, the Gypsies have a huge birth rate, and this cannot but strain those who consider Hungary to be a country of Hungarians. And the greatest rejection is caused not by the fact that the Roma are people of a different nationality, but by their unpreparedness and unwillingness to assimilate the behavioral and lifestyle patterns adopted by the Hungarians. In other words, Roma do not integrate into Hungarian society, and this is perhaps the most difficult problem in their relations with state institutions and the Hungarian population. In one of the outskirts of Budapest, there is a “Romano Kia” - “House of the Gypsies”, whose organizers are trying to solve almost the main problem of the modern Hungarian Gypsy diaspora - the insufficient level of education.
Europe's largest "ghetto rum"
Slovakia is another Eastern European country where the problem of social development of the Gypsy minority is very acute. About 5,5 thousand Gypsies live in 500-million Slovakia. Over 55% of Slovak Gypsies have not even reached the age of 18 years - this is the youngest ethnic group in the country. However, the average life expectancy of Roma in Slovakia is only 55 years, twenty years less than that of the Slovaks (76 years). As in neighboring Hungary, in Slovakia, the government is quite decisive in relation to migration and national issues. Social problems associated with the residence of an impressive gypsy minority in Slovakia are solved in a rather specific way. It is known that Europe’s largest compact enclave of gypsies is located in the Slovak city of Kosice. This is the neighborhood "Lunik IX". Here, on an area of just over one square kilometer, there live about 8 thousands of Slovak Roma. Lunik was built in 1970-s. as a typical area of multi-storey buildings, and in 1979, it was decided to populate the neighborhood with gypsies. It was assumed that living in city apartments would contribute to a change in their lifestyle, leading to a gradual assimilation and transformation into ordinary Slovaks employed in enterprises. For this, the Gypsies from a village demolished nearby were settled in the neighborhood surrounded by Slovaks. However, the latter soon realized the whole problem of such a neighborhood and began to massively leave the area. The vacated apartments were occupied by more and more new Gypsy families. In the middle of 1980's. Roma made up half the population of the district, and by the end of the 1990s. all 100% of Lunika’s population were members of the Gypsy national minority.
One third of the population of the eight-thousandth Lunika are minors, according to official data in every typical apartment over six people live here, according to unofficial data - up to 12-14 people. Of course, the district is extremely problematic, considered to be the “headache” of the city authorities of Kosice. Since we are not talking about any payment for utilities, almost all the houses in the district are disconnected from gas, water and electricity. The absolute majority of adult residents of the area also does not have a permanent job. In Slovakia, not every Slovak with education and qualifications can find a job, what to say about people without any education and profession. Therefore, it is not surprising that residents of the Kosice neighborhoods adjacent to Lunyk began to complain about the constant thefts and the abundance of beggars on the streets. In the end, the city authorities decided to build a wall that would separate the disadvantaged area from the rest of the city. The wall cost the city budget 4700 euros, it is a two-meter concrete fence, which, according to city authorities and police, can improve the situation in the field of public order in Kosice. Naturally, human rights organizations consider the Great Slovak Wall in Kosice as a manifestation of discrimination against the Roma minority. They are answered by the right, who are convinced that the problem is not the Gypsies, but the way of life that leads, due to the lack of work and regular employment, to the majority of the adult population in the disadvantaged area. In August, 2015 in the Kosice region, in the town of Spisska Nova Ves, a Gypsy clash with the police occurred. Around 200, men and guys of Gypsy nationality refused to comply with the demands of the police to stop a drunken party. As a result of clashes 9 Gypsies and 7 police were injured. The chief of police of the Kosice region, Juraj Leszko, said that this was already the twenty-fifth confrontation between the police and the gypsies in this region of Slovakia. The most problematic region of the country is Eastern Slovakia - here the socio-economic situation is even worse than in the west, and the number of the Roma minority is much higher.
In the neighboring Czech Republic, the “Gypsy question” has always been less acute than in Slovakia. After all, the number of the Gypsy population here was significantly lower. However, after the collapse of Czechoslovakia, a significant part of Slovak Roma migrated to the Czech Republic, since its economic situation differed favorably from that of Slovakia. As a result, the number of the Gypsy population began to grow rapidly. In 1989, in the Czech part of Czechoslovakia, 145 of thousands of Gypsies lived, and in 1999, their number almost doubled and reached 300 of thousands of people. How many Roma live in the Czech Republic at the present time, no one knows. This leads to dissatisfaction with the Czech right-wing circles. In September, 2015 in the North Bohemian town of Shluknovsk almost reached mass riots - the authorities had to introduce additional police forces to prevent the massacre of right-wing activists and football fans over the gypsies living in the city. The reason for such a resolute right-wing attitude was the numerous complaints of city residents about the criminal activity of the Gypsy youth.
Problem solving is possible, but unlikely
Only a few representatives of the Gypsy minority in Eastern European countries manage to get an education and climb up the social ladder. Such representatives of the Gypsy intelligentsia perfectly understand all the numerous problems of their fellow tribesmen. Someone is trying to solve them, creating all sorts of national-cultural organizations, but most of the "ascended" still prefer to forget about their origins and take a personal course towards assimilation in the Romanian, Hungarian, Slovak environment. In the countries of Eastern Europe, numerous public organizations are being created that seem to be focused on solving the problems of the Roma population. However, in reality, many of them actually exist only for receiving grants and imitation activities. The imaginary concern of the state about the adaptation of Gypsy minorities leads to strange consequences. Thus, in Serbia, a quota was introduced for Roma when enrolling in higher education institutions - in addition to preferential rights for admission and free education, they are also provided with free hostel, food, and a stipend paid. In practice, this led to the fact that some Serbian applicants are trying to classify themselves as Gypsies, hoping to use the privileges listed above. On the other hand, intellectuals with Gypsy roots often try to hide their origins for fear of discrimination. They are focused on maximum integration into the surrounding society, refuse all customs and traditions, when necessary - change their names and surnames and prefer not to remember who their ancestors were.
In modern Europe has developed a difficult, paradoxical situation. The countries of Western Europe, to put it mildly, are not eager to see Romanian, Bulgarian, Hungarian, Serbian Gypsies on the streets of their cities. At the same time, they criticize the anti-Gypsy, in their view, policies of Eastern European states. In Eastern Europe, in turn, the socio-economic situation does not allow for a large-scale solution of the social and socio-cultural problems of the Roma population. As a result, the migration of Gypsies to Western Europe becomes beneficial for Eastern European governments - according to the principle “the more you leave, the fewer the problems”. European countries cannot come to a consensus on the solution of the current situation, and the EU’s structures add fuel to the fire, which impede any attempts of centralized activities of Eastern European countries to employ and socialize Roma minorities. However, on the background of modern Afro-Asian migration, the problems of the original “nomads of Europe” fade into the background. One thing can be said with certainty - without drastic measures in the socio-economic sphere, no changes will occur. You can spend more billions of dollars on benefits, building concrete walls around Gypsy quarters, deportations or, on the contrary, advertising brochures telling about tolerance, but until they take measures to create jobs, organize the upbringing and education of children, the “Gypsy problem” in modern Europe will never be resolved.