In January, 2016 turned 40 years after the decision was made to transfer the remains of prisoners of war buried in the territory of the former Rostov Rocket School (RAU). But until now, the real battles at various levels of government and public organizations are unfolding around this place. Rallies are often held by activists around the gates of the former school.
The death camp - this terrible place was nicknamed by those who shut the gate of the dungeon. Thousands of people exhausted, exhausted by hunger and incredible suffering, were sharpened in dirty barracks surrounded by two rows of barbed wire and a high brick wall.
The reinforced detachments of special units of storm troopers, horse patrols of the Nazis, a pack of specially trained guard shepherds around the clock vigilantly guarded the infirmary. For those who dared to go a distance closer than 150 meters, sentries immediately opened fire with machine guns.
It was morning, and another batch of sick Soviet prisoners of war arrived at the infirmary. In any weather, in rain or snow, they were lined up in the yard. So passed an hour, another, third. Finally, an officer showed up at the door of the German commandant's office. A humiliating inspection began. If there were Jews among the arriving prisoners of war, they were immediately incapacitated and immediately, on the sidelines, shot. Those prisoners of war with whom the Nazis did not have time to tear off their uniforms before arriving at the hospital, they were completely robbed. German soldiers selected all the outerwear and shoes they liked. Unhappy left only underwear, and even then not completely. Then the half-naked, barefoot people were beaten with rubber batons to the barracks located in different parts of the yard. In a small room, usually containing 15-20 people, the Germans usually drove 100-150 people.
When Samoshnya, a prisoner of war, the doctor asked the permission of the commandant to examine a seriously ill Red Army man, he was immediately beaten up by guards before losing consciousness. The same fate befell the prisoner of war doctor Voronov.
There was a pharmacy at the infirmary, but no medicine was released for Soviet prisoners of war. Hundreds of sick people needed immediate surgical help. The wounded died in terrible agony. The corpses were not taken out of the premises for 7-10 days. The bodies of the dead remained among the living, who, weakened by hunger, cold and beatings, died in dozens. Only one day, December 23, died in the hospital from starvation and disease 37 people.
Despite the fact that the camp was officially called the infirmary, his regime was no different from the ordinary German concentration camp. Sick prisoners of war, who were still able to move, rose to their feet at four o'clock in the morning and drove five or seven kilometers to dig trenches and dugouts. Prisoners of war returned in the dark. The one who could not walk because of weakness was guarded with bayonets on the way. One day a group of prisoners of war, unable to bear the mockery, stood up for the young fighter Nikiforov, who fell down the road and the Germans began to beat him. Red Army soldiers asked the head of the guard to allow them to bring their comrade. The German waved his gun negatively and said:
- Nein (no), Rus! Can not go, let him crawl.
When the prisoners returned to the infirmary, all those who stood up for Nikiforov were summoned to the German commandant's office and received 25 whips. So the Germans dealt with anyone who complained of mistreatment or tried to intercede for friends.
On the walls of the barracks, on the fences and sheds were posted rules of internal order. According to these rules, it was forbidden to leave the barracks on pain of death. In the evening of January 17, a captured Red Army soldier Fedyunin was shot dead on the spot without any warning.
In November, 1942, a large batch of spoiled cheese was brought to the infirmary and distributed to patients. The next day, a dysentery epidemic broke out. 30-50 people died from dysentery almost daily. Sick left without any medical care. Medical personnel from among the prisoners, who dared to draw the attention of the chief of the infirmary to the growing mortality rate, were warned that if such statements were repeated, they would be treated as conspirators.
In January, an outbreak of typhus broke out in the infirmary 1943. Contagious disease scared the Germans. For typhous typhoid was allocated a separate barrack, which the Nazis tried to bypass. In a small, cold room lay 750 sick. Mortality in the infirmary has increased to 100 people per day. The prisoners of war themselves carried the dead on a stretcher to a mortuary and put it in tiers. The entire area around the infirmary was dug by pits into which dozens of corpses fell. Eyewitnesses say that there were cases when along with the dead they buried the living, seriously ill, who had lost consciousness due to the high temperature. The pits were slightly covered with earth, and the earth moved. From the pits came the dull moans.
The inhabitants of the northern outskirts of Rostov, where the infirmary was located, were starving themselves, but at least trying to share the last piece of bread with people who were behind barbed wire. Despite the fact that the transfer of bread to a prisoner of war was punished by the Nazis with immediate execution, the children crawled up to the wall of the infirmary and threw crackers through it. On January 29, German guards seriously wounded nine-year-old Vasya Lukashev, overtaking him with bread at the wall. Choosing rare minutes, when it would be possible to implicitly throw sick soldiers, the guys gathered not far from the infirmary. German sentries pretended that they were aiming at the dogs running past, and they themselves released machine gun fires according to children.
Once, several seriously wounded Red Army men were brought to the infirmary on the cart. At the gate, they were met by a group of women who, in the hope of trying to find their loved ones, and imperceptibly pass several crackers to the wounded. The guards did not like something and they dug fire, and when the women ran away, three dead were left lying on the ground. A few days later, an unknown woman passing by the infirmary identified her son as prisoners of war among the newly arrived sick prisoners. She rushed to the sentries, begging them to let her go to her son, to give him back. The guards seized the woman and, dragging her into the guardroom, started beating her. Then the brutally mutilated and unconscious mother was carried outside the gate and left to die on the ground.
There is no measure and no margin to the monstrous crimes of the Hitlerites, committed by them on the territory of the Rostov Artillery School. Mass executions of people are striking in their planned and cruelty. When the Soviet troops began to liberate the Don cities and villages one by one, the camp guards began the mass extermination of all the sick. First, the delivery of food was discontinued, then dozens of people began to be called daily to the German commandant's office and no longer returned.
In February, mass shootings began due to the fact that the Germans allegedly uncovered a major conspiracy in the hospital. From that day on, all those “suspected” of trying to escape at night were taken out into the courtyard and shot against a brick wall. For a long time this wall remained untouched and people could see numerous traces of gunfire and rifle bullets. Unfortunately, to this day this wall in its original form has not been preserved. But it is extremely important to see with your own eyes the echoes and memories of the past years of the war, in order to appreciate the existing world. By the way, in Rostov there was not a single building with traces of war.
Those prisoners who were still able to walk were soon also called to the commandant's office. There they were given shovels and were driven into the corner of the yard to dig an anti-tank ditch. When the prisoners finished the work, they were all lined up on the edge of the moat and shot. The first 60 corpses of the executed people fell to the bottom of the moat, which soon became a giant grave. From this moment the executions were carried out continuously. From the chamber to the chamber went to the guards and entered in their lists the names of those victims who were scheduled to be shot. The lists were compiled in this way: they found out from a seriously ill patient who of his fellow countrymen was in the infirmary, then a whole group of them were interrogated and shot. In the same February, 25 wounded Red Army men were brought to the infirmary. They were not even placed in the wards, but immediately brought to the pit and, having shot, lightly covered with snow from above. A few days later the ditch was filled to the top with corpses. According to eyewitnesses, the number of people killed in this ditch exceeds 3500 people.
February 10, four days after the Germans retreated from Rostov, field Gestapo agents arrived at the infirmary. They arrived here in ten cars and groups headed for the wards, where they began to deal with defenseless patients. Especially rampant Gestapo in the central, the so-called gray body. Here is what Lieutenant Revutsky, a former prisoner of the German hospital, who managed to survive all the horrors, said:
“I was in the barrack №3, where more than 300 people were lying with me. When we were informed that field Gestapo agents had arrived at the infirmary, we understood well what that meant. We were faced with new interrogations, torture and torture. And we were not mistaken. Soon from the other barracks we could hear the screaming and screaming of the soul. 30 of our comrades, knowing that the same fate was to be divided, and taking advantage of the accidental absence of the sentry, they chose to move to the typhous typhus and lie down among the sick with typhus. Here, the Gestapo, as we expected, were afraid to go. I do not know what was happening in the central corps, but when, after the Red Army had entered, we had to go through this corps, our eyes were presented with a terrible picture stories Wars, monstrous extermination of seriously ill prisoners of war. All 20 chambers of the hull were covered in blood. Many corpses were mutilated beyond recognition. The bodies of the tortured were covered with stab wounds, their stomachs were ripped up, their heads were burned. The skulls wore traces of heavy blows, their eyes were poked out, their ears were cut off, and the severed arms and legs were lying on the floor.
It is impossible to describe the torture of tortured people. If we didn’t survive it all ourselves, if we didn’t see these horrors with our own eyes, then we would never believe that it is possible to barbarously destroy defenseless sick prisoners, subject them to terrible agony of hunger and cold, brutal torture and torture. ”
As an example, I will cite another testimony from the deputy chairman of the executive committee of the Rostov city Council of Workers' Deputies Burmensky, who saw the infirmary in the first days of the entry of Soviet troops into Rostov:
“History never knew such a wild, bloody rampant. We were all deeply shocked by what we saw. Before us under the snow lay dozens of corpses. Hundreds of unfortunate victims were buried in a ditch about 200 meters long. In addition, not far from the moat, right on the ground, 380 were still lying about tortured and executed Soviet citizens. All the bomb-shelter cracks were filled with corpses. The bodies were disfigured by terrible torture, stripped naked. It is evident that people were exhausted to the last degree. The survivors were so weak that they could not crawl out to meet us from the barracks, even on all fours. When we visited one of the chambers of the so-called surgical building, there lay uncleared corpses near 20-25, and in the “dressing room” on the table we saw an unknown Red Army man who had already decomposed. By the time the Red Army arrived in Rostov, only a few hundred people had survived in the camp. The rest died. Many of the survivors went mad, the young looked like very old men. Blood flowed in our veins at the sight of all the horror that the Germans were doing here. A special commission has recorded the unprecedented atrocities of the German fascists over Soviet prisoners of war, and the perpetrators of these atrocities will suffer a deserved punishment. ”
By the end of January, when severe frosts were established, the death rate in the infirmary reached an incredible number - 150 people per day. This meant that within one month the entire composition of the prisoners who were in the German infirmary completely died out and the Nazis brought a new batch of prisoners to the place of the dead, tortured and executed.
February 13, when battles were already on the outskirts of the city, the command of the infirmary, under orders, began to evacuate all patients who were able to stand on their feet to the rear. They were collected in the yard, and then drove to a nearby railway station for loading into wagons. More than one 2000 people were shoved into a small train. The guards beat the prisoners with lash and rubber batons. On the way, hundreds of people died from wounds, hunger and cold. German soldiers threw the dead out of the cars on the train. All the way from Rostov to Dnepropetrovsk was littered with the corpses of many hundreds of dead people.
After the liberation of Rostov, a special commission displayed all the atrocities of the fascist executioners in special documents. But it was urgent to save the survivors. A whole group of doctors was formed from the staff of the Rostov Medical Institute, who immediately set to work. Russian doctors were shocked by the condition of the patients and the conditions in which they remained during the years of occupation. When they arrived at the place of rescue of survivors, they saw how barely alive, miraculously survived in a terrible meat grinder, crippled prisoners of war, still moving at the bottom of a deep moat. Everyone rushed to the rescue.
One of them is Georgy G. Zhamgots. He was born on January 2, 919 in Rostov in the family of a doctor. After graduating from high school, he entered the medical and preventive faculty of the Rostov State Medical Institute, which he graduated in October 1941. Was wounded twice during the bombing of Rostov enemy aviation. He worked as a resident of evacuation hospital №5143 (Sambek direction). He participated in the elimination of the medical consequences of the atrocities of German doctors in the hospital of death. There he contracted and suffered a severe form of typhus. He was evacuated to the city of Ordzhonikidze. After recovery, he worked as a toxicologist at the Electrozinc plant and at the Department of Pharmacology of the North Ossetian State Medical Institute.
George G. recalls: "The buildings of the school were used under the" chamber ". They were without windows and light, did not work sewage and plumbing. In the wards, on the three-tier wooden plank beds, the victims were lying, some of them, because of lack of space, lay on the bare floor. In the premises there was a huge cauldron, near which the bodies lay. The dead were not endured for 7-10 days. On the bunks lay two injured - wounded, infectious patients, exhausted, dehydrated people in a semi-conscious state. The sick and wounded did not receive water and food for many days. The able to move crawled out into the street, collected snow. According to eyewitnesses, the water was brought on a cart with 40-bucket barrels. In the cart, the prisoners themselves were harnessed to 12-20 people. It was necessary to haul 1,5-2 km. No medical assistance was provided. Ligation was made by doctors from among the prisoners of war. Only manganese was released from medications. ”
In 1951, the Rostov Higher Military Command School of Rocket Forces was established on the territory of the former death hospital. On the mass grave of prisoners of war a monument was erected.
And on the site of the former German death camp, an entire memorial complex was created, personifying the great memory of the Soviet people. Numerous school and government delegations came here, wreaths were laid and numerous speeches and salutes were given in honor of the dead. Such salutes and celebrations continued until January 1976. It was then that another special commission was assembled, which decided to transfer the remains of the dead to another place. There was another, equally important problem. The school had the status of a secret educational institution, so there were difficulties when people from the outside wanted to visit the grave. Moreover, the park of military equipment was located next to the monument. Among the old-timers of the school there was even a legend that foreign spies penetrated the territory of the rocket school under the pretext of laying flowers on. Therefore, it was decided to close the territory of the school from prying eyes and move the mass grave to a new place.
So, we read the decision of the Rostov City Council of Workers' Deputies No. 21 of 7 in January 1976 of the year (the text is published completely for the first time): “On the reburial of remains of remains from a mass grave located on the territory of the Nedelin Military Command School, at a city memorial cemetery.
In connection with the upcoming construction work on the territory of the Higher Military Command School, the mass grave located in this territory will be in the very center of the secure facilities. ”
In 1976, the city council executive decides:
1. To accept the proposal of the Nedelin Higher Military Command School on the reburial of the remains of remains from a mass grave located on the territory of the school, at the city memorial cemetery.
2. To approve the commission on the implementation of the reburial of the remains of the dead soldiers.
3. Commission to determine the time, place and plan for the funeral ritual of burial.
4. Control over the implementation of this decision should be entrusted to the city culture department (comrade Markin O. Ya.) And the city municipal services department (comrade S. Myltykhan).
Chairman of the Executive Committee (signature) V.A. Shcherbakov.
For the secretary - member of the executive committee (signed) V.V. Adits.
I cite the text of this decision completely because for many years it was not possible to find out the names of the officials who adopted and approved the relevant decision, which at the beginning of 90's began to be actively challenged. This dispute still lasts because many activists believe the transfer is not held: today in the territory of the former RAU lie the remains of soldiers, the memory of which today, in fact, no.
The composition of the commission for the reburial of the remains of the dead soldiers was also approved. This is the chairman of the Proshunin commission Galina Prokhorovna (deputy chairman of the city executive committee); Deputy Chairman of the Commission Suren Artyomovich Myltykhyan (Head of the Municipal Economy Department). Also in the case file contains a list of members of the commission: Oleg Yakovlevich Markin, head of the city culture department, Dmitry Panteleevich Kukot, engineer and curator of the communal services; Colonel, Deputy Head of the Higher Military Command School. M. Nedelina Gurov, Ivan Ivanovich; deputy head of the school for logistics, Colonel Kulikov Alexander Mikhailovich; deputy political department of the school, Andrey P. Litvinenko; Senior Inspector of the Department of Culture Klitskaya Lyubov Alekseevna.
After this decision of the city executive committee, all the remains were allegedly reburied in a solemn ceremony in a new place. I add the word “supposedly” because after many years, and more precisely in the 90-ies, on the wave of a number of democratic transformations, it became possible to disclose many sensitive facts and gain access to the territory of the RAU. In a number of media outlets appeared photographs of the remains that appear during excavations. But these remains are securely covered with ordinary slabs, on which people walk. Many veterans who thoroughly knew the history of the RAU - the younger generation does not even know about it - the fact of not buried dead prisoners of war is outraged to the depths of the soul and they continue to fight for a true, decent attitude to the dead soldiers.
We read one more solution.
This is the protocol of the joint meeting of the Council of Veterans of the Rostov Military Institute of Rocket Forces (RVIRV) and the Council of the Rostov regional branch of the All-Russian Society for the Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments (VOOPIIK) from October October 16. During this meeting, the speakers were: Chairman of the Council of Veterans RVIRV, retired colonel V.V. Gerbach, Chairman of the Council of AUC, AO VOOPIIK ARO Kozhin, secretary of the Council of veterans RVIRV, retired colonel E.V. Zorin; Professor of Moscow State Technical University of Civil Aviation, retired colonel N. Ya. Polovinchuk, head of the Rostov Oblast Club “Memory-Search” V.K. Shcherbanov, deputy chairman of the Rostov club "Patriot" A.P. Stasiuk.
In the course of the discussion, they reviewed and discussed the response to the letter from the Head of the Department of Culture of the City of Rostov-on-Don, L.P. Lisitsyna, signed by the head of the group of the liquidation team of the Rostov branch of the Supreme Soviet of the Strategic Missile Forces named after Peter the Great, lieutenant colonel OO Savina.
O.A. Savina: “that there are no graves of the Great Patriotic War during the Rostov Military Institute of the Rocket Forces,” does not correspond to reality. The facts confirm only the ceremonial reburial of a part of the remains in six vertical urns transferred and buried at the Bratsk cemetery. Information about 10 dump trucks with remains transported to the territory of SIZO No. 5 has not been confirmed.
Based on the above, it was decided:
1. Restore the memorial sign on the territory of RAU and place it on the former location of the majority of the remains.
2. In the future, to create a military memorial complex on the territory of RAU ”.
There have been many such decisions and resolutions in recent years. Bring them all does not make sense because they are based on one single request - to preserve the memory of the dead but a decent level. A variety of initiative groups appeal to the mayor of the city, the governor and the President. Letters come back and again they are launched in a circle. In this year, 2016 marks 40 years since the decision to rebuild the remains. This fact has been forgotten by many, but also remembered by many. Their memory does not give them the right to stop in their search for justice.
... Should I write about the war or is it time to forget about it? All my doubts dispelled the events of the last year in Ukraine and the revelations of the “freedom-loving and enlightened West”. I will quote the “middle peasants” by aggressiveness - the French. That's what they're sorry and that set up all the Western community: "It is time to complete the work that began in 19 century French emperor Napoleon and continued in 20-century German Chancellor Hitler: the conquest of Russia." The defeat of Russia explain the "frost" and that the United States in 19 century were still a minor country, and in the case of Hitler - states were allies of Russia. Now another thing: the climate warmed and the United States - the most powerful country in the world in every way, and it is not an ally of Russia, and its enemy! And concluded: "Let us not repeat the mistake that was fatal for brilliant predecessors - Napoleon and Hitler! We need to act right now. ” We, Russians, in response to the West, also need to act right now. And, first of all, to recall its history, its glorious and bitter pages, especially World War II 1941-1945 years.
In the Rostov region, there is another little-studied concentration camp, located in the town of Belaya Kalitva, where thousands were rounded up refugees and prisoners of war and were burned alive in their huts where German monsters. But this fact can hear a little more than write about the genocide of the Jewish population, placing in the top corner of the memory, above all, of them. A simple example: when in the territory Zmeovskoy beams - during the war there en masse shot the Jewish population - was changed text commemorative inscription on a memorial, in the regional press immediately stood invisible hype, the main motive of which boiled down to the fact that you can not touch the holy places, and nothing can be change there. And, indeed, thanks to this position of the press, which soon disappeared, there was an inscription that was restored again. I have nothing against this action. But what attention is paid to such minor changes, when almost side by side, in the city center is no marked mass grave, where lie thousands of people. Missile School veterans even had a small excavation, and found almost on the surface of human remains - it had small bones, probably it was the hand. This fact is terrible to the depths of the soul, to shiver.
When the school on the orders of former Defense Minister Serdyukov was closed, the activists again sounded the alarm in all possible ways: it is planned to build one of the next ugly shopping centers. Again, letters were sent to various instances with a proposal to reconstruct the memorial complex. It was also proposed to create a military museum on the territory of the school. It turns out that in Rostov there is still no military museum, and this fact also does not leave indifferent. Surprisingly, the city is recognized as a city of military glory. However, under the new town governor veterans gave a magnificent building on one of the main streets, but there was a military museum space has not yet been found. But it would be necessary to create this museum for a long time, and it should not be private, but public. Because our grandfathers and great-grandfathers, brothers and sisters stood up to defend the state. And, I think, in this museum there must be a gallery dedicated to the prisoners of the camps. But all this - thoughts out loud. Such things are not done quickly. We need again numerous negotiation and resolution of relevant departments, which in turn also need to coordinate with the senior management. And all this whirlwind can last for years. Sometimes, as in our case, for decades.
For all this time, the opposing sides have accumulated a lot of complaints. And on the one hand, and on the other. Leaders of the former missile school at some point could be understood: a secret facility, he is a secret facility with all its consequences. But after all, the remains must be buried, and not chained under reinforced concrete slabs. On the other hand, many civil society organizations, including veterans, have a vague idea of the complex process coordination required to pass on the school grounds. I had to become a witness of one of such cases personally. Together with the students of the Rostov school №25 and representatives of the Rostov club "Patriot" we went to lay flowers on the symbolic grave of dead prisoners. Symbolic this tomb because nothing reminds us that people are buried here: the usual flat ground with appropriate placards war theme, which is practically next to the very stone wall near where the shootings took place. But nothing about this today reminds.
When we arrived at the checkpoint, it turned out that the documents were approved only at the city level management education and leadership of the military unit did not. The leaders, too, in turn, this question had to be coordinated with Moscow. And we stood and waited until all the officials, both military and civilian, could settle the matter. Claims began: why did the organizers of the procession not agree in advance on the issue of passing a secret object to the territory?
And there were many such clashes. They mainly arise from misunderstanding civilians extreme specificity of life of the military unit and the specific conditions that must be met.
The situation on that day was paradoxical. After all come to worship the memory of victims, not only the students of the two classes, but also about the locked gates stood a man, the last test death camps: Evgeny Vasilievich Moiseyev during the war was a minor prisoner two German death camps - Stutthof and Mauthausen. About this on our site was posted a separate article. And this man, too, stood with everyone and waited. The organizers tried to hastily arrange a pass to the territory of a military unit, but the coordination process has been delayed, and after about hour wait, had to lay flowers near the side entrance and spend an impromptu rally. Moiseenko spoke there. He told the guys about all the horrors that he had experienced. He stood and spoke in the blinding May sunshine - all this happened in May - he came to listen to the soldiers and officers who, in principle, were not opposed to all the action, but they are military men and had to comply with the requirements and orders, which, in essence, are the basis of the discipline of each army.
Then the organizers have found that one of them just hoped to finish not agreed with all departments - civil and military - the process of school groups and veterans on school grounds.
I will pay special attention that such inconsistent actions happened more than once. The second time I witnessed a similar incident that occurred in the winter. Organizers of flowers laying procedures have assured us of journalists, that this time everything will be fine, we will be able to pass on part of the territory without a problem: all the letters are signed and agreed upon at all levels. So, we again stood in front of the checkpoint. And again they didn’t know what to do because they didn’t let us go again. It turns out that the organizers of the action again came in the hope of “just passing through” into the territory. And again began to be heard numerous calls. On the cold cold we stood for about an hour, yet pity, the young lieutenant, seeing all our suffering, was able to negotiate with the duty and we spent part of the territory, where overjoyed organizers hastily held their rally. These attacks resemble the attacks of the partisans. Somehow all this is not human. And it goes on for many years. And the territory of the school is a monument to the fallen prisoner of war, but it is in a different place than where the moat was where mass executions took place. Appeal to the Governor of Rostov Region Vasily Golubev, with the request to investigate and solve the moral problem of the desired effect had no effect. While everything remains in its place. What to do?