Military Review

Raid campaign "Cormoran." Australian duel

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Raid campaign "Cormoran." Australian duel



Fregatten-captain Theodore Detmers thoughtfully lowered his binoculars. Their enemy - strong, fast, and deadly - slowly ripped the Pacific waves in a single half and a half kilometers from its ship. Confident in his abilities, the opponent carelessly made friends with those whom the commander of the Australian cruiser "Sydney" taken for a harmless huckster Dutch "Straat Malacca." The cruiser started flashing insistently and demandingly with the searchlight: “Show your secret call sign.” Stock tricks and tricks over. The word was for the guns.

From cargo ship to raiders

Having lost almost the entire merchant fleet as a result of World War I and the Versailles Peace Treaty that followed it, Germany had to rebuild it. By the beginning of World War II, the German merchant fleet reached 4,5 million gross tons and was relatively young - a large number of ships and vessels were built in the 30s. Due to the widespread use of diesel engines, the Germans managed to create ships with a long range of navigation and autonomy. 15 September 1938 of the year in Kiel from the stocks of the shipyard “Germanienverft”, which belonged to the Krupp concern, the ship “Stirmark” was launched. He and Ostmark of the same type were built on the request of HAPAG for long-term commercial shipments. "Stirmark" was a large vessel with a displacement of 19 thousand tons, equipped with diesel engines with a total capacity of 16 thousand liters.

The ship failed to start a career as a peaceful bulk carrier. The readiness of the completed "Stirmark" coincided with the exacerbation of the political situation in Europe and the beginning of the war. The naval department had views of a large ship with a long range and mobilized it. At first it was thought to be used as a transport, but then the Stirmark found a more effective use. It was decided to convert it into an auxiliary cruiser, the benefit of all the data for this role he possessed. The newest cargo ship received the index "auxiliary vessel 41". Soon the “41 ship” was transferred to Hamburg, to the Deutsche Vert factory, where it took up the vacant seat after the auxiliary cruiser “Thor”. In all accompanying documentation, the future raider began to be designated as "auxiliary cruiser №8" or "HSK-8".


Theodore Detmers, Commander of the Cormoran


17 July 1940 was appointed 37-year-old Corvette-Captain Theodore Detmers as its commander. He was the youngest commander of auxiliary cruisers. Entered the fleet at the age of 19 years - first served on the old training ships. After receiving the officer's rank, the lieutenant stepped on the deck of the Cologne cruiser. Further way was on destroyers. In the 1935 Maruschka Detmers year old was under the command of «G-11», in 1938, the Korvettenkapitan arrived at the new place of service, to the newest destroyer "Herman Shoman» (Z-7). He met the war, commanding this ship. Soon the Hermann Schöman stood up for repair, and its commander received a new assignment for the auxiliary cruiser under preparation. HSK-8 was prepared in a hurry - he did not receive some of the weapons and equipment planned for installation. Unlike its predecessors, the raider had to be equipped with a radar, but due to technical difficulties (the equipment often broke), the installation was refused. New 37-mm automatic anti-aircraft guns were not installed - they took old ones. In mid-September, running tests were successfully conducted. 9 October 1940, the auxiliary cruiser called "Cormoran" officially joined the kriegsmarine. Later Detmers recalled that for a long time he could not decide on the name for his ship. This suddenly he assisted Günter Gumprih, the future commander of the auxiliary cruiser "Thor." Even when Kormoran was standing at the wall of the shipyard, Detmers met with Rukteshel, the commander of the Widder who had just returned from the march, with whom he discussed plans for a breakthrough into the Atlantic. It was decided that the "Cormoran" will break through the most dangerous, but also the shortest place - Dover channel. In winter, the Danish Strait, according to the Germans, was clogged with ice. However, a radiogram soon arrived from the Sachsen trawler, a weather scout located at these latitudes. The trawler reported that there is a lot of ice, but it is possible to pass through it. The breakout plan was changed in favor of the Danish Strait passage.

In November, 1940, the raider moved to Gotenhafen, where the final refinement and additional equipment was carried out. On November 20, the ship was visited by Grand Admiral Raeder and was pleased with what he saw. "Kormoran" as a whole was ready for the march, however, the mechanics raises concerns not fully tested powerplant. For the final completion of all the tests it took time, and Detmers did not want to wait. The final armament of the Cormoran was six 150-mm guns, two 37-mm guns and four one-gun 20-mm anti-aircraft guns. Two twin-tube 533-mm torpedo tubes were installed. Additional armament included two seaplanes “Arado 196” and torpedo boat type LS-3. Using the large size of the Cormoran, the 360 anchor mines and 30 magnetic mines for the boat were loaded onto it. The raider was instructed to act in the Indian Ocean, in African and Australian waters. Reserve area - the Pacific Ocean. As an additional task, the Cormoran was assigned the mission to supply German submarines located in southern latitudes with new torpedoes and other means of supply. The raider took in the hold 28 torpedoes, a large number of projectiles, medicines and provisions intended for transfer to the submarines.

December 3 1940 years finally prepared for a hike "Cormoran" left Gotenhafen.

To the Atlantic

On the way to the Danish Strait, the raider met with bad weather. 8 December he arrived in Stavanger. December 9, last replenished stocks, went to sea. The 11 “Kormoran” was made up for the Soviet “Vyacheslav Molotov”, but the fears were superfluous - no one discovered the raider. Withstanding a brutal storm, during which the 19-thousandth ship rocked heavily, the 13 of December auxiliary cruiser climbed into the Atlantic. The storm subsided, the visibility has improved - and 18 December was seen first smoke of an unknown ship. However, the raider has not yet reached its "hunting" area, and the stranger left with impunity. Soon the commanders changed their orders and allowed Detmers to act immediately. The raider moved to the south - according to the calculations of the mechanics of their own fuel reserves with rational use would have been enough for at least 7 months of the campaign. The first time "cormorants" no luck with the search for production: with him noticed only one Spanish cargo ship and an American ship. On December 29, an attempt was made to lift a reconnaissance plane into the air, but because of the pitching, the Arado floats were damaged.

The account was finally opened on 6 on January 1941 of the year. As an initiative, the Greek ship “Anthony” was stopped, transporting coal by British freight. After the appropriate procedures, removing the team and 7 live sheep, as well as several machine guns and cartridges for them, "Anthony" sank. The next time luck smiled to the Germans on January 18. Immediately before the onset of darkness, an unknown steamer was seen coming from the raider, which was moving anti-submarine zigzag. Detmers knew that the British Admiralty prescribed such actions to civilian courts - a similar instruction had recently been seized by the Atlantis raider. Having approached the 4 mile distance, the Germans first fired flares, and then, when the steamer turned out to be a tanker, did not react, they opened fire. The Briton (and there was no longer any doubt that he was the one) transmitted the RRR signal. The third volley covered the target, and the radio fell silent. When Kormoran got closer, the gun suddenly crashed from the tanker, which managed to make four shots, after which the raider who had resumed the fire set fire to the stern of his victim. With the British Union - the so-called hapless tanker - began to lower boats. The surviving part of the crew was rescued, and the ship was sent to the bottom. Detmers hurried to leave the area as soon as possible - the alarm signal raised by British Union promised unpleasant meetings. To the place of death of the tanker was in full swing Australian auxiliary cruiser "Arua", he managed to fish out of water even eight Englishmen, which shed light on the events occurred here. In British documents, an unknown so far big raider was named “Raider G”.

Command ordered to arrange a stir Maruschka Detmers go south for a meeting with the ship supply "Nordmark", pass on it all the torpedoes and supplies for submarines, and then sent to the Indian Ocean. "Nordmark" was actually ship complex supply - its storerooms, fuel storage facilities and cabins to enjoy a great number of German ships, operating or passing through the southern latitudes, "pocket" battleship "Admiral Scheer" auxiliary cruisers, submarines, Blockade and other vessels security.

Between the islands of Cape Verde and the equator in the afternoon of January 29, a ship resembling a refrigerator was seen from the board of the Cormoran. Pretending to be a “peaceful merchant”, the raider waited until the ship came closer and raised the signal to stop, while Demers ordered to give full speed. After the stranger did not respond, the Germans opened aimed fire to kill. The refrigerator triggered the alarm and stopped. With him lowered the boat. The ship "African Star" did transport 5700 tons of frozen meat from Argentina to the UK. His crew was taken on board, and the Afrik Star, the Germans were forced to flood - as a result of the shelling it was damaged. The refrigerator sank slowly, and a torpedo was launched to speed up the process. As the raider victim raised the alarm, the Cormoran left the area at full speed. Already at night the signalmen examined the silhouette in which the merchant ship was identified. The resulting orders to stop were ignored, and auxiliary cruiser opened fire at first lighting, and then live ammunition. The enemy initially responded from the stern gun, which, however, was soon silenced. The steamship stopped the cars - the boarding party discovered that this was the British ship Euriloch, sailing with 16 dismantled heavy bombers to Egypt. Eurylokh lost its course and stayed away from the coast. The enemy radio stations were buzzing on the air with an enraged, disturbed hive, and the Germans again had to expend such a valuable torpedo for a quick reprisal of their prey.

Taking on board the crew of Euryloch, Cormoran moved to a rendezvous with the Nordmark in a special area called Andalusia. On February 7, the meeting took place. The company "Nordmark" was a refrigerated vessel "Dukez", a trophy "Admiral Scheer." The next day, the raider received 1300 tons of diesel fuel, and 100 beef carcasses and more than 200 thousand eggs were shipped from the refrigerator. 170 prisoners and mail were sent to the Nordmark. On February 9, the transshipment was completed, and the Cormoran finally set off for the Indian Ocean. On the way to the Cape of Good Hope, Detmers met with the Penguin raider, who carefully "grazed" the whole trophy whaling flotilla. Captain tsurzee Krueder proposed one of the whalers as an intelligence agent at the beck and call, but his colleague refused. The trophy was not enough, in his opinion, fleet.

Bad weather did not allow to put up a mine can at Walvis Bay (Namibia). February 18 crashed in the engine room. Due to bearing failures, diesel engines No.2 and No.4 failed. Detmers sent an urgent request to Berlin with a request to send a submarine or another blockade of at least 700 kg of babbitt for the manufacture of new bearings. He was promised to fulfill this request as soon as possible, the trip to the Indian Ocean was temporarily canceled. The raider was ordered to act in the South Atlantic for the time being and wait for the “package”. While in the engine room, specialists from cash stocks made new parts of bearings, 24 February got in touch with Detmers Penguin and offered to transfer X kg of babbitt to 200. 25 February, both raiders met - an exchange of necessary materials and movies for the team's entertainment took place. “Cormoran”, meanwhile, continued to suffer from constant damage to the engine room. The reserves allocated by "Penguin" should have been enough for the first time. March 15 held a meeting with one of the submarine wards, U-105, to which several torpedoes were shipped, fuel and provisions. With the hunt raider has not had any luck.


"Cormoran" refuel the submarine


A long break in search of new prey ended on March 22. "Cormoran" captured a small English tanker "Agnita", going to ballast. The vessel was in a very mediocre state and was sunk without regret. The most valuable loot was a minefield map near Freetown, indicating safe passage. Three days later, almost in the same area in the morning 8 tanker was seen coming in ballast toward South America. He did not respond to the request to stop - fire was opened. Since the ship seemed to be new, Demers ordered to fire carefully, so as not to cause severe damage. After several volleys, the fugitive stopped the car. The large-scale (11 thous. Tons) tanker Kanadolight became the prey of the raider. The ship was almost new, and it was decided to send it with a prize party to France. The prize successfully reached the mouth of the Gironde 13 April.

Fuel and food consumption was quite extensive, and Detmers went to a new meeting with the supply provider Nordmark. March 28 ships met, and the next day, two submarines pulled up here. One of them, U-105, passed a long-awaited babbit to the raider, which, however, turned out to be not so much. Detmers' plans included a rendezvous with another support vessel, the Rudolf Albrecht, which marched from Tenerife on March 22. Having replenished the fuel, “Cormoran” 3 of April met with a new supplier, but, unfortunately, there was no babbit on it. "Rudolf Albrecht" gave a lot of fresh vegetables, fruits, newspapers, magazines, a live pig and a puppy. Saying goodbye to the tanker, "Cormoran" went to the south-east.

9 April, the raider was spotted smoke at the stern - some boat moved one course with him. After waiting for the distance to decrease, the Germans dropped their disguise. Again, the British ignored the order to stop and not use the radio. "Cormoran" opened fire, achieving several hits. Dry vessel "Kraftsmen" stopped. A strong fire broke out at its stern. The boarding party failed to immediately send the Englishman to the bottom - he did not want to sink. It was all about his cargo - a giant anti-submarine network for Cape Town harbor. And only after the torpedo hit, the rebellious "Kraftsman" sank. The next day, the raider’s radio operators received a radio message that brought a pleasant news: Detmers assigned the title of Frigate Captain. 12 April, the Germans intercepted the Greek ship "Nikolaos DL", loaded with timber. And again, not without shooting. Taking the prisoners, "Cormoran" put in sacrifice several 150-mm shells under the waterline, not counting the charges that had been blown up earlier. Greek sinking slowly but Maruschka Detmers did not spend on it torpedo, believing that the sink and so.

It was time to replenish the fuel again, and Cormoran once again went to the meeting point with Nordmark. 20 April in the ocean met a whole group of German ships. In addition to the Nordmark and the Cormoran, there was another auxiliary cruiser, the Atlantis, with the supply ship Alsterufer. Detmers' ship received 300 tons of diesel fuel and two hundred 150-mm projectiles from the Alsterufer. The work of diesel engines was more or less normalized, and the raider finally received an order to follow to the Indian Ocean, where, after bidding farewell to his compatriots, he headed for April 24.

In the indian ocean

In early May, the ship rounded the Cape of Good Hope. The waters of the Indian Ocean met "Cormoran" with a strong storm that raged for four days. When heading north, the weather began to gradually improve - the raider repainted, disguised as a Japanese vessel, the Sakito Maru. 9 May it became known about the death of the auxiliary cruiser "Penguin", and then were ordered to meet at the appointed place with the ship supply "Altsertor" and intelligence "Penguin" - a former whaler "adjutant". The ships met on 14 in May, and to the great dismay of Demers, on orders from the command, he had to transfer 200 tons of fuel to the Altsertor. The supplier, in turn, replenished the crew of the Cormoran with members of their crew in return for those who went to France on the Canadolite tanker.

Then dragged monotonous weekdays. For nearly a month, Cormoran plied the Indian Ocean without meeting goals on its way. June 5 was again changed camouflage - now the raider looked like Japanese Kinka Maru transport again. Twice the ship "Arado" went to reconnaissance flight, but both times to no avail. Once there was a brightly consecrated ship that turned out to be American. Another time, an unknown passenger ship was frightened by a sudden smoke installation. Seeing that the hunt was not going on, Detmers decided to try his luck in a mine war - 360 mines were still waiting in the wings and were a dangerous and burdensome load. 19 June "Cormoran" entered the waters of the Bay of Bengal, whose shores abounded in major ports. At the exit of them the Germans and planned to put their mines. First of all it concerned Rangoon, Madras and Calcutta. However, even here the raider was not lucky. When Madras was no more than two hundred miles away, smoke first appeared on the horizon, and then the silhouette of a large ship, similar to an English auxiliary cruiser, began to emerge. This kind of meeting was not part of Demers plans, and he began to leave at full speed. For an hour, the unknown pursued the raider, then gradually fell behind, hiding behind the horizon. The Germans were really lucky - it was the British auxiliary cruiser "Canton", who took them for the Japanese. The mine setting at Calcutta was also canceled - a hurricane raged in the area.

The long run of bad luck finally ended on the night of June 26, when a watchman noticed the vessel on duty. Traditionally, the Germans demanded to stop and not use the radio. However, the discovered ship continued to follow as if nothing had happened, without trying, however, to go on the air. Having tapped off orders without signaling several times in a row, the raider opened fire, having achieved almost 30 hits in seven minutes. The vessel began to burn intensively, the boat was lowered from it. The Germans stopped shelling. When the sailors from the boat were taken aboard, it turned out that the stranger was the Yugoslav cargo ship Velebit, which was walking in ballast. At the moment of contact, the captain was in the engine room, and the watch officer did not know (!) Morse code and could not understand what a ship wanted from him. Yugoslav was burning intensely, so Demers did not finish off the crippled ship and went further. A few hours later, already at noon, smoke was seen again. Some ship was heading towards Ceylon. Under the cover of a rain squall "Cormoran" she crept up to his victim at a distance 5 miles. Again the Germans demanded a stop and not go on the air. However, the Australian “Mariba”, which transported almost 5 thousand tons of sugar, did not even think to obey, and immediately broadcast an alarm signal on the radio. The raider's guns crashed, and soon the Australian was already sinking, lowering the boats. Having picked up the crew man 48 and finished off the victim, "Cormoran" hastily left the area. Rader had gone to the south, in the desert, and less-visited the water, where he stayed until July 17. A preventive repair of diesel engines and electrical equipment was carried out. Losing relevance, Japanese makeup was replaced. Posing as a neutral Japanese was already too suspicious, and even dangerous - at night one would have to go with the lights on. In addition, the neutral ship did not have to dramatically change course, moving away from rapprochement with any suspicious ship that could be a British cruiser.

The auxiliary cruiser was disguised as a Dutch merchant Straat Malacca. To heighten realism, a wooden model of the gun was installed on the stern. In the new image of "Cormoran" moved towards the island of Sumatra. Swimming in the tropics made it difficult to store food. For nearly ten days, the crew, replacing each other, dealt with sifting ship stocks of flour, in which there were many bugs and larvae. Stocks of cereals were generally unsuitable for consumption. In contrast to this, the products of long-term storage in numerous refrigerators were well preserved. Continuing southeast, 13 August 200 miles north of Carnarvon (Australia), there was a visual contact with an unknown vessel, but Maruschka Detmers, fearing the presence of a number of military ships, ordered not to pursue the stranger. The raider headed back to Ceylon.

August 28 1941, the Germans for the first time after coming out of Norway saw the ground - it was the top of the mountain Boa Boa island Ang, which is located at the south-western coast of Sumatra. The Indian Ocean was deserted - even the flights of a seaplane did not bring results. Only 23 September in the evening watch to the great joy of the crew dying from the monotony found running lights going into the ballast of the vessel. Even though these were signs of neutral, Detmers decided to examine him. The stopped ship turned out to be the Greek "Stamathios G. Ambirikos", going with cargo to Colombo. The crew behaved obediently and did not go on the air. Initially, Detmers wanted to use it as an auxiliary mine layer, but the small amount of coal in the Stamatios bunkers made this problematic. After dark, the Greek was sunk by explosive charges.

The raider cruised in the western Indian Ocean to 29 September. The need for resupply forced the "Cormoran" to meet with the next supply ship. It was "Kulmerland", which 3 came out of Kobe on September. The rendezvous was supposed to take place in the secret point "Marius". Arriving there on October 16, the raider met with the waiting supplier. The auxiliary cruiser received almost 4 thousand tons of diesel fuel, 225 tons of lubricating oil, a large amount of babbitt and provisions, designed for 6 months of sailing. In the opposite direction followed by prisoners, five sick crew members and the post office. "Kulmerland" raider parted with October 25, and the "Cormoran" took another engine repair. When the mechanics reported to Detmers that the machines were in relative order, the frigate-captain again went to the Australian coast to place mine cans at Perth and in Shark Bay. However, the German command reported that a large convoy escaped from Perth under the protection of the heavy cruiser "Cornwall", and the "Cormoran" moved towards Shark Bay.

The same fight

19 November 1941, the weather was great, visibility was great. At around 4 hours in the afternoon, the messenger reported to Detmers, who was in the mess room, that smoke was seen on the horizon. Climb the bridge fregatten captain soon found that it is a military ship, which goes to a meeting of the Raider. The Australian light cruiser Sydney returned home after escorting the Zeeland liner carrying troops to Singapore. “Sydney” has already distinguished itself in combat operations in the Mediterranean, sinking the Italian light cruiser “Bartolomeo Colleoni” in battle at Cape Spada. However, in May 1941, the commander of the light cruiser captain rank 1 John Collins, who had extensive combat experience, he has replaced previously served on the bank of Captain Joseph Burnett 1 rank. In many ways, this probably decided the outcome of a future fight.


Australian light cruiser "Sydney"


"Sydney" was full of warships, a displacement of almost 9 thousand. Tons and armed with eight 152-mm guns, four 102-mm guns, twelve anti-aircraft machine guns. Torpedo armament was eight 533-mm torpedo tubes. On board there was a seaplane. Maruschka Detmers did not lose his presence of mind and ordered to turn south-west, to the sun shone directly into the eyes Australians. Simultaneously, "Cormoran" gave full speed, however, soon diesel No. XXUMX began to act up, and the speed dropped to 4 nodes. About an hour after the raider was discovered, the cruiser approached 14 miles on the starboard side and ordered it to be identified by a searchlight. "Cormoran" gave the correct call sign "Straat Malakka» «RKQI», but it was raised between the pipe and the foremast, with the right to the stern of the cruiser it almost never seen. Then "Sydney" demanded to specify the destination. The Germans replied: "To Batavia," which looked quite believable. In order to confuse their pursuers, the raider’s radio operators began broadcasting distress signals stating that the Dutch ship had been attacked by an “unknown warship”. Meanwhile, the cruiser was approaching - its nose towers were aimed at the pseudo-buyer. Australians periodically transmitted the signal "IK", which in the international code of signals meant "prepare for a hurricane." In fact, the present “Straat Malacca” should have answered “IIKP” according to the secret code of signals. The Germans chose to ignore repeated requests.

Finally, “Sydney” this protracted comedy began to bother, and they signaled: “Enter your secret call sign. Further silence can only worsen the situation. ” Game over. Each Allied merchant ship had its own individual secret code. The Australian cruiser has almost caught up with the Cormoran and was almost on its traverse, at a distance of just over a kilometer. In response to a request in 17 h. 30 min. the raider lowered the dutch flag and raised the battle flag of the kriegsmarine. In record time in six seconds camouflage shields fell. The first shot lay down with the undershoot, and the second volley of three 150-mm and one 37-mm guns landed on the Sydney bridge, destroying its fire control system. Simultaneously with the second salvo, the Germans defused their torpedo tubes. The main caliber of the cruiser began to respond, but the sun was shining in the eyes of the gunners, and he lay down with the flight. Earned 20-mm anti-aircraft guns and heavy machine guns, preventing the crew of the cruiser to take places according to the combat schedule. At such a distance it was difficult to miss, and the Germans threw a projectile behind the projectile in the Sydney. The seaplane was destroyed, then the Cormoran turned the fire on the nose towers of the main caliber - they were soon disabled. Released torpedo struck the nose of the cruiser in front of the nose tower. The bow of the "Sydney" strongly subsided in the water. Fire on the raider led fodder towers, which went on an independent tip. Australians smeared - nevertheless, three shells hit the Cormoran. The first one broke through the pipe, the second one damaged the auxiliary boiler and disabled the fire main. In the engine room started a fire. The third projectile destroyed the transformers of the main diesel engines. The raider's move has sharply decreased.


One of the 150-mm guns of "Cormoran"


The "Sydney" had a lot worse - the cruiser suddenly turned back. It was clear that the cover of tower B had dropped into the sea. The Australian passed some hundred meters behind the stern of the raider - he was all engulfed in fires. Obviously, the steering on it was badly damaged or incapacitated. Opponents exchanged ineffectual torpedo volleys, and Sydney began to move away with the 10 hub move, moving south. The Cormoran was firing at him while the distance allowed. In 18.25, the fight stopped. The position of the raider was critical - the fire was growing. The staff of the engine room struggled with fire until almost all of them were killed, except for one sailor. The fire was approaching the mine hold, where nearly four hundred mines lay, which Kormoran dragged along during the whole hike, but could not get rid of them.

The Fregatten-Captain realized that the ship could not be saved, and ordered to put explosive cartridges near the fuel tanks. On the water began to lower the life rafts and lifeboats. The first lowered raft overturned, causing almost 40 people to drown. In 24 hours, taking the flag of the ship, Detmers was the last to leave the doomed Cormoran. After 10 minutes, explosive cartridges worked, a detonation of mines occurred - a powerful explosion destroyed the raider's stern, and in 0 h. 35 min. Auxiliary cruiser sank. On the water turned out to be more 300 officers and sailors. 80 people died in battle and drowned after overturning a raft. The weather worsened and life-saving equipment scattered across the water. Soon the coastal steamer picked up one boat and reported this to the command of the Australian Navy, which immediately began a rescue operation. Soon all the Germans were found, although some had to spill rattles for about 6 days.


Tower of the main caliber "Sydney". Photos taken by an Australian expedition who discovered the remains of ships


The fate of "Sydney" no news was not, except discarded after two weeks ashore broken lifeboat. Searches that lasted almost 10 days did not yield any results, and the Sydney cruiser was declared 30 on November 1941 of the year dead. For many years the secret of his death remained unsolved. The captured Germans, who had been thoroughly interrogated already on the shore, told of the glow of the fire, which they observed in the place where the cruiser was bursting into flames. Only in March 2008, a special expedition of the Australian Navy discovered the first "Cormoran" and then "Sydney" about 200 miles south-west of Carnarvon. Former opponents lie close to each other - in 20 miles. A layer of water 2,5 kilometers securely covered with its cover of the dead sailors. What events took place in the flaming compartments and decks of the Australian cruiser, how the drama ended, having put this ship to rest at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean, we obviously will never know.
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  1. Pig
    Pig 19 January 2016 06: 56
    16
    "Cormoran" had three hits in total ... little luck ... how much they put into the cruiser no one will know for sure!
    as they say feel the difference between a warship and a cargo ship
    1. ava09
      ava09 23 January 2016 01: 33
      +1
      Quote: Pig
      "Cormoran" had three hits in total ... little luck ... how much they put into the cruiser no one will know for sure!
      as they say feel the difference between a warship and a cargo ship

      Hits to destroy the enemy - the main task of the ship, should be considered not by quantity, but by efficiency. There are frequent cases when a ship riddled with a strainer returned to base and died from one or several successful hits. The German raider definitely won that battle, plus he justified his use in that capacity.
  2. VVK65
    VVK65 19 January 2016 07: 13
    +7
    good article
    1. avt
      avt 19 January 2016 10: 44
      12
      Quote: VVK65
      good article

      Yes, beautiful good It is easy to read and facts are quite densely presented, without exaltation and personal addictions are not felt.
      Quote: Rurikovich
      i.As a rule, such meetings do not bode bright prospects for auxiliary cruisers based on merchant ships. The deaths of "Atlantis" and "Penguin" confirm this.

      Well, something like this - the ships were not initially sharpened for battle.
      Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
      The sinking of the Sydney is a rare accident

      Well, actually - yes, it’s because of
      Quote: Rurikovich
      that people are not fighting ships.

      and, in particular, the careless actions of the commander of Sydney, which can be compared with the commander of Zhemchug, whom Emden let go to the bottom.
      Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
      + surprise factor. The Australians, for obvious reasons, could not shoot first.

      Factor times ... dumbfounded by self-conceit and self-confidence.
      Quote: Rurikovich
      the commander of the Devonshire turned out to be wiser and more experienced than the commander of the Sydney
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Aleksandr72
        Aleksandr72 19 January 2016 11: 16
        10
        Well, I would say that comparing the actions of the Zhemchug and Sydney commanders is somewhat rash: let's start with the fact that the Zhemchug commander altogether left the cruiser ashore, as if there was no war, in the subsequent battle he was practically a ship did not command. This behavior served as an excuse for the crew and the officers of the watch to relax and carry out the service carelessly, in particular, the officer of the watch at the time of the Emden attack was generally peacefully sleeping in his cabin, dressed and ran upstairs to command after the first salvoes of the German cruiser, which practically put an end to the ability of "Pearl" to fight back. And this is the direct fault of the commander of the Russian cruiser.
        The commander of the Australian cruiser had previously been a typical coastal captain, i.e. never commanded ships and his blatant incompetence, bordering on outright stupidity, caused the sinking of "Sydney", well, at least they managed to sink a German. From the very beginning of the meeting with the raider, Barnett commanded the Sydney and gave all the orders that ultimately led the ship to death. So to expose yourself to the attack of an essentially armed steamer - it must be contrived. However, we can judge this battle only from the German point of view - as you know, "Sydney" was almost the only large surface ship that died with the entire crew - no one escaped from it.
        In terms of incompetence, Captain 1st Rank Barnett can only be accompanied by the commanders of two Japanese auxiliary cruisers, who in the Indian Ocean unfortunately met the Dutch tanker Ondina (1x102-mm gun) and the Indian minesweeper Bengal (1x76-mm gun, small-caliber trifle does not count). The Japanese had 8x140-mm guns each, not counting anti-aircraft fines and torpedo tubes and a speed advantage. The outcome of the battle seems to be a foregone conclusion. However, the result of the battle: one Japanese auxiliary cruiser was sunk, the second, having received damage, left the battle. Their opponents, although they were heavily damaged, nevertheless managed to return to their home harbor. By the way, the Dutch and Indians are still arguing over who sank the Japanese auxiliary cruiser: a minesweeper or a tanker.
        This is to the question of how dangerous it is for an armed "merchant" to participate in a sea battle and how the competence and sober assessment of the situation and his own forces by the ship commander affects the outcome of the battle.
        I have the honor.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 19 January 2016 12: 36
          +9
          Quote: Aleksandr72
          This is to the question of how dangerous it is for an armed "merchant" to participate in a sea battle and how the competence and sober assessment of the situation and his own forces by the ship commander affects the outcome of the battle.

          You can also recall the battle of the "former merchant" with the "pure merchant", when the German VSKR "Stir" (nee - the motor ship "Cairo") stumbled upon the American transport "Stephen Hopkins".
          It would seem that for the VSKR, with its 6 * 15 cm and 1 * 7,5 cm guns + torpedo tubes, an ordinary "merchant" armed with only 1 * 102 mm is easy prey. But the then Yankees were not timid - and took the fight. As a result, the Hopkins, engulfed in fire, soon sank. But the "Stir" survived it by only 2 hours: shells from the "Hopkins" set fire to the bow and central fuel tanks, cut off the fuel line (causing diesel generators to stand up) and disabled the fire extinguishing system, which made the BZZh impossible.

          Of the entire crew of Stephen Hopkins, 15 people survived (10 from the civilian team and 5 from the military), who covered 1800 miles by boat to the Brazilian coast. The captain and the first mate refused to leave the ship.
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. Aleksandr72
            Aleksandr72 19 January 2016 12: 49
            +2
            I agree with your comment. It only remains to add to it that Stephen Hopkins was one of the 2,5 Liberty-class transports, whose "strength" of the hull, made essentially on the principle - "if only survived one ocean crossing and paid for itself," is widely known ... But despite the low survivability originally incorporated in the design of the "libertos" (notorious cost savings!), "Stephen Hopkins" long enough to "hold" the hits of German 6-inch shells that its own gunners had time to punish the Teutons for their captain's self-confidence.
            But nevertheless, in this particular case, the Yankees proved to be great. “Stir” in this case also let down the self-confidence of its commander, who underestimated the danger posed by the enemy, for which he paid.
            I have the honor.
            1. Bayonet
              Bayonet 19 January 2016 15: 37
              +3
              Quote: Aleksandr72
              I agree with your comment. It remains only to add to it that Stephen Hopkins was one of 2,5 Liberty-class transports, whose "strength" of the hull, made essentially on the principle - "if only survived one ocean crossing and paid for itself," is widely known
              Liberty Ship is a typical project of a World War II transport ship, according to which 1941 US shipyards built a series of 1945 ships in 18–2751. Liberty were built as “ships for five years”: it was believed that their limitations in terms of speed and maintainability, they will make ships uncompetitive in the post-war world. In fact, Liberty actively served in the convoys of the Korean War and in the civil service until the early 1960s: in the 1950s, shipping companies only earned money with the help of Liberty to upgrade the fleets.
              The Liberty massacre took place in the 1960s; The first-born of the series, Patrick Henry, was broken in 1958.
              As of 2005, there were two Liberty on the move - SS John W. Brown ship museum in Baltimore and SS Jeremiah O'Brien of San Francisco; both are suitable for swimming and periodically go to sea.
              The third surviving Liberty is the Star of Kodiak floating fish factory (Kodiak in Alaska). The hull of one of the Liberty ships was used as the base for the MH-A1 Sturgis. To date, Sturgis (having transformed from a ship into a barge) is in the last parking lot on the James River (USA).
        2. avt
          avt 19 January 2016 14: 59
          0
          Quote: Aleksandr72
          Well, I would say that comparing the actions of the commanders of the "Pearl" and "Sydney" is somewhat rash:

          In both cases, the definition “criminal negligence” is quite suitable, and I know the story of “Pearl”, naturally the story was different.
        3. 78bor1973
          78bor1973 19 January 2016 15: 32
          +1
          The joke itself is that such a rotation of Westerners commanders is still normal practice!
  3. Rurikovich
    Rurikovich 19 January 2016 07: 38
    12
    Again, this excellent article confirms the phrase attributed to Nelson that it is not ships, but people who are fighting. As a rule, such encounters do not bode well for auxiliary cruisers based on merchant ships. The deaths of "Atlantis" and "Penguin" confirm this.
    In this case, the human factor played a role. That's why "Sydney" was at the bottom request
    More than once, the winning battles of the weak against the strong show that you never need to give up, and an attempt to use weather conditions, tricks, and just plain arrogance turns out to be winning. Again, it’s not the ships that fight, but the people ...
    Plus hi
    1. Santa Fe
      Santa Fe 19 January 2016 07: 44
      10
      Quote: Rurikovich
      do not promise bright prospects auxiliary cruisers based on merchant ships

      The legendary raider "Atlantis" sailed sea communications in the waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. The ship spent 622 days on the voyage, during which time it covered 102 nautical miles (000 Earth equators), capturing or sinking 5 ships with a total displacement of more than 144 000 gross tonnes (the best result of all Krigsmarine surface ships)
      that not ships are fighting, but people

      A very primitive representation technology always matters. On the boat against the battleship - weak?

      The sinking of "Sydney" is a rare accident, despite the fact that Cormoran was not weak - otherwise how would he sink a cruiser? His armament consisted of six 150 mm guns, for those who do not know: the explosion of a six-inch high-explosive mine forms a crater on the ground with a depth of 1,5 meters. Apart from other weapons (1 x 75 mm and ten automatic anti-aircraft guns in caliber 20, 37 and 40 mm). And six torpedo tubes. This is a flurry of fire.

      The lack of armor was compensated by the large size of the raider (19 tons versus 000 tons at Sydney) - and this is a great opportunity for the dispersal of equipment + buoyancy. moreover, the light "Sydney" did not have a serious reservation - 7000 mm side and 76 mm deck of the citadel are not an obstacle for six-inch shells. Finally, Sydney only had 35 main guns - 8 more than Cormoran, of the same caliber

      + surprise factor. The Australians, for obvious reasons, could not shoot first. As a result, they started firing simultaneously, inflicting fatal injuries on each other.

      And you say weak versus strong. Burnt Gopnik-rocker with a Finnish against a student-judoka
      1. Rurikovich
        Rurikovich 19 January 2016 07: 53
        +2
        Good morning Oleg hi
        I know about it. But these merits did not prevent Atlantis from going to the bottom of the 203-mm shells of the British cruiser Devonshire wink
        In any case, the commander of the Devonshire turned out to be wiser and more experienced than the commander of the Sydney
        1. Santa Fe
          Santa Fe 19 January 2016 07: 59
          +4
          Good
          Quote: Rurikovich
          these merits did not prevent Atlantis from sinking to the bottom of the 203-mm shells of the British cruiser Devonshire

          A worthy finale for a warship. Sea saboteurs sooner or later were calculated and drowned.

          Or was someone going to live forever?
          1. blizart
            blizart 19 January 2016 08: 25
            +3
            Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
            Good
            Quote: Rurikovich
            these merits did not prevent Atlantis from sinking to the bottom of the 203-mm shells of the British cruiser Devonshire

            A worthy finale for a warship. Sea saboteurs sooner or later were calculated and drowned.

            Or was someone going to live forever?

            By the way, he was calculated due to the indiscipline of one of the crew members, who photographed him from the side during the next disguise. Then, with the prisoners transferred to neutral ports, the picture was leaked to the press, so the appearance of the Atlantis was established, and this is also why the Devonshire was so suspicious.
          2. Rurikovich
            Rurikovich 19 January 2016 08: 25
            +4
            Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
            Sea saboteurs sooner or later were calculated and drowned.

            It all depends on the task. Formally, the trade raiders went on their campaigns as kamikaze judges, for the task was to sink as much as possible and inflict maximum damage. Those. it was known beforehand that they had been sentenced. Only those who stopped their activities survived. Therefore, those who "worked" to the end perished. So what else can you argue ...

            Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
            A very primitive idea, technology always matters. On the boat against the battleship - weak?

            No need to complicate simple things with calculations of a technical nature, followed by overflow from empty to empty. We are talking about the battle of a WAR ship intended for combat functions, and TORGASH, which, due to objective and subjective reasons, ended up in military service. And in this case, the dimensions do not matter. What matters is the quality of the commanders who, to varying degrees, took advantage of the situation.
            Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
            + surprise factor. The Australians, for obvious reasons, could not shoot first. As a result, they started firing simultaneously, inflicting fatal injuries on each other.

            You yourself answered your own question. the surprise factor does not imply superiority in displacement or weapons. Be the Sydney commander a hardened wolf wink , he would never allow such a rapprochement and would not buy into the tricks of the enemy. The advantage in speed and armament and a lot of time allowed the cruiser to achieve recognition and destroy the raider on its own terms. Fight, OLEG, NOT SHIPS, BUT PEOPLE!
            1. Santa Fe
              Santa Fe 19 January 2016 08: 44
              +1
              Quote: Rurikovich
              A MILITARY ship intended for combat functions, and a TRADER who

              was also intended for battle functions

              Six guns of the same caliber as Sydney’s, ten anti-aircraft guns, six torpedo tubes. 400 man of the kriegsmarine crew - 12 times more than the crew of an ordinary bulk carrier
              Quote: Rurikovich
              Only the quality of the commanders matters

              Well, we’ll put the experienced rear admiral in the boat and send against the battleship.
              Since everything else doesn't matter
              Quote: Rurikovich
              You yourself answered your own question. surprise factor

              Just one of the factors that influenced the results of the battle
              And it’s more correct to call it - a fact of uncertainty, Australopithecus until the last minute could not understand in front of them a friend or an enemy.
              Quote: Rurikovich
              The advantage in speed and armament and a lot of time allowed the cruiser to achieve recognition and destroy the raider on its own terms.

              IFF systems in those days it did not set
              Quote: Rurikovich
              . Those. it was known in advance that they were sentenced.

              This somehow contradicts my words about naval saboteurs, who sooner or later calculated and drowned
              Quote: Rurikovich
              Fight, OLEG, NOT SHIPS, BUT PEOPLE!

              Hush! Wake everyone in the morning
              1. Rurikovich
                Rurikovich 19 January 2016 09: 03
                +2
                Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                Well, we’ll put the experienced rear admiral in the boat and send against the battleship.
                Since everything else doesn't matter

                Do not exaggerate - this is how only children in the kindergarten think wink
                Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                Just one of the factors that influenced the results of the battle
                And it’s more correct to call it - a fact of uncertainty, Australopithecus until the last minute could not understand in front of them a friend or an enemy.

                Nobody drove them into the back, it was possible to calmly and persistently figure everything out, avoiding dangerous proximity
                Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                IFF systems in those days it did not set

                You love to play with numbers. The weight of the metal emitted by the Sydney out of eight barrels will be greater than the weight of the metal emitted by the Cormoran out of the three. So it was only a matter of time before sinking the raider at long range. And no systems were needed. you just need to use the characteristics of the ship and not allow leveling by surprise and other conditions of battle

                Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                This somehow contradicts my words about naval saboteurs, who sooner or later calculated and drowned

                This does not contradict. Do not take phrases out of context. I said that those who go to the end die. Who does not go to the end - has a chance to survive. But the task cannot be completed. And this is contrary to the order. BUT does not die the one who does not go to the end (in those conditions of war)
                Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                Hush! Wake everyone in the morning

                I don’t want to wake everyone, but I just want to shout to you that people do not always fight numbers with equipment and comparisons, but people wink
                Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                was also intended for battle functions

                It is intended to sink merchant ships, and not to confront really warships that can sink their own kind, for which any merchant ship is only a merchant ship, albeit armed with a couple of more or less normal guns! You just need to use the characteristics of your ship, not sleep and not think that what you see before your eyes is actually what you think. This is war.
              2. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA 19 January 2016 13: 33
                +1
                Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN

                IFF systems in those days it did not set

                Just the IFF system was. Primitive, but it was.
                It was simply implemented not in hardware, in the form of a product, but in software, in the form of conditional codes and signals. smile
                The Australians periodically transmitted the IK signal, which, according to the international code of signals, meant "prepare for the hurricane." In fact, the real "Stratum Malacca" should have answered "IIKP" according to a secret set of signals. The Germans preferred to ignore repeated requests.
                Finally, Sydney began to get bored of this prolonged comedy, and they signaled from it: “Indicate your secret call sign. Further silence can only worsen the situation. ”

                The problem is that "Sydney" approached the German by 5 kbt to getting the right review.
      2. blizart
        blizart 19 January 2016 08: 18
        +7
        (the best result of all Kriegsmarine surface ships)
        Even if not for this, then one "Durmitor" would have covered him with unfading glory. It captured top secret detailed plans for the defense of Singapore, which were then transferred to the Japanese. This largely explains how quickly he fell. By the way, the Germans appointed not only trained captains to such raiders, but also, oddly enough, those who were lucky. Here, too, with the first shot, all eight (!) British officers of the fleet, each of whom had an order to destroy documents at the slightest danger, were killed. By the way, 900 tons of eggs were seized on the aforementioned "Duquesne", almost all the German raiders who were operating at that time overate themselves, and they ate them already upon arrival in Germany, where by that time such delicacies were only on ration cards.
      3. Rurikovich
        Rurikovich 19 January 2016 08: 30
        +5
        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        Finally, that Sydney had only 8 GK guns - 2 more than on Cormoran, of the same caliber

        At the same time, YOU wouldn’t know that EVERYONE was shooting on board at the Sydney, while at the Cormoran only half - 3! Almost threefold advantage plus choice of distance! Oleg, I have been studying the history of the fleet for 20 years, this issue will not work with me. This youngster can hang noodles with numbers games.
        In this battle, the human factor played a decisive role! wink hi
        1. Santa Fe
          Santa Fe 19 January 2016 10: 05
          +2
          Quote: Rurikovich
          and the "Cormoran" only half - 3!

          4, you have been in the history of the fleet for twenty years

          Quote: Rurikovich
          In this battle, the human factor played a decisive role!

          In this - yes

          In all the rest - technology. Raiders had no chance against heavy cruisers
          1. Rurikovich
            Rurikovich 19 January 2016 10: 35
            +2
            Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
            4, you have been in the history of the fleet for twenty years

            I did not have to look for a blueprint of each ship, so I proceeded from general data and analysis of what I had. On Atlansis, three out of six fired on board, so one could assume a more uniform placement of guns. Thanks for the scheme. BUT this does not change the essence of the matter - 4 guns on board a merchant ship against 8 warships is not the advantage that can lead to victory at combat distances acceptable for Sydney, plus the ability to choose a distance. So whatever one may say in terms of technology and comparison characteristics raider lost. Draw only thanks to the human factor.
            Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
            In all the rest - technology. Raiders had no chance against heavy cruisers

            The battle of the tanker "Undine" (1-102mm) and the minesweeper "Bengal" (1-76mm) against two Japanese auxiliary cruisers (16-140mm guns for two) does not seem like a technical advantage. Even if the Japanese are not warships, the superiority in firepower is much greater than the difference between Sydney and Cormoran. wink
            1. Santa Fe
              Santa Fe 19 January 2016 10: 54
              0
              Quote: Rurikovich
              ... On "Atlansis" three out of six shot on board

              Four


              Quote: Rurikovich
              So whatever one may say in terms of technology and comparison of characteristics, the raider lost

              That is, the technique still matters?
              Quote: Rurikovich
              The battle of the tanker "Undine" (1-102mm) and the minesweeper "Bengal" (1-76mm) against two Japanese auxiliary cruisers (16-140mm guns for two) does not seem like a technical advantage.

              Bengal was lucky, escaped under the guise of a smoke curtain

              "Ondina" was riddled,

              Aikoku Maru from 3, 5 km hit Ondina with two shells in the bow and two in the superstructure, causing fires. The tanker fired back, but the last of the small ammunition of 102-mm shells was soon shot. The captain of the “Ondiny” ordered to lower the flag, stall the car and leave the ship. Almost immediately after this order, V. Horsman died on the bridge of his ship, struck by fragments of an exploding Japanese shell.

              The Ondine crew got into lowered boats and moved away from the tanker. Approaching him at 400 meters, The Aikoku Maru launched two torpedoes at Ondina, which made large holes in the starboard side. After that, the Japanese fired machine guns on the Ondina boats and rescued the Hokoku Maru crew. 278 people were taken aboard the Aikoku, 76 Japanese, including the captain of the Hokoku Imasato, were killed. Then the raider returned to the “Ondine” banked at 30 degrees and fired a torpedo into it, which passed by. Deciding that the tanker would soon sink, the Aikoku Maru withdrew, leaving the crew of Ondina to certain death in boats in the ocean.

              It did not sink just because the tanker has a large reserve of buoyancy

              the only accident of that story - 102 mm shell from Ondina hit an unprotected torpedo tube
      4. Pig
        Pig 19 January 2016 08: 30
        +5
        + surprise factor
        rather a factor of disorder! for several hours (!) begged for callsigns - they broke a comedy and still managed to "substitute" ...
        "The lack of armor was compensated by the large size of the raider (19 tons versus 000 tons near Sydney) - and this is great opportunities for the dispersal of equipment + buoyancy reserve"
        it is easier to hit a 19000 ton colossus! even the disgustingly trained Sydney gunners managed to hit! and 3 hits were enough and no "buoyancy reserve" helped!
        sloppiness in the war leads to such incidents here - the cargo ship-raider stumbled on the battle cruiser ...
        1. Santa Fe
          Santa Fe 19 January 2016 08: 34
          0
          Quote: Pig
          ! a few hours (!) asked for the callsigns -

          Let's see how many hours you manage as a signalman
          Quote: Pig
          it’s easier to get into the 19000 tonne engine

          Sydney had a large body length, if that
          Quote: Pig
          sloppiness in war leads to such incidents

          Sloppiness? What would you do? Drowned everyone in a row?
          1. Pig
            Pig 19 January 2016 08: 55
            +3
            "Let's see how many hours it will take you as a signalman."
            Well, it's me ... and there were specially trained people there
            "Sydney had a long hull, if that"
            what?
            "Sloppiness? What would you do? Drowned everyone in a row?"
            there are rules for the inspection of ships in wartime ... on "Sydney" they violated everything that could be violated ... if this is not sloppiness, then what?
            1. Santa Fe
              Santa Fe 19 January 2016 10: 14
              -2
              Quote: Pig
              and there were specially trained people there

              Well, then what do you blame them for, not knowing either the standards, the intervals, or the sequence of requests
              immediately to criticism:
              Quote: Pig
              rather a factor of disorder!

              Quote: Pig
              what?

              So, according to your logic, it’s easier to get into it, standing to him on board.
              "it's easier to hit the colossus"
              Quote: Pig
              on Sydney they violated everything that could be violated ..

              all the same, they were in their guards, although, no doubt, they came too quickly. Inexperienced

              but the fact remains - the fight between Cormoran and Sydney is not a victory of the "weak over the strong". The raider was no less dangerous and "toothy".

              Sydney’s constructive defense made its way through six inches through - that is, the first salvo was already dangerous for him. And in conditions when a warship needed to approach close range and within an hour try to distinguish a masked raider from a civilian cargo ship (that is, losing an advantage in range and speed) - in such conditions, hunting for a raider turned into a deadly game .
              1. Pig
                Pig 19 January 2016 11: 05
                +4
                "" is not a victory of the "weak over the strong". The raider was no less dangerous and "toothy" ""
                Do you seriously consider these ships to be militarily equivalent?
                this is ridiculous...
                only the flagrant cruelty of the cruiser commander made the Germans possible and even conditional because even a half-broken (not three shells hit him!) cruiser was able to deliver a fatal blow to the raider
                "" So, according to your logic, it is easier to get into it, standing on the side of it ""
                but your not? what do you think is easier to get into: a long and low warship or a short merchant with a high (19000 vs. 7000) profile?
                "" they were still in their waterways, although, no doubt, they came too quickly. Inexperienced ""
                during the war there is no difference! all the more, the ship has already participated in the hostilities and, of course, there were quite experienced people on it ... and even their guns were not uncovered ... what can I say?
                the captain is worthy of the tribunal if he had survived
                1. Santa Fe
                  Santa Fe 19 January 2016 11: 15
                  +1
                  Quote: Pig
                  Do you seriously consider these ships to be militarily equivalent?

                  Equally - this is with you

                  I said that the superiority of a light cruiser over a raider was not as great as it is customary to imagine (six guns of the GK, 10 anti-aircraft guns, 6 torpedo tubes, 400 man crew + larger sizes)

                  And taking into account the specifics of the application, that superiority was generally minimal. The raider could shoot at any time, at any time - the cruiser, only making sure that under the guise of transport the enemy.
                  1. xan
                    xan 19 January 2016 14: 38
                    0
                    Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                    And taking into account the specifics of the application, that superiority was generally minimal. The raider could shoot at any time, at any time - the cruiser, only making sure that under the guise of transport the enemy.

                    And what prevented the cruiser from taking the raider on the fly immediately from all the guns? Moreover, the situation was suspicious. From such a distance you can hit without firing control.
                    In war, carelessness is a crime.
          2. Rurikovich
            Rurikovich 19 January 2016 09: 19
            +3
            Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
            Quote: Pig
            ! a few hours (!) asked for the callsigns -
            Let's see how many hours you manage as a signalman

            The key point in this case was the request for a secret code. And this, in fact, revealed the raider. It’s only possible to request this code at a greater distance, excluding direct fire, and not in kilometer proximity, when the one who shoots first has an advantage. So there is the negligence of the commander, not taking into account all possible scenarios and allowing such conditions to start the battle , allowing to cause damage to their ship, leading to further death.
          3. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 19 January 2016 13: 43
            +3
            Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
            Sloppiness? What would you do? Drowned everyone in a row?

            Why drown. You just don’t have to go 5 kbt to a vessel that didn’t give the correct response to the “friend or foe” request. Moreover, to be abeam - in the sectors of shelling of most of the guns + TA.

            The Sydney commander should have known about the armament of the German VSKR and his own defenselessness against its shells - the Germans put 15-cm guns on the raiders in WWI. The only chance was to maintain a distance, taking advantage of the advantage of the SUAO KRL over the VSKR.
  4. Santa Fe
    Santa Fe 19 January 2016 07: 41
    +2
    HSK Komet - German auxiliary cruiser during the Second World War, HSK-7, according to British reports Raider "B"



    In the summer of 1940, with the assistance of the USSR, it passed the Northern Sea Route from the North Sea to the Bering Strait and further to the Pacific Ocean. In 1940 — 1941, he led combat operations on the Allied sea lanes in the Pacific in the region of Australia and Oceania. The tonnage of the ships of the Anti-Hitler coalition sunk and captured by it amounted to 42 000 gross.
  5. parusnik
    parusnik 19 January 2016 08: 11
    +3
    Continuation of the series, about the German raiders .. Thank you, Denis! Great article ..
  6. Nikita Orlov
    Nikita Orlov 19 January 2016 09: 39
    0
    As a child, the book "Ships and Battles" was literally read out. Today I experienced the same, very detailed and interesting article. Thanks to the author.
  7. VohaAhov
    VohaAhov 19 January 2016 10: 02
    +5
    Small statistics on "Cormoran"
    Sank and captured 12 enemy ships and ships (68274 gross):
    1. Freight ship “Antonis” (Greece) 6.01.41 (3729 gb) (cargo-coal)
    2. The diesel tanker "British Union" (England, 1927) 18.01.41/6987/46 (36 brt) (XNUMX people were killed, captured - XNUMX)
    3. Refrigerated steamer "African Star" (England, 1926) 29.01.41/11900/5708 (1 gt) (cargo - 76 tons of meat) (XNUMX person died, XNUMX were taken prisoner)
    4. The cargo ship "Evrilokh" (England, 1912) 29.01.41/5723/16 (15 gt) (together with the ship 38 heavy bombers were destroyed) (XNUMX people were killed, captured - XNUMX)
    5. Diesel tanker Egnita (England, 1931) 22.03.41/3552/38 (XNUMX gross vehicles) (in ballast) (XNUMX people taken prisoner)
    6. Diesel tanker Canadolight (Canada) 25.03.41/11309/XNUMX (XNUMX gross) (in ballast) (Captured as a prize)
    7. Cargo ship (dry cargo ship) “Craftsman” (England, 1922) 9.04.41/8022/6 (46 gross vehicles) (cargo - large anti-submarine network) (XNUMX people were killed, XNUMX were taken prisoner)
    8. The cargo ship "Nicholas D.L." (Greece) 12.04.41/5486/XNUMX (XNUMX gt) (cargo - timber forest)
    9. Freight ship (dry cargo ship) “Velebit” (Yugoslavia) 26.06.41/4153/XNUMX (XNUMX gt) (in ballast)
    10. The cargo ship Mariba (England, 1921) 26.06.41/3472/5000 (26 gt) (cargo - 25 tons of sugar) (XNUMX people were killed, XNUMX were taken prisoner)
    11. The cargo ship "Stamatios Embyricos" (Greece) 26.09.41/3941/XNUMX (XNUMX gross)
    12. L. kr-r "Sydney" (Australia, 1935) 19.11.41/6830/9275 (171,4/17,3 t., 5,8x72000x32,5 m., 4 hp, 2 knots, 152x4-1 mm, 102x3-4 mm, 12,7x2-4 mm, 533x645-XNUMX mm TA) (XNUMX people were killed.)
  8. tolancop
    tolancop 19 January 2016 10: 13
    +4
    I read about the duel between "Cormoran" and "Sydney" in the distant 70s in the magazine "Tekhnika-Molodezhi". And in one detail, the description and this material differ: then it was written that the "Sydney" approached the "Cormoran" without holding it in sight, in fact with the towers turned away. And the battle of "Devonshire", by the way, was described there for completeness.
    And the conclusion was simple: the commander of "Sydney" showed criminal negligence, which led to the death of people and combat units. On the contrary, the commander of the Devonshire acted in full accordance with the instructions, as the situation dictated, and the result was qualitatively different.
    1. Rurikovich
      Rurikovich 19 January 2016 10: 39
      +2
      Well I say - the human factor drinks
    2. Looking for
      Looking for 20 January 2016 14: 58
      -1
      I completely agree with you. It’s not for nothing that they say “the charter is written in blood”.
  9. Pomeranian
    Pomeranian 19 January 2016 10: 43
    +5
    The grimace of fate. "Kormoran" - namesake of its raider of the First World War (the former Russian Dobroflot steamer "Ryazan", captured by the cruiser "Emden" in the summer of 1914). Sydney is the name of the Australian cruiser that sank the Emden off the Cocos Islands. Cormoran drowns Sydney. Mysticism, however!
  10. Plombirator
    19 January 2016 10: 57
    +2
    In many respects, the human factor played - the story with "Sydney" the Australians collected piece by piece. Commander Barnett did not even report to the base about the unknown ship that he was going to inspect. The Germans were not at a loss. For example, on February 27, 1941, near the Maldives, a New Zealand cruiser "Linder" discovered an unknown ship. Like the "Sydney", he approached him at a distance of 2,5 km and demanded to identify himself. First, the stranger broke a comedy posing as an Englishman, and then raised an Italian battle flag. As it turned out, it was Italian auxiliary cruiser "Ramb-1", which left the besieged by the British Massawa (Italian East Africa). The careless New Zealanders were saved only by the raider's weak armament - only two 120 mm guns. And then the "Linder" was hit a couple of times. The cruiser made five volleys and the enemy did not wishing to seize fate, he lowered the flag and took his places in the boats. She flooded "Ramb I" with subversive charges. Carelessness - she's like that. "Linder" was lucky in many ways - he escaped trouble.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 19 January 2016 13: 46
      +2
      Quote: Plombirator
      Like "Sydney", he approached him at a distance of 2,5 km and demanded to identify himself.

      Uh-uh no. The Linder commander was nevertheless more cautious than the Sydney commander:
      The Australian cruiser had almost caught up with the Cormoran and was almost on its traverse, at a distance of just over a kilometer.

      14 cable distances in the case of the "Linder" gave a chance for visual identification, but already made it difficult for the raider to aim fire.
  11. Santor
    Santor 19 January 2016 16: 47
    +4
    The Sydney commander was stupid, but where were those on the bridge looking? After all, there were experienced sailors who had already taken part in sea battles.

    Second, there was a notification about the presence of the raider. In a similar situation, the commander of the "Devonshire" lifted the plane and he brought on board photographs of the ship.

    The Devonshire is a London-class ship, the first series of 4 built since the Washington Agreement. The sailors themselves called it cardboard. I will not cite the performance characteristics, but side armor 25 mm and 35 mm traverse is something ... At the same time, 8 eight-inches and the proud name of a heavy cruiser. Yes, it was dangerous for him to compete in hits with destroyers, especially French leaders like "Mogador".



    Knowing the "peculiarities" of his ship, Captain 1st Rank Oliver raised as I wrote a seaplane (there was the same on the "Sydney"), he noticed a spot, but it was too early to draw conclusions. But Oliver, having requested the call signs and identification, gave the order to stop and backed up his demand with two "suitcases" along the course. And immediately contacted Freetown where the traffic control center was located and requested all the data on the Dutch merchant, which presented his ship to Roge ... Having received an answer and also taking into account the direction of the senior assistant that the stern contours of the "Dutchman" strongly resemble the stern of Atlantis, Oliver gave the command to circulate and opened fire from a distance beyond the reach of the enemy. After the sinking, despite the desire of the command staff to pick up the prisoners, he left the area at full speed, suspecting that an oil slick could have formed during the transfer of fuel to the submarine. As it really was. just the submarine command was taking a shower on the raider at that very moment :)))

    The commander acted as expected. No independence. The Sydney commander did none of this.
    1. Looking for
      Looking for 20 January 2016 15: 07
      0
      Excuse me. And what's on the bridge of the collective farm warship? There. What are the orders of the commander discussed? The principle of one-man command is "alpha and omega" - any army and navy at all times.
  12. aba
    aba 19 January 2016 18: 04
    +1
    Interesting article!
    How many more unknown spots in WWII history for most people.
  13. polkovnik manuch
    polkovnik manuch 19 January 2016 20: 25
    +1
    It was nice to read both the article and the comments.
  14. ALEA IACTA EST
    ALEA IACTA EST 19 January 2016 21: 48
    +1
    Very interesting. good
  15. Taoist
    Taoist 20 January 2016 10: 47
    +1
    I never thought that a dispute would flare up here too ... you still argue about whether the "Ravalnipidi" "Scharnhorst" could sink. laughing

    The fact that the commander of Sydney has violated all conceivable and inconceivable instructions of the charters and rules is obvious in my opinion. He would still come to the board altogether - say hello.

    Well, as for examples and arguments ... well, it is worth making corrections for "inevitable accidents at sea." the same famous minesweeper "Bengal" managed to fight off two raiders with a completely unrealistic balance of forces:

    "16 140-mm guns, 8 torpedo tubes and even 4 seaplanes - and all this against the only 76-mm cannon of the minesweeper. The displacement of the opponents differed almost 50 times!" Bengal was not able to evade the battle: the Japanese had superior speed stroke by 5 knots. "(s)
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Aleksandr72
      Aleksandr72 20 January 2016 14: 01
      +1
      You did not mention the Dutch tanker Ondina with its only 102-mm cannon - it was the Bengal minesweeper who accompanied it.
      This time, the Dutch proved themselves to be real sailors - worthy successors of De Ruyter's traditions. "Ondina" fired at the Japanese VSKR from her cannon, even after receiving serious damage, and then managed to reach the port. By the way, the Dutch are still arguing with the Indians who drowned the Japanese auxiliary cruiser - their "Ondina" or "Bengal".
      In any case, in this battle, both the Dutch and Indians showed themselves to be real brave ones, having managed to emerge victorious from the battle with a monstrous inequality of forces.
      The reason - the commanders of the Japanese VSKR underestimated the enemy, or rather even neglected his ability and desire to resist, as a result, a well-deserved punishment - one sunken Japanese VSKR and the second damaged in battle.
      I have the honor.