The victory of one state or group of states over another is achieved not only on the battlefield, but also economic, political, informational weapons. If the term “victory” and “weapon” is used, then it is appropriate to use the term “war”. And for any war, three things are needed: money, money, and again money. This is how Marshal Jan-Jacopo Trivoulzio (1448 – 1518) allegedly answered the question of Louis XII, what preparations are needed to conquer the Duchy of Milan.
The goal of the economic, political, information war unleashed against Russia is to change the state’s foreign policy through a change in the ruling elite through the implementation of the color revolution scenario. According to the Secretary of the Security Council of Russia, Nikolai Patrushev, taking into account the European and Asian-Pacific main directions of American economic expansion in the plans of the administration, the creation under its own auspices of free trade zones with the European Union and the APR countries. "At the same time, in Washington they cannot but realize that with the current approach of the United States to the solution of these tasks, a confrontation with Russia and China will be inevitable."
Nikolai Patrushev in one of his interviews said: “The US administration hopes that the anti-Russian measures taken will lead to a deterioration in the quality of life of the population, entail massive protests, and this will push Russian citizens to change the current leadership using color revolutions scenarios.
It is noteworthy that today, for the first time, Washington openly lays in its state budget expenditures on countering Russia. ”
Until recently, no government has officially recognized the financing of the opposition, protest movement and color revolutions in the neighboring or any other country. However, this does not mean that they are not interested in creating comfortable conditions for the implementation of their foreign policy and economic plans. In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, such objects of attention for the USA and the EU are the states that gained independence after the collapse of the USSR. Russia is of particular interest to the United States and the largest participants in foreign economic activity from Western Europe, for them Russia is not only a trading partner, but also a competitor at the same time. The attention of the West has also been awarded to Belarus, Georgia and Ukraine, for which the main goal is to “tear off” their economy and politics from Russia and the CIS as a whole.
AMERICAN BUDGET OF "DEMOCRATIZATION" OF RUSSIA
The primary and largest sources of financing the “democratization” of the states of the former USSR are the state budgets of the United States and Great Britain, the budget of the European Union and its member states.
In the US, funds are distributed among governmental and non-governmental non-profit organizations (NPOs) involved in organizing and financing opposition movements in the former USSR through executive agencies such as the US Department of State and International Development Agency (USAID). USAID's financial capabilities can be judged from the report prepared by the US Court of Auditors on the effectiveness of the Agency's 10 projects to help Russia, implemented in the 1990 – 1994 years. The report, published by 3 in August 1995, shows the amount of 64,6 million dollars. Note that this is only for 10 projects and only in Russia, and the USAID implements more than 1 thousands of projects all over the world.
In September 2012, the Russian Foreign Ministry officially notified the American side that USAID activities in the Russian Federation should be stopped from October 1 of the current year. The essence of Moscow’s claims to the organization 19 of September, 2012, was announced by the representative of the Russian Foreign Ministry Alexander Lukashevich: “This decision was primarily due to the fact that the nature of the agency’s representatives in our country did not always meet the stated goals of promoting bilateral humanitarian cooperation. It is about trying to influence through the distribution of grants to political processes, including elections at various levels, and the institutions of civil society. AMP activity in the Russian regions, especially in the North Caucasus, raised serious questions, which we repeatedly warned our American colleagues. ”
Thus, USAID was forced to curtail its activities in Russia. But this does not mean that the US Department of State refused to finance the Russian opposition. “Although USAID’s physical presence in Russia has come to an end, we are still committed to supporting democracy, human rights, and developing a healthy civil society in Russia. We seek to continue cooperation with Russian non-governmental organizations, ”said Victoria Nuland, a spokeswoman for the US Department of State.
At the briefing, she called the total cost. “Over the past 20 years of work in Russia, USAID has provided about 2,7 billion dollars for programs of various kinds,” said Nuland.
The largest recipient of budget funds through USAID is the National Endowment for Democracy (NED). Its annual budget is constantly growing. In May, the Senate Appropriations Committee recommended that Congress in the 2012 fiscal year allocate even more funds to the NED under the head of the Department of Foreign Operations and Relevant Programs — 2013 million dollars, of which 236 million dollars “should be allocated in the traditional and in the usual way, as in previous financial years, to include the main institutions. ”
NED is also funded from private foundations such as the Smith Richardson Foundation, the John M. Olin Foundation, and the Lind and Harry Bradley Foundation. For example, in the period from 1987 to 2005, these organizations transferred about $ 2 million to the National Endowment for Democracy. The sources of funding for these funds, in turn, are deductions from the income of inclusive companies from the performance of government contracts.
As follows from the USAID materials, about half of the NED budget spends on the activities of four associated organizations:
1) American Center for International Labor Solidarity (ACILS), better known as Solidarity Center of the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Unions (AFL-CIO);
2) Center for International Private Enterprise (Center for International Private Enterprise CIPE);
3) International Republican Institute (IRI);
4) National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (National Democratic Institute for International Affairs - NDIFIA, also NDI).
The price of freedom is 5 billion dollars. Photo author
All of them have their offices in Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova and Ukraine. Additionally, in addition to these four countries, CIPE has offices in Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. IRI has offices in Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Each of the offices or representative offices is a distribution point between the NGOs of the country in which it operates.
In 2001, Alexander Domrin, at that time a visiting professor at the Law School of the University of Iowa, in Dipkurier (supplement to the Nezavisimaya Gazeta) published an article “Sad история American Assistance to Moscow, ”in which he cited data from the report of the General Control Office of the US Congress that during the 1992 – 1997 period, the USAID budget in the framework of financing the IRI and NDI programs sent 17,4 million to provide assistance to the reformist political parties in strengthening their organizational structures and strengthening their role in elections "in Russia.
Each year, NED provides financial assistance to hundreds of non-governmental organizations around the world. NED, as noted on its website, is awaiting applications from organizations operating in countries with different systems, including the newly proclaimed democracy, semi-authoritarian regime, repressive system, and countries switching to democratic rails. In the 2010 year, the National Fund of various political and scientific projects in Russia amounted to about 2,8 million, and in the 2012 year - 3 million.
The recipients of this money include independent organizations that monitor election irregularities, and the Russian office of the American National Democratic Institute (NDI), which is closely associated with the NED.
The NDI budget receives contributions from governments of more than 20 states, numerous foreign foundations, corporations and organizations. As of the second half of October 2015, the budget of the NDI, according to the data published by him, received 7,7 million euros. Among donors are the well-known in Russia energy company Chevron Corporation, Facebook, Herbalife, Coca-Cola Company, Visa Inc. etc. Without exaggeration, we can say that when a person buys a Herbalife or Coca-Cola, carries out a transaction with his Visa bank card - he participates in financing the protest movement in Russia.
In 2012, the NDI office in Russia was closed. However, the institute continued to work with partner organizations that are interested in international experience and practices of monitoring the political process, strengthening civil and political organizations and supporting initiatives to increase civic participation in socio-political processes at the regional level.
The closure of the NDI office in Moscow had little effect on the activities of NED in Russia. Using the opportunities of Russian-controlled commercial and non-profit organizations, NED participated in recognizing the illegitimate results of election campaigns, organizing political actions to influence decisions made by authorities, and discredit service in the Russian Armed Forces.
In 2013 – 2014, NED, according to the General Prosecutor’s Office of the Russian Federation, provided Russian commercial and non-profit organizations with financial assistance in the amount of about $ 5,2 million. Considering the general direction of the foundation’s activities, the prosecutor’s office concluded that NED poses a threat to the fundamentals of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation, defense and security of the state. By order of the Ministry of Justice of Russia No. 1076-p of July 29 2015, the National Endowment for Democracy was included in the list of foreign and international non-governmental organizations whose activities were considered undesirable in the territory of the Russian Federation.
As of 26 in November of 2015, 87 NCOs were listed in the register of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation as a foreign agent, that is, receiving financial and material resources from foreign sources.
On the websites of the US embassies in Ashgabat, Bishkek, Dushanbe, Kiev, Minsk and other capitals of the states formed in the post-Soviet space, grants in 30 thousand dollars are offered to opposition public organizations for conducting protest work in their countries.
Foreign state organizations that participate in the information support of protest movements in the countries of the former USSR also receive budget financing. Among them - the Board of Governors of the United States (Broadcasting Board of Governors - BBG). Through this independent federal agency, the US government controls the international media - Voice of America, Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty, Broadcast Management in Cuba, Radio Free Asia, and the Middle Eastern radio broadcasting network.
In February, 2015, Secretary of State John Kerry, asked Congress to allocate more money to “promote democracy” around the world. “Russia today (as in the original. -“ NG ”) can be heard in English, do we have an equivalent that can be heard in Russian?” According to Kerry, 639 million dollars were needed, “to help our friends in Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova, as they seek to strengthen their democracies, withstand pressure from Russia and more closely integrate into Europe. ”
The nature of the BBG’s activities in relation to Russia can be judged by the BBG budget request to the US Congress for the 2016 fiscal year. In March, 2015, the Agency asked 27,8 million for the implementation of five major projects, including: for the opposition of the IG - 6,1 million dollars and for the “opposition of revanchist Russia” - 15,4 million. That is, “revanchism” of Russia in the BBG price scale two and a half times more dangerous for the United States than the IG.
Speaking to the House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Committee on March 3, 2015, US Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs Victoria Nuland said the State Department would significantly increase funding for the fight against “Kremlin propaganda that is poisoning the minds of all of Russia, its periphery and all of Europe.” . In 2015, the US Broadcasting Council increased funding for programs in Russian by 49% compared to 2014, bringing it to $ 23,2 million. In addition, the Department of State granted the request for an additional $ 20 million to “increase efforts.” fight against lies ”- meaning“ Kremlin propaganda ”. According to Nuland, part of the funds will be used to support student exchange programs and encourage a group of civic activists. But most of the money will be spent on training Russian-language journalists and providing them with access to factual issues. News. In addition to increasing the budget for the Broadcasting Council of the United States, Congress approved $ 10 million in support for Russian-language media in Eastern Europe. This decision was made in accordance with the law on the support of freedom of Ukraine.
EUROPEAN CONTRIBUTION TO CIVIL SOCIETY
In the United Kingdom, funding for the “democratization” of the countries of Eastern Europe and the former USSR is carried out through the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) and the Department for International Development (DID) of the United Kingdom.
23 in November 2015 of the UK Government announced the five-year National Security Strategy and Strategic Defense and Security Review 2015 - SDSR-2015. The previous similar document was adopted in 2010 year (SDSR-2010).
In the preface to SDSR-2015, Prime Minister David Cameron promised that the country would use its huge development budget and its soft power to promote British values. The SDSR-2015 emphasizes that London will continue to use soft power to promote British "values and interests." To this end, in particular, it is planned to expand the broadcasting of the BBC World Service Corporation to the territory of Russia, as well as the DPRK, the countries of the Middle East, Southeast Asia and Africa. The increase in funding for the BBC is spelled out in the document as a separate line. From 2017 – 2018 to the development of digital, television and radio products of the World Service, 85 million pounds sterling (130 million dollars) will be allocated annually.
The cult of nationalism is well cultivated in Western investment. Photo author
According to the corporation itself, in 2016 – 2017, funding will amount to 34 million pounds sterling (51,5 million dollars). In September, BBC, speaking of plans to intensify broadcasting to Russia, announced an expansion of its presence on the Internet on platforms such as Russian-speaking. YouTube segment and its Russian counterpart RuTube. At the same time it was said that an “assessment of the economic feasibility of creating a satellite television channel for Russia” would be carried out.
The Westminster Foundation for Democracy (WFD) is closely associated with the FCO and DID, which is why Western researchers point out its “quasi-governmental nature”. The fund was created following the model of the American NED to promote the development of democratic institutions abroad and is registered as a limited liability company. WFD receives funding from the FCO and DID. WFD reports on budget spending to the UK Parliament, which it openly declares on its official website.
In the European Union, the source of funding for “promoting democracy” is its highest executive body - the European Commission. Here, an analogue of the NED is the European Endowment for Democracy (European Endowment for Democracy - EED), designed to support democratic changes in the countries of the eastern and southern neighborhood of the European Union. EEV provides financial grants to journalists, bloggers, unregistered NGOs, as well as political movements, including those in exile. In 2015, the Foundation financed 155 initiatives that focus on “supporting democratic movements” in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine, and some other countries. Financial injections from the EED can vary in size and duration. Average grants usually range from 10 to 150 thousand euros.
The activity of state funds, that is, fully funded by the state, has national or geopolitical goals. It is coordinated and controlled by state executive authorities. Such funds report on the expenditure of funds to the state represented by the parliament or an authorized department. From the budgets of the executive authorities the funds are transferred to the accounts of special international, regional and national funds.
In addition, the EU members are implementing their state program of financing NGOs in the countries of the former USSR. An example is the state program “Small Projects of the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands” (Matra / KAP).
The opposition in the post-Soviet space is also financed by neighboring states that have a common border or who consider the region to be a zone of their political and economic interests. Such funds include the Black Sea Regional Cooperation Fund, which is headquartered in Bucharest (Romania).
Budget funds intended to finance opposition political and social organizations and movements in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan and other republics of the former Soviet Union are transferred through the diplomatic missions of the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Switzerland and Sweden. Diplomatic missions distribute funds between large and medium opposition movements and organizations, and those, in turn, distribute them among smaller and very small local public organizations, whose number may not exceed 15 – 20 people.
PRIVATE FUNDS WILL HELP US
The second main source of funding for the opposition in the countries of the former USSR are private foundations. They form their budgets mainly through private and corporate charitable donations. According to specialists, in the USA alone there are more than 2 thousand. According to the volume of funds attracted for charitable purposes, they can be divided into large ones like the Ford Foundation with a budget of 598 million dollars and small ones like the J.M. Fund. Kaplan (JM Kaplan Found) with a budget of 6,9 million dollars. Funds also differ in targeted (protection of human rights, development of independent media, civilian control, democracy, etc.) and political (liberal and conservative) features. Among them are corporate, like the Ford Foundation or the Small Grants Program at the World Bank (headquartered in Washington, representation in Kiev), and financial and investment, like the Soros Foundation (Soros Foundation Network).
Together with private foundations, corporate funds are the second main source of funding for opposition organizations and protest movements at all stages of their development - from the formation of personnel to the direct implementation of color revolutions and the subsequent control over their results through the funds of opposition leaders. At the same time, the very concept of state sovereignty is blurred.
An example of successful activity in financing the preparation and implementation of the color revolution is the work of the Ukraine-USA Foundation. It was created in 1991, "to promote democracy, market reforms and human rights development in Ukraine" with the task of maintaining ties between the United States and Ukraine, "to make peace and prosperity possible through the development of common democratic values." Fund offices are located in Kiev, Donetsk, Lviv, Kharkov, Kherson and Cherkasy. The staffing of offices provides for positions of director, deputy director, accountant.
At the conference of the Ukraine-USA Foundation 13 December 2013, US Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs Ambassador Victoria Nuland said: “Since the declaration of Ukraine’s independence in 1991, the United States has been supporting the Ukrainian people in democratic skills and creating democratic institutions that want more active participation in civil life and good governance are necessary prerequisites for Ukraine to realize its pro-European aspirations. We have invested more than 5 billion dollars in an effort to help Ukraine achieve these and other goals designed to ensure the security, prosperity and democratic structure of the country.
Today, there are many influential people in the Ukrainian government, business circles, opposition, civil society and religious communities who believe in this democratic European future of their country and work tirelessly, trying to steer the country and its president in the right direction. We urge the government, we urge the president to listen to these voices, listen to the Ukrainian people, listen to the euromaidan and help Ukraine take a step forward. ”
Speaking before the Foreign Affairs Committee of the US 3 in March 2015, Victoria Nuland said the State Department would significantly increase funding for the fight against "Kremlin propaganda that poison minds throughout Russia, on its periphery and throughout Europe." The US Broadcasting Board of Directors in 2015 increased the amount of funding for programs in Russian by 49% compared to 2014, bringing it to 23,2 million dollars. The State Department granted the request for an additional $ 20 million to “increase efforts in fighting falsehood” - refers to the "Kremlin propaganda." According to Nuland, part of the funds will be used to support student exchange programs and encourage a group of civic activists. But most of the money will be spent on training Russian-speaking journalists and giving them access to fact-based news releases. In addition to increasing the budget of the US Broadcast Management Board, Congress approved expenditures in the amount of 10 million to support Russian-language media in Eastern Europe. This decision was made in accordance with the law on the support of the freedom of Ukraine.
The goal of any investment is to make a profit, it is an integral part of the modern economy. The ultimate goal of American diplomacy, as described in the Four-Year Review of Diplomacy and Development - 2015, is through the Trans-Pacific Partnership, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership “to put the United States at the center of a free trade zone covering two-thirds of the global economy.”
Investments, unlike loans, always have a high degree of risk, as they return and only generate income in profitable projects. All of this is calculated in advance by governments when decisions are made to direct billions of dollars (pounds, euros) to weaken existing or potential competitors. And if the money for color revolutions from state budgets is still allocated, it means that someone needs it, then the risk is justified. Ultimately, the high stakes on the “Grand Chessboard” justify all possible temporary losses.