Military Review

Rocket Interceptor I-270

Rocket Interceptor I-270

In the first half of the forties, aircraft manufacturers faced the question of the need to create new types of power plants, allowing to obtain high power with a relatively small mass. At that time, the use of liquid jet engines (LRE) on fighters looked very promising; the work was carried out in teams led by V.P. Glushko, L.S. Dushkin and A.M. Isaev. Already during the war years, a BI-1 fighter with an L-1A-1100 rocket engine was created. The first flight of this aircraft took place on 15 May 1942. By the time the war ended, the USSR had gained some experience in creating liquid jet engines.

Despite the presence of some serious drawbacks, such as excessively high fuel consumption, as well as the need to have onboard aggressive or unstable components (nitric acid, liquefied oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, etc.) as an oxidizer, the LRE also had positive qualities. He had a relatively simple design, while allowing him to get very significant traction, which, in addition, unlike the piston propeller group and air-jet engines, did not fall as it climbed, but even, on the contrary, increased slightly. This circumstance made the LRE attractive for creating fighter-interceptors, which would have high speed, high rate of climb and a practical ceiling, unattainable for aircraft with other types of power plants.

It should be noted that after the war, in the hands of the Soviet aviation specialists got a serially produced and used in hostilities German missile interceptor Me 163, equipped with a Walter NWK 109-509 LPRE with a thrust of 1750 kgf. Several copies of this aircraft were delivered to the USSR for comprehensive study and testing. True, unlike the Me 262, flight tests of the Me 163 were carried out only in the version of the glider, which was lifted into the air by the Tu-2 towing aircraft. The rejection of full-fledged flights was caused by the fact that the captured liquid-propellant engine did not undergo bench tests in the USSR, which would make it possible to give an opinion on the suitability for flight tests of any instance. Due to the lack of an appropriate test base in NII-1, only disassembly, drawing up diagrams and calculations of the German rocket engine were carried out.

As for the Me 163B, despite the aerodynamic scheme unusual for that time (tailless, equipped with a swept wing), the plane was easy to fly and was able to perform all the aerobatics, as well as ordinary fighters. Some difficulties arose only during take-off and landing, primarily due to the unusual chassis layout, which has a drop-off take-off trolley and landing skis. It was impossible to make a conclusion about the combat effectiveness of the Me 163 solely on the basis of the results of non-motorized tests, but the official German information on how to get 12000 meters by plane in 3,5 minutes and reach speeds up to 950 km / h at high altitudes made a strong impression.

The leadership of the NKAP was not eager to copy Me 163, but it also could not dismiss the problem of intercepting heavy high-altitude bombers of a new potential enemy. The specialists of the Air Force and Air Defense carefully studied the German experience in repelling American and British heavy bombers and could not help but note that the Germans had missile interceptors. Therefore, when developing a plan for pilot aircraft construction on 1946, the question was raised about creating the same type of aircraft in the USSR. As a result, the plan included two almost identical tasks for developing interceptors with rocket engines; for OKB A.I. Mikoyan (OKB-155) and OKB S.A. Lavochkin (OKB-301).

The maximum speed at the ground of the new OKB-155 aircraft should have been equal to 1100 km / h, at high altitude - 1000 km / h, ascent time at 17000 and 3,2 minutes, flight time: at the forced mode 5 minutes, at least 18 min, armament was provided from 2 guns caliber 23 mm, the period of the exit of the test vehicle for flight tests - November 1946 of the year.

By this time, OKB LS Dushkina achieved, perhaps, the greatest success by developing the most powerful LRE at that time in our country: in 1942, D-1А-1100, having 1100 kgf thrust, for BI, then in 1944 - RD-2М, which increased to 1400 kgf for the 302 aircraft. But these engines had low reliability. A.M. Isaev upgraded the D-1-1100 engine, especially in terms of improving reliability, and brought it to 1 hours. Under the new designation RD-1M he successfully passed state tests in 1945 year.

V.P. Glushko developed the RD-1 accelerator, which developed 300 kgf thrust, for use on Yakovlev and Lavochkin piston fighters and intended to create three-and four-chamber LREs with increased 3-4 thrust based on it. But these plans remained unfulfilled: with the beginning of the work on copying the V-2 FAU. Glushko was entrusted with the engine for her.

Meanwhile ls Dushkin created a new powerful two-chamber LRE RD-2MZV. This engine worked on kerosene and nitric acid. Its main feature was the presence of two cameras - a large one with a weight in 1100 kgf and a small one (300 kgf). This made it possible to take off and climb to height using the maximum thrust of the two chambers, and then disconnect the large camera and perform horizontal flight, target detection and attack using only the small camera thrust, while significantly saving fuel and increasing the flight duration.

Originally it was planned to install this engine on the Polykarpov interceptor “Baby”, designed as early as 1944. However, the sudden death of N.N. Polikarpov did not give the opportunity to finish the work. And now this engine was intended to be installed on new AI interceptors. Mikoyan and S.A. Lavochkin. On state tests of RD-2МЗВ, conducted in May 1945, the total thrust of two chambers was 1500 kgf, nominal - 1250 kgf and minimum - 500 kgf. The maximum thrust of the small chamber was equal to 300 kgf, the minimum - 100 kgf. The mass of the LRE assembly with units does not exceed 225 kg.

As soon as OKB-155 and OKB-301 took up the design, it turned out that TsAGI specialists could not give them anything new. Although the institute already had a variety of captured materials on German studies of high-speed aircraft schemes, including those with swept wings, TsAGI had to conduct a large complex of its own research and study everything itself, and only then make recommendations. It was absolutely necessary both from a technical and from a “political” point of view - it was far from safe to trust the documents of a recent adversary. The task was complicated by the fact that the TsAGI staff had at their disposal the only T-106 high-speed pipe with a flow rate of more than 900 km / h, and that was even more idle due to constant power outages. Construction of more high-speed pipes has not yet been foreseen. Therefore, it was decided to abandon the originally planned swept wing (20 °) in favor of the straight thin one. A similar decision was made in OKB-301. The lack of necessary experience among TsAGI specialists in this matter was also confirmed in the summer of 1946, when MAP considered the design of the AS jet aircraft. Moskalev.

In December, 1946 of the year in OKB-301 completed preliminary design and built an interceptor model that received the number "162". However, the expediency of the rocket plane caused Lavochkin great doubts, and he stopped work on this project.

At the same time, A.I. Mikoyan didn’t refuse to incarnate his interceptor missile, which received the I-270 code, in the metal. In fact, its development was launched in November 1945. The machine was intended for air defense fighter units that protect strategic civilian objects and military bases. By the beginning of April 1946, the layout of the interceptor, which received the factory name “aircraft J”, was developed, and the production of blueprints for the manufacture of the layout began. V.M. was appointed Lead Engineer for the new machine. Belyaev. After purging, TsAGI recommended lengthening the nose of the fuselage to give it a more aerodynamic shape. In May, the mock-up was ready, and a preliminary demonstration was held by its military representatives, who made a number of comments. According to the proposals of the military, the draft was finalized by the end of May 1946.

According to calculations, the missile interceptor was supposed to reach speed at ground level in 1000 km / h, at medium altitudes - 990 km / h, on 11000 m - 930 km / h and on 15000 m - 935 km / h. The height of the 15000 meters machine had to gain in 181,25 with. Practical ceiling - 18000 m. The maximum duration of the flight at high altitude was to be 4,89 min. Landing speed 137 km / h. In order to increase the duration of the flight, the MAP was bound by LS. Dushkina to make and carry out tests of LRE RD-2MZV with the resource increased to 1 hours. In 1946, the NII-1 planned to force the RD-2MZV thrust to 2000 kgf. It is worth noting that over time, the direct wing was still expected to replace the swept, this, according to the designers, taking into account the use of a forced engine, made it possible to achieve speed in 1100 km / h.

Two guns HC-23 with ammunition housed under the airtight cabin of the pilot. The pilot defended the front 8-mm armored plate and 15-mm bulletproof glass. On the plane was planned installation of an ejection seat for emergency escape of the aircraft by the pilot. Two combustion chambers of LRE RD-2MZV were located in the tail section of the aircraft, vertically. The total fuel and oxidizer supply was 2120 kg. Great attention was paid to protecting the I-270 structure from the destructive action of aggressive nitric acid vapors. Special acid-resistant fittings and anti-acid coatings were developed. All duralumin parts (anodically oxidized), located in aggressive zones, had several protective coatings, the number of layers of which could be up to nine.

According to the approved schedule for the development and manufacture of the “F” aircraft, the rollout of the first car to the airfield was planned for October 20 on the 1946 of the year. But due to the numerous reworkings of the interceptor project, only by October 2 the working drawings were completed and the bow assembly with the pressurized cabin was completed, which had to be tested in a thermocamera. By this time, began and tail tail statistics. In addition, the pace of work was significantly reduced, since the main labor force was seconded to the aircraft plant number XXUMX, to force the construction of the lead series of the MiG-1 jet fighter. Therefore, the deadlines could not stand.

Of the three planes built into the construction, two were completed. The first of these, “F-1”, brought 28 December 1946 to tests. Since the delivery of the flight copy of the LRE was delayed, a mock-up engine was mounted on the machine, which made it impossible to proceed with full-fledged flight tests, and they had to be divided into two stages.

During the first stage, “motorless”, the interceptor was towed by a specially equipped Tu-2 aircraft. For these flights, the X-NUMX made it easier by removing all unnecessary loads, including a mock-up engine, fuel tanks, fuel rocket power supply wiring and guns. The engineless testing of the Zh-270 aircraft began on February 1 3. It is necessary to say that the preliminary testing preceded the glider tests. In January, ground towing of the I-1947 with an uncoupling at speed was carried out, during which flights were carried out to a height of up to 270 meters, and on February 2 before the start of the first test phase, VN Yuganov performed a preparatory flight on a piston fighter Yak-3. The latter was also towed behind the Tu-9, and to obtain the characteristics of stability, similar to the calculated characteristics of the aircraft “Ж-2”, the car was loaded with lead blanks.

In non-motorized flights, the I-270 uncoupling with the towing vehicle was carried out at altitudes from 5000 to 7000 m, after which the test vehicle made a flight and landing plan. During free flights, the maximum instrument speed was reached, equal to 600 km / h, the minimum was 220 km / h. A total of 11 flights were performed in tow.

8 of May 1947 of the year on the second manufactured aircraft, which received the code W-2, was installed a flight copy of the RD-2MZV engine, which made it possible to proceed to the next stage of testing. However, on July 16 during the testing of the power plant on the ground a small camera exploded. The tail of the aircraft was damaged, and it was sent for repair, completed on August 2.

The first independent take-off of the second instance of the 270 took place at the end of the day on September 2 of the year 1947. The takeoff with the help of the liquid propellant rocket engine was made normally, the car gained 3000 m height, then following the mission, the pilot transferred the plane to the flight planner and began to build an approach. However, due to an inaccurate calculation, the landing was made outside the airfield, by the river. As a result, the first seven-minute flight was the last. The car was broken nose. Fortunately, the pilot was not injured. It was decided not to restore the car.

By this time, and on the first copy of the I-270 (F-1) mounted conditioned engine, and 14 August interceptor entered LII for flight tests. After completion of the preparation and ground testing, the 29 September was made taxiing, and five days later the first flight was made. However, on landing, the I-270 (F-1) did not get the chassis, and the test pilot VN Yuganov was forced to land the aircraft on the fuselage. Thanks to the skill of the pilot, the car received minimal damage.

The duration of the first flight was 12 minutes. The length and time of the takeoff, respectively, were 697 m and 20 s, the speed of separation 230 km / h. A large engine chamber was turned off via 130,5 s, when the aircraft was at an altitude of 4500 m. The speed was reached in 615 km / h at an altitude of 3000 m. Unfortunately, the failures continued. October 21 after the completion of repair during the launch of the LRE on the runway exploded a large chamber, with the result that the engine vomited nozzle. The aircraft was again sent to the repair, which was completed by the end of November.

At the beginning of 1948, the I-270 (M-1) completed all the preparations for its flight. However, further tests had to be suspended, since the operation of an acid-generating rocket engine in winter conditions was not worked out. After each departure, it was necessary to rinse the entire system with water, which was impossible to do in the cold. In addition, there was no weather for high-altitude flights. Therefore, A.I. Mikoyan in agreement with LS Dushkin was instructed to stop and stop the flights until the spring of 1948.

However, by that time, it became quite clear to the MAP leadership that the rocket engine, at that level of technological development, was unsuitable for normal operation in combat units of the Air Force and Air Defense, therefore, it was decided to focus on aircraft with turbojet engines, which was the last point in stories AND-270.

R. Belyakov, J. Marmen. I-270 Fighter // MiG Aircraft 1939 — 1995. M .: AVIKO PRESS, 1996. C. 56-72.
Bagratinov V. Wings of Russia. M .: EKSMO, 2005. C. 629-630.
Arsenyev E. Serov G. The Fighter I-270. Faster than all, above all // Aircraft of the world. 2003. No.1. C. 6-17.
Arsenyev E. The I-270 Fighter // Wings of the Motherland. 2007. No.11. C. 12-15.
Shavrov V. The history of aircraft designs in the USSR 1938 — 1950. M .: Mashinostroenie, 1988. C. 320-321.
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  1. qwert
    qwert 18 January 2016 07: 13
    Well, if it weren’t for the production Me-163, probably fighters with LRE would not have seemed so promising. Especially for the Soviet Union that did not exclude the possibility of mass raids by yesterday’s heavy bombers
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    3. Amurets
      Amurets 18 January 2016 10: 01
      Quote: qwert
      Yeah, if it weren’t for the production Me-163, probably fighters with rocket engines wouldn’t seem so promising

      Let me remind you of the work of Korolev and Glushko on the first rocket gliders. And knowing the energy of Korolev, we can assume that he would have completed this work. And also BI-1 Bolkhovitinov.
      1. Gamdlislyam
        Gamdlislyam 18 January 2016 12: 26
        Quote: Amurets
        Let me remind you of the work of Korolev and Glushko on the first rocket gliders. And knowing the energy of Korolev, we can assume that he would have completed this work. And also BI-1 Bolkhovitinov.

        Dear colleague Nikolay, with all the energy of S.P. Korolev, his epic with a rocket glider ended sadly. Then he continued to work at Sharazhk on rocket boosters for Tu-2 and Pe-2. Alas, the results seem to have convinced him of the futility of this direction in aviation. Is this why Sergei Pavlovich, since 1944, completely immersed himself in work on rocketry?
        But with Glushko, Sergei Pavlovich had, to put it mildly, hostile relations since the unification of the Moscow GIRD group and the Leningrad GDL in late 1933. And this hostility is visible until the last days of Korolev’s life (there were very good reasons for this)
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 18 January 2016 15: 04
          Quote: Gamdlislyam

          Dear colleague Nikolai, with all the energy of SP Korolev, his epic with a rocket glider ended sadly.

          Let me disagree with the simple reason that Korolev was already sitting when the RP-318 flew. I know about conflicts, but if memory serves me, they started conflicts because of fuel. Glushko stood for high-boiling fuel components, and Korolev for oxygen kerosene. Instead of accelerators, it was obliged by a decree of the Central Committee on the creation of rocket technology, which I think was adopted at the end of 1943. Then Chelomei began to deal with projectiles, and Korolev and Glushko began to engage in ballistic missiles. I don’t remember the dates exactly, but the essence of this does not change, because they began to work together, after serving the term in sharashka. There are different dates in the books of Chertk and Shakhurin.
  2. rubin6286
    rubin6286 18 January 2016 12: 31
    The article is interesting, informative. The use of liquid propellant rocket engines in aviation, with the apparent simplicity of their design, was associated with fundamental changes in individual structural elements and the entire aircraft as a whole. For objective and subjective reasons, they could not do this in wartime in the USSR, especially since Germany still did not have long-range bombers capable of reaching the main industrial facilities concentrated outside the Urals.
    In the postwar years, work on the use of rocket engines in aviation was resumed. Their result was the creation of rather complex combined propulsion systems (turbojet engines + LRE), as well as separate LRE, used as accelerators, but in the future the main emphasis was placed on the turbojet engine. It was recognized that for bombing the main industrial centers of the USSR, enemy bombers must be in the air for several hours and can be repeatedly detected, attacked and destroyed by jet fighters.
  3. fa2998
    fa2998 18 January 2016 14: 06
    Why step on the rake several times! With Bi-1 it did not work, come on again! In my opinion the Germans with their "Lightning" have achieved more (there even was a swept wing). The rocket engine on airplanes is a dead end branch. Why do you need an airplane with the engine runs for 3-5 minutes? At least ours asked the Germans how they lost 40 "Lightning" during landing! The plane-misunderstanding-saw the enemy over the airfield-take off! request No. hi
    1. rubin6286
      rubin6286 18 January 2016 17: 20
      The Me-163 missile fighter was intended to intercept enemy bombers at altitudes of 10 to 13 thousand meters. Cover fighters could not be at this altitude for a long time, because they had increased fuel consumption and it was not enough to return to the airfield. Thus, a height gap was formed between the main group and the cover group. This is where the Germans burst in. It was assumed that the missile interceptor should attack the enemy from behind and from above. The rocket engine made it possible to quickly rise by 11-13 thousand meters and accelerate to 850-900 km / h. Cover piston fighters could not catch him. The calculation was made for only one attack, from which the German plane went down a steep spiral, gradually turning after a stop of the engine into gentle planning. The sophisticated landing gear system used on the Me-163 was originally conceived to be launched from a catapult mounted on a platform truck, which made it possible to mask planes and quickly deliver them along the bombers route. The simplicity of the design was conducive to mass production. A trained pilot could land the car on any site of suitable size. The cost of the interceptor was many times lower than the cost of the bomber and the cost of its production. There was reason, but the risk? They went for it, war, in general, is a risky business ... ..
    2. Aljavad
      Aljavad 20 January 2016 03: 42
      Why do I need a plane with an engine running 3-5 minutes?

      How could I explain to you? ... This is such a pedal-controlled air defense system. The principle was born (I saw the enemy over the airfield, take off), and the technology has not yet settled down. That's what they did in that science fiction about cosmo-amputants.
  4. pv1005
    pv1005 18 January 2016 15: 17
    When you print any data, the author at least occasionally check it. Rate of climb 4220 and 4800 meters per second (which corresponds to 15192 and 17200 km / h belay ) is unattainable on modern aircraft, and even more so at the dawn of jet aircraft in the 40s of the last century. hi
  5. qwert
    qwert 18 January 2016 16: 00
    Quote: fa2998
    .Why do I need a plane with an engine running 3-5 min.?

    The fuel supply on the Me-163 was enough for 4,5 min of engine operation HWK R II-203b. This is a disease of all vehicles with liquid propellant rocket engines, including American ones, which were also fond of this area.
  6. Dekabrev
    Dekabrev 18 January 2016 23: 41
    Well, then everything was not as obvious as it is now. I still haven’t seen a detailed analysis of the combat use of the Me-163, who can tell me where to look. Therefore, I’m not sure that in the 45th, the Soviet leadership and experts knew about 40 Me-163s lost during the landing and 15 bombers shot down by them (somewhere such numbers were heard). And for the Germans, it was an act of despair amid the overwhelming superiority of allies in the air. I’m not sure that in peacetime they would have launched something like Me-163 into production, although by the 45th they had pepelats and more dangerous for their pilots than Me-163. And in those days, the Me-163 was amazing. It was generally believed that the superiority of 50 km / h gives a noticeable advantage in high-altitude combat, and here it is not 50, but 200-300 km / h compared to fighters and 500-600 km / h compared to bombers and a stunning climb rate low price. And they had their own niche - object air defense. Like an anti-aircraft missile, only a pilot instead of a control system, a gun instead of a warhead. I saw the memories of some America on an English or an English pilot about how he wanted to fly on the Me-163. Once flew. He was delighted and shocked, but did not want to repeat. I was afraid to fly on a viper, or whatever it was. So, at that time everything was for the first time and again and everything was not so obvious.
    1. Aljavad
      Aljavad 20 January 2016 03: 51
      I still haven’t seen a detailed analysis of the combat use of the Me-163, who can tell me where to look.

      There is a memoir by Mano Ziegler "Rocket fighter". Russian edition - Centerpolygraph 2005. But there are no analytics, purely pilot's impressions.
      A detailed analysis must have been done by the allies. They had personnel and equipment in trophies. But I didn’t hear about publications.
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 21 January 2016 19: 38
        The piston fighter barely managed to climb to the height of the bomber system, its attack was often frustrated by their escort, and the FW-190 that broke through was usually enough for only 1-2 calls with a big risk of being shot down by gunners due to the small difference in speeds.
        The first aircraft with turbojet engines also had a lack of rate of climb, but at least the speed was better.
        An aircraft with a rocket engine could attack bombers 2-4 times depending on the pilot's experience, and ignoring their escort, also had a much less chance of being shot down by gunners. After completing the task in planning for the base, it was very difficult to shoot him down due to his maneuverability. But due to the short range, the interceptor bases became bombers just to fly around. Me-263 with a large radius and the ability to barrage and limited maneuver could already solve the problem of covering the largest cities, but failed ...
        Also, the Me-163 with their peroxide-alcohol liquid propellant rocket engines did not depend on oil starvation - due to the lack of synthetic kerosene, 4/5 of the Me-262 launched did not fly, which almost led to the cessation of the Anglo-American raids on the Reich.
        Comets could fly from any airfield, concrete Me-262 airfields were constantly grazing.
        1. Scraptor
          Scraptor 21 January 2016 20: 10
          Messerschmitt with his idle Me-262 seized all the engines that were suitable for installation on the Lippish P20 (in the Me-163 with the WFD), having which the Germans would have fought off the "Soyuzneks" ... For interceptions, this aircraft with a higher speed was better, and having only one engine consumed much less fuel. But how would capitalist "marketing considerations" of prestige have the upper hand ... wassat
          1. rubin6286
            rubin6286 24 January 2016 17: 46
            You're not right. A plane with a liquid propellant rocket engine could not attack a target 2-4 times, as though even an over-experienced pilot would not want it. Engines simply lacked fuel. The situation was aggravated by the fact that the launch site was not always close to the route of the bombers. Me-163 did not start from the catapult, as previously envisaged, but from unpaved sites. While the plane was gaining altitude, the fuel supply was melting catastrophically and it was barely enough for one attack.
            Thanks to its high speed, the German plane broke away from cover fighters and crashed after the attack. There is no question of any maneuverability after stopping the engine in the planning mode for a machine with a swept wing. So what, their "Mustangs" were shot in batches? Yes, if there was no cover, but it was. The Americans were distracted by themselves and tied up in battle by a few FV-190 and Me-109, at low altitudes covered MZA. There were losses, of course, but what a war without losses .......
            The Me-262 was at that time the most advanced of the German fighter jets, so in wartime it gained priority over all other machines and engines, fuel, ammunition, spare parts, etc. intended primarily for him. Nobody "grabbed" anything, and capitalist "marketing" in the conditions of a military (command) economy is complete nonsense.
            1. Scraptor
              Scraptor 25 January 2016 01: 53
              Me-163 could. The engines simply lacked an oxidizing agent. He then detached himself from the fighters in a decrease and with an already inoperative engine, thanks to his rotation, simply shaking them off the tail.
              The most perfect was the Lippish P20 aircraft. Me-262 lacked rate of climb especially at low altitudes. Then LRE in different countries for a long time put or tried to put on airplanes with WFM in order to improve their rate of climb. Capitalism in Germany has not been canceled and similar pressure on competitors to bury deficit engines was even in the socialist USSR.
  7. Aljavad
    Aljavad 20 January 2016 03: 59
    During the Iron Curtain years, our "probable partners" led the I-270 lineage from another fascist design. Here is a quote from the glasnost press. This is an explicit translation without reference to the original, which is why the index of the car is so "mysterious"

    "... The study of the German Me-163V fighter led to the development of a similar Soviet aircraft. Work was carried out since 1944, but the designers faced a number of insurmountable problems, which were solved only after the Ju-248 (Me- 263) In the final form, the rocket plane had a more perfect aerodynamic shape than the Me-263, with a lower mass.
    The first model, ZX-1, was tested in December 1946. Tu-2 towed it to the drop point. In 1947 the second model took off - ZX-2. She had increased traction and speed. However, at the same time, the aircraft was tested with the MiG-15 turbojet engine, which was faster and more maneuverable. The I-270, which was inferior to him, was eventually withdrawn from testing - immediately after an emergency landing in 1947. "

    ZX is F in Latin - Zh.
  8. Dekabrev
    Dekabrev 20 January 2016 22: 30
    The most incomprehensible thing is how many bombers shot down the Me - 163 and how many of them were mastered in units and what losses they themselves had. That is, was there any point in doing them at all.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. rubin6286
      rubin6286 21 January 2016 10: 57
      Download M. Zefirov's book "Aces of the Luftwaffe. Jet Fighters" from the Internet. Much will become clear.
  9. dvg1959
    dvg1959 8 February 2016 22: 41
    George Bakhchivanji tested the BI-1. It is necessary to remember this. Eternal memory to him.