Portrait of Catherine II in front of the mirror. Hood Virgilius Eriksen. 1760's
In the reign of Catherine the Great, Russia solved a century-old historical task - it became firmly established on the shores of the Black and Azov seas. It was established, having withstood a stubborn struggle with the greatest force of that time - the Ottoman Empire and its loyal vassal of the Crimean Khanate, a long-standing and merciless ruin of the Russian lands.
The bloodless accession of the Khanate to the empire, carried out by Potemkin, made it possible to begin the settlement and economic development of semi-desert Black Sea and Azov lands. One by one, cities rose, settlements rose, shipyards, factories were built, roads were laid.
The Black Sea military and merchant fleet was created. Twenty-five years later, Russia took the first place in trade with Europe and the same Turkey as the most prominent bread-producing partner.
The Potemkin villages helped to successfully repel the aggression of almost the entire continental Europe led by Napoleon. Russia has strengthened its status as a world power. It is no coincidence that competitors and envious people of our Motherland have repeatedly tried to seize the Crimea, to reject us from the Black Sea.
The voluntary return of the Crimea and Sevastopol to the “hometown” in 2014 was an outstanding historical event. In the summer of 2015, in Sevastopol, in the presence of prominent political figures, a monument to Prince Tavrichesky - Grigory Potyomkin, the founder of the hero-city, was solemnly laid.
The two TV shows about Catherine the Great and shown on 2014 and 2015 on Russian TV channels seemed to be responding to the growing interest of our citizens in Russian history. Expectations, supported by brisk advertising, did not materialize.
And the first episode, “Catherine. The Empress ", and the second series" The Great "are dedicated to the young years of Catherine and end with her accession to the throne. The main theme - "Great" - was deferred to "later."
The famous American movie star Angelina Jolie recently announced the beginning of work on the series about Catherine and Potemkin. And Russian artists spend huge amounts of money twice and occupy the attention of millions of TV viewers by showing the very beginning of the work of the great empress.
As will be proved, this is not the biggest drawback of the series.
Anhalt-Zerbst princess Sophia Frederica, the future Catherine, travels along snow-covered Russian fields in a small carriage. She teaches Russian, and her mother grumbles, displeased at how modestly they are received in Russia.
So begins the series “Catherine. Empress ”(script by Arif Aliyev, directors Alexander Baranov and Ramil Sabitov, artistic director of the project Vladimir Menshov). At this very time, the councilors of the Empress Elizabeth Petrovna hotly discuss the most important question of the state: who to choose the heir to the bride as a bride?
Scene from the television series "Catherine the Great"
But this is a clear nonsense. The choice has already been made, otherwise the princess and her mother would not have appeared in Russia. Further more. While the council members are arguing, the cart slips into a snag (oh, those Russian roads!) And falls on its side. Fortunately for Russia, the future great empress did not suffer.
A representative man helps her to get out of the train. The naive princess thinks that this is her fiancé and thanks “his highness”. The “Highness” explains that he is not the groom, but Prince Sergei Saltykov who greets the guests.
As is known, there were no princes of Saltykov in Russia in the 18th century. And Catherine's mother could not annoy at the reception. German guests had a state meeting. I met not eighteen-year-old Saltykov, who had not yet begun his court career, but a relative of the Empress, handsome chamberlain Semen Naryshkin. The journey was made not in a miserable way, but in a luxurious house on runners. Catherine and her mother were shocked by the meeting.
We will not cite all the historical absurdities with which this protracted series is full. We note a little detail, immediately undermining the credibility of what is happening on the screen. The authors abandoned the wigs - this important detail of the toilet of the ruling class. Bald and modern hairstyle actors, depicting the top of the Russian imperial court, annoying.
The main storyline is the relationship of young Catherine with her husband. Of course, the Grand Duke Peter Fedorovich was not a gift. But the heir to the Russian throne, in front of everyone who is tearing off his clothes from the maid of honor he liked, is impossible.
Impossible and became Emperor Peter III. If in the first films this is a complete degenerate, then in the last ones before us is a stubborn lover, talking about divorce from Catherine and the upcoming marriage to Princess Elizaveta Vorontsova. And on the Lutheran rite. In response to the objections, he states that the Vorontsovs are not somebody, but Rurikovich.
If you accept this fiction, then there are big discrepancies. The sovereign of the orthodox state could not so clearly demonstrate his non-belief. This is the first. Secondly, the TV screen Peter must divorce his wife and ... dissolve his mistress. Because Elizaveta Vorontsova could be titled as a princess only by her husband. Unmarried girls were called princesses. We inform tera dramadels: Russia knew the Counts Vorontsovs, not Rurikovich at all.
The top of ignorance was the episode of the presentation to Peter III of the envoy of the Prussian king Frederick II. For no reason, Ekaterina’s husband gives yesterday’s enemy, who unleashed the Seven Years War, a title that the troublemaker of European tranquility didn’t dare even dream of. Calls him the emperor. Such things should qualify as fierce ignorance or as falsification of history.
The six-month rule of Peter III is well studied. The famous enlightener Andrei Bolotov, who served in Petersburg as adjutant to the general-chief of police, often saw the emperor. In his memoirs, he writes about his drunkenness, his speeches in the presence of foreign diplomats, so rambling that it was embarrassing to listen. Catherine's husband spent time in entertainment and feasts. What do we see on the screen?
Without waiting for a divorce from his wife, the emperor orders her arrest. However, Grigory Orlov and his brother, like the gallant musketeers of Alexandre Dumas, kill guards with swords in their hands and take Catherine away. In the courtyard, as the captions say, the end of April. The coup occurred on June 28. Under all laws of politics, it was necessary to find a fugitive and punish musketeers. But for two months no one was found.
Learning about the coup, Peter III runs with his mistress in Oranienbaum. Eagles roughly separate him from Vorontsova and force him to sign a renunciation. Then, together with Catherine, they visit Count Alexei Razumovsky, whom the late Empress Elizaveta Petrovna allegedly bequeathed the throne. Cautious Razumovsky burns the will.
But the Schlusselburg prisoner John Antonovich is naively admitted to visiting Catherine that he is the legitimate emperor. He was immediately eliminated.
Remains the overthrown Peter, who for some reason is contained in the theater hall. The guard officers ask him to play the violin, and during the concert right on the stage Alexei Orlov strangles the former emperor with a noose.
Historians shrug: John Antonovich died two years later. No testament of Elizabeth in favor of Razumovsky was and could not be. The ousted emperor was kept under strict guard by no means in the theater. Finally, twenty years ago, a brilliant study of the historian O.A. Ivanov, who proved that Alexey Orlov (future winner of the Turkish fleet under Chesme) was not the murderer of Peter III.
The creators of the new series “The Great”, shown on Channel 2015 of the year on Channel One, in the annotation that preceded the premiere, loudly announced the superiority of their work over last year’s competitor:
"The cognition and interestingness of this show is going wild."
Writers Sergei Yudakov, Alexey Gravitsky, director Igor Zaitsev kept their word. The show rolls over. And, although the actors they shot were wearing wigs, one detail immediately indicates the showmen’s complete misunderstanding of what they do. When the imperial court observed the strictest etiquette.
For subjects, the Grand Duchess Catherine was the Imperial Highness. When her husband became emperor, she became Imperial Majesty. In the series, all those who feel like it easily call her Ekaterina Alekseevna. But so it was possible to apply to the Minister of Culture of the USSR Ekaterina Furtseva. And that is not always!
Wigs did not save the show from fictions and absurdities. We are shown how the executioner burns Catherine chained to the uprights with a torch.
The wife of the heir to the Russian throne is screaming terribly, and the Empress Elizaveta Petrovna mercilessly continues the interrogation. Having tormented the audience with a heartbreaking scene, the authors report that this is a “dream.” True, after such dreams, the TV screen Catherine decides to commit suicide. She is saved by the bosom friend of Princess Dashkova.
The princess herself is also good — she sends field marshal Count Peter Shuvalov, an opponent of Catherine, to the next world (grass). Another field marshal, Stepan Apraksin, is also good. In St. Petersburg in his palace, he is shot from a musket by the head of the secret office of Count Alexander Shuvalov, the brother of the poisoned Dashkova.
As the authors assure us, the chief inquisitor of the empire tried to arrange for Apraksin a confrontation with “Ekaterina Alekseevna”, but overdid it. Arrow Field Marshal hit the shot.
So the showmen serve one of the main plots of their show - the disgrace of the commander-in-chief of the army of the army, Count Stepan Apraksin, and the chancellor, Count Alexei Bestuzhev, whose affairs stand out for a grand conspiracy in favor of Catherine. Everything shown is absurd fiction.
Historians have long described in detail how the struggle of court groups intensified in the context of the Seven Years War and the illness of the Empress Elizaveta Petrovna, intensified by the intrigues of the allies.
Supporters of Catherine Apraksin and Bestuzhev were removed from power. Apraksin did not die in Petersburg, he did not fire back from the musket. Bestuzhev was sent to his village, even without confiscation of property. His employees were released from custody and were assigned to appointments outside the capital. None of them were tortured.
However, what's the matter with the history of showmen? They relish, as in gloomy casemates, Alexander Shuvalov severely beats up not someone, but the heir to the Russian throne. Dips his head in a vat of water so that he cannot breathe. The second person in the state is subjected to torture not for some conspiracies and crimes, but for a silly joke: he poured cold water on several courtiers during a reception in the park.
About Catherine herself silent, because she is not the heroine of the TV show. The hero brought out the head of the "special services" Alexander Shuvalov. His power is so great that Peter III, having become emperor, did not dare to dislodge his torturer. Moreover, Shuvalov retained authority after the coup, enthroning Catherine, and even attempted to impose on the empress restrictions on her autocratic power.
In fact, Alexander Ivanovich Shuvalov is a figure almost invisible in our chronicles. Of course, he did not torture the heir to the throne, and Princess Dashkova did not poison anyone. Ekaterina’s enthusiastic eighteen-year-old supporter was not her close friend. In 1783, the empress appointed Princess Ekaterina Romanovna president of two academies. The case is unique in the history of science.
And this enlightened Russian woman, friend Diderot, the showmen turned into a murderer.
Especially note the episode of the death of the deposed Peter III. As is known, the witnesses of this event were silent, and the controversial reports of foreign diplomats were based on rumors. Most tended to accuse the chief of the guard of the former Emperor Alexei Orlov.
At the beginning of the XIX century there was confirmation of this guess. In a letter to the Empress, Alexei Orlov himself described how everything happened. “Mother, I am ready to die, but I do not know how this trouble happened. We died when you did not have mercy, Mother, he is not in the world - but no one thought of this, and how can we think of raising hands on the Sovereign, - but, Sovereign, misfortune has happened. We were drunk and he too, he argued at the table with Prince Fedor¸ we did not have time to roznat, but he was already gone. We do not remember what we did, but everyone is to blame - they are worthy of execution. Have mercy on me even for my brother ... ” For more than two hundred years, almost all historians considered this text to be “irrefutable evidence” of the involvement of Alexei Orlov in the murder of Peter Fedorovich. In 1995, the historian O.A. Ivanov argued that the letter was a fake.
Allegory of the victory of Catherine II over the Turks and Tatars. Hood Stefano Torelli. 1772 year
Showmen do not read scientific papers. They prefer their own fictions to facts. The main thing is that the show rolls over. The killer in the series launched the elder brother of Alexei Gregory. He, it was he, Catherine's lover, must decide her husband. And the audience is shown how Grigory Orlov brings the former emperor a violin (this violin was given to our showmen!), Allows the unfortunate to play a little, and then finishes it with a knife, drawn out of the bootleg.
The most beautiful man of his time, Grigory Orlov, who attracted his friends by a noble, knightly character, was turned into showless frivolous and gloomy drunk by the showmen. In 1771, Orlov accomplished the feat. Risking his life, he went to plagued Moscow and restored order there. Catherine ordered to make a medal with the motto invented by her: “Russia has such a son in itself”. Orlov stood up for the faithful sons of the fatherland. The medal pushed out "Russia has such sons in itself."
Russia is shown on the television show as a country of crude morals, despotism, and terrible cruelty. In the same way our competitors portrayed our homeland. In last year’s series, they burned the glowing iron at the earl Johan Lestocq. The stage tickles the nerves of the audience, and the announcer importantly reports about the death of Lestocq, not even suspecting that the count survived Empress Elizabeth, was forgiven and returned from exile, lived for several years under Catherine.
Burning iron Lestocq not tortured. These fictions seem trivial compared to the fiction in the show “The Great”, breaking all records of ignorance. The mockery of national history with a string of executioners, murderers, adulterers, procurers, and intriguers should be called a tele-cherzon.
The triumph of ignorance costs a lot of money. To insult our Memory, showmen attracted many people: civil servants, professional cinematographers, and television journalists. Most do not even understand what a dirty business they were involved in.
Millions of Russian citizens are fed by roughly-cut, mocking, ignorant blockbusters. How do the viewers need the real Catherine, the real Orlovs, Dashkova, Potemkin and other historical heroes. We have something to be proud of and who to praise! In order for modern Russia to go forward successfully, the state is simply obliged to take over the creation of cinema and television films on Russian History!
The outstanding Russian thinker Mikhail Bakhtin said briefly and clearly:
"Only Memory can go forward!"