The explosion on Sultanahmet Square
Recall that Sultanahmet Square is located in the historical center of Istanbul and close to it are the most important attractions of the city - the Blue Mosque and Hagia Sophia. Therefore, the explosion in the square meant a terrorist act in the heart historical the capital of the Ottoman Empire. The bomb was planted nearby with a tram stop and worked just while a group of foreign tourists were at the stop. Immediately after the explosion, ambulances, police, special services arrived at the scene. The police cordoned off the area, the victims were sent to the city’s hospitals. Security measures were repeatedly strengthened in the center of Istanbul - the authorities were afraid of a second bombing (terrorists often resorted to tactics of bombing again). On Istiklal Square and Taksim, which are also objects of a large crowd of people, police special forces and Turkish secret services in civilian clothes were pulled together. Increased security measures were also taken at the main hotels of Istanbul.
Witnesses to the explosion - passers-by and workers in the surrounding shops - told reporters that the explosion was very loud. He was heard even in other parts of the city. The symbolism of the place chosen as the object of attack is not accidental - the terrorists wanted to show that Turkey is not able to provide security even in the very heart of its history and statehood. And any foreign citizens visiting this country can become victims of a terrorist act. Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu reported the deaths of citizens of the Federal Republic of Germany by telephone to German Chancellor Angela Merkel. He said that all the dead are foreign citizens who came to the country as its guests to get acquainted with the life and culture of Turkey.
Almost immediately after the explosion, Turkey’s state television reported that it was a suicide bomber attack. Later, Turkish President Recep Erdogan openly stated that the terrorist act was committed by a Syrian suicide bomber. "I condemn the terrorist incident in Istanbul, which is regarded as an attack committed by a suicide bomber of Syrian origin," the Turkish president said. Turkish Deputy Prime Minister Numan Kurtulmush said that fragments of the body of a suicide bomber had been found at the scene. His identity was established by the Turkish special services. This is a Syrian citizen 1988 year of birth. Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu convened an emergency meeting of the heads of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Turkey and other security agencies of the country, at which, among other things, versions of the possible organizers of the terrorist act were discussed. It is possible that it could have been organized by the militants of the Islamic State organization banned in the Russian Federation.
Meanwhile, the explosion on Sultanahmet Square is not the first such terrorist act in Turkey lately. So, 1 December 2015 in 100 meters from the metro station Maltepe, on the overpass over the subway tracks, an explosion occurred. The explosion injured two people. 15 December 2015 A mine exploded on a road near the town of Silwan in Turkish Kurdistan. Two policemen were killed, the Kurdistan Workers Party took responsibility for the terrorist act. Two airport cleaners in Istanbul airport were injured (one woman subsequently died of injuries) 23 December 2015 of the year - as a result of an explosion that thundered in the aircraft parking zone at the Istanbul airport. December 27 on the road in the city of Cizre, in the south-east of Turkey, a mine exploded. The victims of the terrorist attack, for which the Workers Party of Kurdistan took responsibility, were three Turkish soldiers, two more were injured. Finally, on December 29, a truck with Ukrainian license plates parked in a parking lot exploded in the port of Haydarpasa in Istanbul. As a result of the explosion, one person suffered. As we see, compared with the December terrorist attacks, the explosion on the square in the center of Istanbul had a much larger number of victims. By the way, it should be noted that exactly two years ago, Sultanahmet Square was already becoming the site of a terrorist act. 6 January 2014, a suicide bomber blew herself up at the entrance to the tourist police department. As it turned out, the woman entered Turkey illegally. From the city of Gaziantep, by taxi, she arrived in Istanbul, then found Sultanahmet Square and went to the tourist police department - the only government agency in the square. At the entrance to the police department, she pulled a check from a grenade, but the grenade did not work. The police started shooting and wounded the woman, but she managed to blow up the second grenade. As a result of the explosion, one policeman was killed, two were injured. Two years later, a terrorist act occurred again on Sultanahmet Square - unfortunately, it became only another link in the chain of terrorist acts that have been shaking Turkey over the past two years. The incident once again made the caring people of the whole world think about the political situation in Turkey. It is with the exacerbation of the situation in the country that numerous terrorist attacks are linked, which in 2015 began to shake Turkish cities. The authorities of the country cite among the perpetrators of terrorist acts as militants of the Islamic State organization banned in Russia, and Kurdish separatists. Let us consider in more detail the versions about the possible organizers of terrorist acts.
IG version as a “main terrorist”
Officially, Turkey, as the US partner in NATO, opposes the Islamic State and participates in an armed anti-terrorist operation against its forces. Turkish aviation, in coordination with the USA, took part in delivering air strikes on positions of the "Islamic state". However, far from all those interested in intensifying the fight against ISIS are convinced that Turkey is indeed opposing religious extremists. So, in the Russian and world press repeatedly published materials with a hint of Turkey’s participation in supporting the militants of the Islamic State. Some publications directly talked about the ties of the Erdogan family with leading figures in the leadership of the Islamic State. Suspicions that Turkey is in reality not so much fighting IS, but, simulating the struggle, actually supporting this organization, intensified after the tragic incident with the Russian Su-24 bomber. Recall that in the sky over Syria a Russian bomber was shot down, returning from a combat mission. He was shot down by Turkish Air Force fighters, and one of the pilots who jumped from the plane with parachutes was shot in the air by militants of one of the Turkoman groups.
Later it turned out that the militants had not only killed the pilot, Lieutenant Colonel Oleg Peshkov, but also sneered at the body of a fallen soldier, which runs counter to all the world's informal military rules. It also turned out that the Turkoman group, which killed the Russian pilot, has close ties with Turkey, in fact, is directly supported by the Turkish military and special services. After the incident with the Russian plane and the murder of the pilot, the relationship between Russia and Turkey has deteriorated dramatically. Russia has introduced a number of economic sanctions against Turkey, designed to influence the policy of Recep Erdogan. In particular, it was forbidden to visit Turkey by Russian tourists. As it turned out in the light of recent events - it is not for nothing. Currently, Turkey is not among those countries where you can safely and securely rest. After all, German tourists who went to wander through the historic capital of the Ottoman state, will return home in their coffins. Given that the attacks occur in Turkey with unenviable regularity, it remains only to support the decision of the Russian authorities to minimize the stay of our citizens in the territory of the Turkish state. While it is not safe.
Russian officials after the incident with the plane repeatedly accused Turkey of supporting terrorist groups operating in Syria from its territory. Back in the fall of 2015, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced that oil from the territories controlled by IG was imported into Turkey. Such trade is conducted regularly, which suggests that there is financial support from the IG from Turkey. Russian military speak even more frankly. So, January 11 2016, according to RIA News, Chief of the Operational Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Lieutenant General Sergei Rudskoy, said that replenishments for militants operating in Syrian Latakia are regularly transferred from Turkey. It is clear that officially the Turkish authorities are declaring a struggle against the "Islamic state", but after all, in addition to the IG, a number of radical groups still operate in Syria. And Turkey does not create serious obstacles for them to receive assistance from the Turkish territory. It is from Turkey that the majority of militants from Europe and the former Soviet republics penetrate into Syria, not to mention the fact that there are enough Turkish citizens themselves in the ranks of the warring groups in Syria. Information has repeatedly appeared in the media that the militants of radical groups, including the "Islamic State", have training camps, hospitals and other logistical institutions in Turkey. This is understandable, given that the current Turkish President Erdogan expresses the political interests of Turkish religious fundamentalists, albeit of a moderate sense.
In the British newspaper The Guardian published material, the author of which noted that the presence of certain ties between the Turkish government and the IG command is obvious and even supporters of Recep Erdogan’s policy can be convinced of it. Back in 2012, there were repeated instances of gathering supporters of ISIS in Turkish hotels and restaurants. Obstacles to sending militants from the territory of Turkey to Syria never arose. In addition, Turkish businessmen did not shy away from concluding trade deals with the leadership of the IG, which contributed to the constant flow of money into the treasury of this terrorist organization. And, again, the Turkish authorities almost did not respond to reports of the presence of this trade. However, of course, there are among the radicals and those who are dissatisfied with the policy of Turkey in Syria. Therefore, it is possible that radical groups might be behind the terrorist attack in Istanbul. Back in July, 2015 reported that the IG threatens Turkey with numerous terrorist attacks - for the fact that the Turkish leadership provided the country's military bases for American aircraft bombing the positions of the IG in Syria. The forced, due to allied obligations with the United States and NATO countries, the participation of Turkish aircraft in the shelling of the positions of the “Islamic state” in Syria could also be the reason that prompted the militants of this banned organization to carry out a terrorist act in Istanbul.
The failure of the Kurdish version
Another version is that terrorists belong to the Kurdistan Workers' Party. Recall that over the past forty years, the Kurdistan Workers Party, with small interruptions, waged an armed struggle against the Turkish government. The Kurdish people living in the east and southeast of the country have long sought political independence, or at least broad autonomy. However, official Ankara never agreed with these demands of the Kurds, moreover - until recently even the very fact of the Kurdish minority in Turkey was completely ignored, and for any information about the Kurds and the Kurdish problem it was possible to get a real prison sentence. The official Turkish propaganda for a long time called the Kurds just as mountain Turks, who were subjected to Iranian influence, and declared any information about the presence of the Kurdish problem in the country as the result of activities hostile to the Turkish state. Even Kurdish was banned. Many Turkish public and political figures and even cultural figures paid for their freedom with their uncompromising position on the Kurdish issue.
By and large, it was Ankara’s nationalist policy that provoked a retaliatory growth of the armed Kurdish national liberation movement. During the years of armed confrontation in Turkish Kurdistan, tens of thousands of people were killed - both PKK fighters, civilians, and Turkish military personnel and police officers. In addition, the Kurdistan Workers' Party periodically declared itself to be terrorist acts in the territory of large Turkish cities outside the Kurdish provinces proper. However, in recent years, the PKK has declared a truce. This decision was also associated with certain changes that occurred in the ideology of the party under the influence of the transformation of the worldview of its leader, Abdullah Ocalan, who is in a Turkish prison. Abdullah Ocalan, having familiarized himself with the works of historical and modern anarchist authors, came to the conclusion that any national state, including Kurdish, was useless, and proclaimed self-government and self-organization for the struggle of the Kurds and other peoples of Kurdistan. Creating self-governing communities is possible and subject to formal residence within Turkey, in this case it is not necessary to fight for independence, the main thing is to ensure that Ankara does not interfere in the internal affairs of the Kurdish community. But the position of the Turkish authorities remained unchanged after that. Moreover, the activation of the Kurdish movement in Rozhava - Syrian Kurdistan greatly frightened Erdogan. The Turkish President decided that the possible emergence of an independent Syrian Kurdistan would be a dangerous precedent for Turkish Kurds. Another reason was the sharp anti-Islamist position of the Kurdish resistance. Nowadays, there is more and more information that a return to the traditional beliefs for this people is gaining momentum among the Kurds. For the Middle East, this is a very dangerous precedent, especially if a national Kurdish state is created, in which the course towards the gradual de-Islamization of the Kurdish people will be taken. For Erdogan, the Kurds are a real headache. He does not hesitate to accuse the Kurdish opposition of terrorist activities. In 2015, the Turkish troops began to make military attacks against the Kurdish militia on the border of Turkey and Syria, and later air and artillery strikes were launched on PKK positions. That was enough for the followers of Ocalan to renounce the declared truce and renew the terrorist war against the Turkish government.
20 July 2015, at approximately 12: 00 local time, near the Amara Cultural Center in Suruç (in the Sanliurf region of Turkish Kurdistan), there was an explosion. It sounded just at the moment when members of the Socialist Federation of Youth Unions (youth wing of the Socialist Party of the Oppressed) - one of the major pro-Kurdish left-wing parties in Turkey, made a statement to the press on the restoration and reconstruction of the Syrian city of Kobani. As a result of the 32 terrorist attack, a person died, a human 104 was injured of varying severity. The vast majority of victims of the terrorist attack were activists and sympathizers of the Socialist Federation of Youth Unions and a number of other left and pro-Kurdish organizations in Turkey. Thus, the attack was openly anti-Kurdish and anti-socialist orientation. On the day of the terrorist attack in Suruça, 300 activists of the Socialist Party of the Oppressed gathered over Suracha - they all went to the city of Kobani liberated by the Kurdish militia in order to participate in its reconstruction. Volunteers settled in the cultural center of Amara, near which the explosion occurred. As it turned out, the cluster bomb was blown up. Its explosion was made by a suicide bomber - a twenty-year-old Turkish citizen associated with fundamentalist religious circles. The Turkish leadership reported that the banned organization Islamic State was responsible for the terrorist act. However, most representatives of opposition parties and movements and the Kurdish population of Turkey did not believe the statements of the authorities. The leader of the Democratic Party of the Peoples, Selahattin Demirtas, said that whoever was the perpetrator of the terrorist act, the ruling Justice and Development Party is also responsible for this tragedy. Two Turkish policemen were killed in the neighboring city of Shaylanpinar, the responsibility for the death of which was assumed by the Labor Party of Kurdistan. The PKK representatives said that the attack on the police was a revenge for the assassination of 32 Kurds and socialists at the rally in Suruç.
Another mass terrorist attack against the Kurdish and left-wing parties and organizations was a series of two explosions that thundered in Ankara, at the city’s central railway station, October 10 2015, around 10.05 in the morning. The bomb blast killed 102 people, and 246 people were injured of varying degrees of severity. The bombs were launched by suicide bombers at intervals of a few seconds. In the morning, participants of the sanctioned anti-war rally of trade union organizations gathered in support of ending the Turkish-Kurdish conflict gathered near the railway station building. The demonstration of trade union activists was organized by the DISK Turkish Confederation of Turkish Trade Unions and the KESK Public Employees Confederation of the country's largest left-wing trade unions, the Chamber of Architects and Engineers (TMMOB), the Medical Association, and the June Movement created by left forces during protests in support of Istanbul Gezi Park . The Ankara terrorist attack was the largest terrorist act in modern Turkish history. Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu then declared a three-day mourning in the country. Officially, the authorities declared that both the Islamic State and the Workers Party of Kurdistan and radical leftist organizations - the Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party (Front) and the Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Turkey are suspected of the terrorist act. The terrorist attacks in Suruç and Ankara became a pretext for the intensification of hostilities of the Turkish army in the Kurdish provinces. In the Kurdish settlements, mass sweeps began, accompanied by the killing of civilians and the arrest of anyone suspected of involvement in the Kurdish national movement. At the same time, Turkish aviation and artillery began to strike at positions of the Kurdistan Workers' Party and the detachments of the people's self-defense of the Syrian Kurdistan. In response, Kurdish troops resumed attacks against the Turkish security forces, whose victims were about two hundred policemen and soldiers.
In fact, a long-standing civil war between the government and the Kurdistan Workers' Party has resumed in Turkey. The situation is complicated by the fact that Turkish Kurds from the PKK maintain close ties with the Syrian Kurds, they are the closest allies and like-minded people, in fact, one political force. Syrian Kurds, in turn, are the most effective link in the resistance of the IG in Syria. Speaking against the Kurds in Syria, Turkey, thus, directly helps the "Islamic state", for which the Groups of the people's self-defense of Rozhava is one of the most important and serious opponents. Naturally, the fighting of the Turkish troops against the Kurdish militia caused mass demonstrations of pro-Kurdish forces in Turkey itself - both demonstrations and armed clashes in the mountains of Turkish Kurdistan and terrorist acts in Turkish cities. The confrontation between Turkish nationalists and Kurds has spread even to the cities of Europe, which are home to impressive Turkish and Kurdish diasporas. Naturally, in the current situation, the likelihood by the militants of the Kurdistan Workers' Party of any major terrorist acts was not excluded, therefore, theoretically, they could also stand behind the bombing in Istanbul.
However, this version as a priority is not considered even by the Turkish security services themselves, although the authorities have repeatedly stated that the Kurdistan Workers' Party is a terrorist organization like the Islamic State and stressed that any dialogue with the Kurdish radicals is impossible. But, first, the Kurdish radicals, who organized a series of terrorist acts in Turkish cities, prefer to avoid civilian casualties. Armed actions are held against military facilities, security forces and military personnel, but not against civilians who are not responsible for Erdogan’s anti-Kurdish policy and, moreover, extremely ethnically mixed (in the same Istanbul a huge number of Kurds live). Secondly, the use of suicide bombers in terrorist acts was never characteristic of the Kurdistan Workers' Party. Thirdly, it is unlikely that the Kurds, aspiring to the recognition by the world community of their national liberation struggle, would choose foreign tourists as targets. Moreover, the modern ideology of the PKK is quite peaceful, focused on internationalism and the protection of human rights and freedoms. The version of the involvement in the terrorist attack of the Workers' Party of Kurdistan denies that the representatives of the Turkish authorities themselves called the alleged terrorist a young citizen of Syria who was killed at the site of the explosion. If he were a Kurd by nationality, then Ankara would have long relished the involvement of the Kurdistan Workers' Party in such a loud terrorist attack. It turns out that the Turkish leadership had no reason to blame the Kurdish side for committing the terrorist acts. The majority of world mass media, including the Russian mass media, adhere to the versions about the non-involvement of the Kurdistan Workers' Party in the terrorist act. Especially considering that the European community as a whole sympathizes with the Kurdish national movement - firstly, it is the Kurds who are the main vanguard of resistance to the “Islamic state” in Northern Syria and Northern Iraq, and secondly, they represent the most secular and democratic force in the Middle East, which also can not cause the sympathy of the world community.
Can the ultra-left be involved?
It should be noted that in addition to the Kurdistan Workers' Party, a number of left-wing armed radical Turkish organizations operate in Turkey. When terrorist acts occur in the country, the Turkish special services, considering the main versions of the involvement of armed organizations, usually do not exclude the possibility of terrorist acts committed by left-wing radical organizations. Although the practice of recent years shows that they most certainly do not relate to the majority of terrorist attacks. The spread of left-radical ideas in Turkey began at the end of the 1960s. and turned into a powerful wave of "revolutionary guerrilla", which was conducted in Turkish cities and in rural areas in the 1970-1980-s. In 1990 - 2000 - s. the armed struggle of the left also continued, but with less intensity. Until now, the communist ideology in Turkey has many adherents, including young people who are ready for a radical confrontation with the authorities. The Turkish leftists are resolute and consistent opponents of Erdogan and his policy of “Islamization” of Turkey. In turn, Erdogan hates the left-radical movement and seeks to suppress and pursue left-radical organizations with all his might. Nevertheless, in modern Turkey there are a number of left-radical organizations, among which are political parties focused on parliamentary struggle or peaceful street activity, and organizations that remain loyal to the ideals of revolutionary armed struggle.
One of the most famous among them is the Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Turkey, which adheres to the ideology of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism and leads the armed struggle against the Turkish government. Her story is rooted in the same period of the “revolutionary guerrilla” of the early 1970's. Then, in 1971, the former physics student Ibrahim Kaipakkaya (1949-1973) created the Turkish Communist Party / Marxist-Leninist Party. He turned to armed struggle against the Turkish government and in January 1973, having received heavy wounds, was captured by the police. Three and a half months later he was killed in prison. Kaipakkaya became the “icon” of the Turkish Maoist movement. The followers of "Comrade For" managed to create one of the most numerous, combat-ready and popular left-radical organizations in the country. However, throughout its history, the Turkish Maoist movement has experienced a number of splits and excretions of individual parties and organizations. MLCPT is the largest and most active among other Maoist organizations in the country.
Turkish Maoists associate with the struggle of the peoples of Kurdistan and hate the regime of Recep Erdogan. Even Ibrahim Kaypakkaya once raised the issue of national self-determination of the Kurdish people, proclaiming it as an oppressed Turkish government. The party has a long-standing and developed relationship with the Kurdistan Workers' Party and is actively involved in sending volunteers to participate in the hostilities in Syria - on the side of the Kurdish people's self-defense detachments. Through the Marxist-Leninist Party of Turkey, volunteers from among the European left-wing radicals are also sent to Syria, seeking to take part in hostilities against the IS. Meanwhile, despite the presence of arsenals weapons and armed fighters with real combat experience, the party never resorted to the practice of terrorist acts against civilians. However, the party, according to the Turkish counterterrorism and operational department of the General Directorate of Security, is among the 12 operating terrorist organizations in Turkey.
Another armed left-radical organization operating in Turkey and, according to the Turkish special services, having the potential to commit terrorist acts is the Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party (front). This Marxist-Leninist organization was created in 1994 on the basis of the Revolutionary Left organization, a veteran of the Turkish radical left-wing movement Dursun Karataş (1952-2008). For almost 30 years, organizations run by Karatash have committed acts of terrorism against Turkish soldiers and officials. In the history of the Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party (Front) there were examples of attacks on foreign citizens - during the Gulf war, supporters of the party attacked French citizens. However, it is unlikely that Turkish left-wing organizations decided on an act of terrorism against civilians. Like the Kurdistan Workers' Party, Turkish left-wing organizations try to select representatives of power structures, police and army institutions, at least business objects, but not ordinary citizens as targets. And the use of suicide bombers is practically not typical for them.
What do experts say?
The opinions of Russian analysts on the question of the possible organizers of the terrorist act on Sultanahmet Square were divided, but on the whole they agree that the terrorist act may be to some extent beneficial to the Turkish government. Thus, the director of the Center for the Study of the Countries of the Middle East and Central Asia, Semen Bagdasarov, is convinced that the terrorist act in Istanbul is the handwriting of the Islamic State. Anna Glazova, deputy director of the Russian Institute for Strategic Studies and head of the Center for Asia and the Middle East, in an interview with the Federal News Agency reported that the terrorist attack in Istanbul could be beneficial to the Turkish government to legalize attacks on the Kurds. Even if officially the Turkish authorities will not develop a version with the alleged terrorist belonging to the Kurdish national liberation movement, but develop the Syrian version of the terrorist attack, they have formal grounds for intensifying air strikes on Syria and even launching an armed invasion there. The Turkish leadership will report that it attacks the positions of the "Islamic State", while it itself will intensify the fight against the Syrian Kurds and the Kurdistan Workers' Party. According to Anna Glazova, the Turkish authorities in Syria are fighting not even against the Kurdistan Workers Party, but against the Kurds as such. The victims of the Turkish military are civilians. Only from August to the end of December, according to the analyst, about 160 civilians of Kurdish nationality died there. We should not forget that the hostilities of the Turkish army against the Syrian Kurds unleash the hands of the militants of the "Islamic state", who carry out the genocide of the Kurdish, Assyrian, Armenian population living in Northern Syria.
Thus, the terrorist attack in Istanbul could be used as a provocation to further intensify Turkish strikes on Syria. In addition, the conduct of the attacks - an old-tried means of intimidation of its own population. At one time, Erdogan had already gone to the resumption of hostilities against the Kurdistan Workers' Party, just to ensure victory in the elections and keep power in their hands. A similar position on the Free Press website was voiced by Semen Bagdasarov - he also does not exclude the fact that, under the pretext of fighting the Islamic State, the Turkish state is stepping up hostilities against the Kurds in Syrian Kurdistan. The fight against the IG in this case turns into a convenient screen for attacking aviation and artillery strikes against the positions of the Workers' Party of Kurdistan and the Syrian Kurds. Vladimir Evseev, Head of the Department of Eurasian Integration and Development of the SCO Institute of the CIS countries, as reported by Vesti.ru, stressed that recently the more or less large-scale terrorist acts in the country were declared by the Turkish leadership to be "the hands of the Islamic state." According to the expert, blaming the terrorist attacks of the Islamic State, the Turkish leadership seeks to show that it does not support the “Islamic State” in Syria, and for this reason Turkey is the target of terrorist attacks by this organization.
It should be noted that the probable affiliation of a suicide bomber to the “Islamic State” does not mean that the terrorist act was completely planned by the IS. It is possible that the terrorists skillfully took advantage of certain political circles within the Turkish elite. At least, the terrorists could, if not directly, help with the preparation of a terrorist act, then close their eyes to their illegal activities. The attack can be beneficial to both opponents and supporters of the Turkish President Erdogan. For the former, he is just one more reason to accuse the Turkish president of the inability to ensure the national security of the state, to overcome extremists and terrorists, to work out the correct foreign policy line. For others, a terrorist attack is a way of consolidating society around the president and receiving public support for the possible intensification of hostilities in Syria, as well as tightening repression against Turkish political parties of pro-Kurdish and left-wing orientation. It is possible that after the terrorist attack in Turkey, further tightening of the screws will occur, including bans of political parties of pro-Kurdish and left-wing orientation (before that, conservative circles of Turkey have repeatedly demanded the ban of the Democratic Party of Peoples, the most popular pro-Kurdish leftist party at the peak of the confrontation between Turkey and Russia, express sharp dissatisfaction with Erdogan’s policies and the attack of Turkish fighters on the Russian aircraft). In any case, we can only guess about the true organizers and motives of the terrorist attack.