Military Review

Hike of the Seeadler sailing raider, or How did the count become a corsair

Hike of the Seeadler sailing raider, or How did the count become a corsair

Balagur and merry fellow, captain of the Norwegian sailboat “Gero” possessed to himself. He chewed tobacco, poisoned trifling bikes, funnyly mangling English words and at the right moments screwing salty curses into the conversation. The officer of the inspection party of the British auxiliary cruiser Avenger, himself called up from the reserve, nodded with understanding while listening to his colleague. In the recent storm, “Gero” got tight - the water hit the captain's cabin, soaking documents and logbooks. About this testified and some chaos prevailing on the sailboat. Sullen bearded men, who occasionally quarrel among themselves in this ear-scandinavian language, leisurely fumbled on the deck. The Norwegian captain was so kind that he treated his English guest with a glass of excellent rum, the aroma of which, however, smelt strongly of himself. The Englishman was no less gracious and warned Captain Gero of the possible appearance of German auxiliary cruisers in the Atlantic. Wishing each other a merry Christmas and a happy voyage, the officer of the Avenger and his sailors fell away from the side of the Gero. When the boat moved away a sufficient distance, the captain cursed firmly. In German. They were lucky - the doors to the Atlantic were open. 1916 year ended. December, Christmas.

New - well forgotten old

The first campaigns of the German auxiliary cruisers, especially the successful Meve raid, showed the effectiveness and, most importantly, the efficiency of ships converted from commercial ships. True, the Achilles' heel of any raider was his fuel supply: no matter how voluminous the coal bunkers were, they tended to be depleted. It remained to hope for rich trophies, but that was not all. Coal could not fly over the air, for its transshipment a number of conditions were necessary: ​​a secluded place, a calm sea. And most importantly - time. High-autonomous auxiliary cruisers, of course, were good, but a radical decision was necessary: ​​on the one hand, to further increase the cruising range of the raiders, on the other - to minimize their dependence on fuel stocks. Of course, the opinion of specialists first of all fell on the recently invented (1897 year) Rudolf Diesel engine, also called the “oil engine”. But there was no sufficiently powerful marine diesel engine capable of moving a large ocean vessel - even creating a ship power plant for “Deutschland” pocket battleships, the Germans faced a number of technical difficulties.

Coal raiders were too dependent on the quantity and quality of coal, there were no diesel raiders yet - and then the idea arose to shake antiquity and send a sailing ship that did not need fuel to hike. The main locomotive of this concept was a retired lieutenant fleet Alfred Kling. As a famous traveler, explorer of the Arctic, he carefully and consistently upheld the idea of ​​using a sailboat as a raider. At first, this venture provoked a certain skepticism: in the age of steam, steel, electricity, sailing ships looked beautiful, romantic, but anachronistic. However, the number of more and more positive moments gradually began to outweigh the instructive voice of skeptics. The sailboat did not need fuel, therefore, had a sailing range limited only by provisions. Such a ship is easier to disguise. A relatively small auxiliary diesel engine, for example, designed for a submarine, would have been enough to move into the calm. Of course, the prospect of returning to Germany seemed rather dubious, but it was worth a try - after the Battle of Jutland, the Germans narrowed the number of instruments for effective warfare at sea to submarines and infrequent raids. The problem, of course, was that in the German fleet there were relatively few people with extensive sailing experience, and a man was needed - knowledgeable, skillful, courageous and daring. Able to lead such a very risky venture. And such a man was found - his name was Count Felix von Luckner, corvette captain of the fleet of His Imperial Majesty.

Daredevil Count

Felix von Luckner was a person so colorful that he deserves a separate opus. Coming from an old noble family, the great-grandson of the German Marshal of France, Nicolas Luckner. In 13 years, Felix escaped from his father's house. Since in those days the boys did not sit on Vkontakte and dreamed of something more interesting and dangerous than the sales manager’s chair, a quick graph under a false name recruited as a young man for food and berth to a Russian sailboat, Niobe, heading for Australia. Upon arrival, he escaped from the ship and went traveling. He sold books of the Salvation Army, worked in a circus, professionally boxed. Another Luckner happened to work as a keeper of the lighthouse, to serve as a soldier in the Mexican army of President Diaz, to visit an innkeeper and a fisherman.

At twenty, he entered the German nautical school, passed the exam, and in 1908, he received a navigator’s diploma and a place on the steamboat of Hamburg - South America. After nine months of service in the company, he enlisted in the Imperial fleet for a year to get an officer's rank. A year later, he returned to the same company, but at the top decided that such valuable personnel should be in the ranks, and in 1912, Luckner gets into the Panther gunboat, where he meets the war. Von Luckner is involved in several naval battles - Helgoland Bay, raids on the English coast. In the battle of Jutland, the count commands the main caliber on the battleship Kronprinz. In the officer corps he is considered a rude dork and an upstart. With his background and biography, Luckner secured an acquaintance with Kaiser Wilhelm himself. He also visited the imperial yacht. When the Admiral scale decided to equip the sailboat as an auxiliary raider, a better candidate than Luckner, it was difficult to find. Colleagues in the service grumbled that some ship was entrusted to some corvette-captain, but to wash the bones to the daredevil in a cozy and large cabin of some dreadnought was one thing, and to take the reefs in the ocean was another.

Orlan prepares to fly

The commander was found, the case remained for the small - to find a suitable ship. And not some coastal pot for catching mackerel. A relatively large ocean sailboat was needed. The three-mast sailing ship "Pax of Balmah", built in England in the 1888 year and sold in the USA, got into the field of view of the organizers of the campaign. In June 1915, he was captured by the German U-36 submarine and brought to Cuxhaven as a trophy by a prize party consisting of one (!) Fenrich, that is, a cadet. First, the Pax of Balmaha, renamed the Walter, was added as a training ship. 16 July 1916, it was decided to convert it into a raider.

The ship underwent a major overhaul - two 105-mm guns were installed on it, hidden in gunwale at the side of the forecastle. Equipped cellar ammunition. The future raider received a powerful walkie-talkie, in its hold were arranged premises for approximately 400 man from the crew of the captured ships. A very exotic addition, made at the insistence of Luckner, was a hydraulic elevator in the aft cabin. By pressing a special button, the cabin floor went down on one deck. According to the experienced graph, this could, in the event of force majeure, detain uninvited visitors. As an auxiliary propulsion unit, a diesel engine and propeller were installed on the sailboat. According to calculations, he could provide a course of up to nine knots. Space was provided for additional supplies and a spare spar. The ship was named "Seeadler" (Orlan). In addition to the material and technical preparation for the campaign, much time was devoted to masking the raider, which was of great importance. The British naval blockade grew stronger, and even a sailboat slipped through enemy patrols was quite difficult. Almost impossible. Therefore, "Seeadler" was supposed to wear a mask. At first, a similar Norwegian “Maleta” was considered, from whom he managed to steal logbooks while standing in Copenhagen. The raider was not only repainted - his internal premises were camouflaged. In the cabins of the sailors were hung photographs taken in a Norwegian photo studio, a set of navigation instruments, books and records in the cabins and officers' cabins, part of the provisions were also of Norwegian production. Twenty people were chosen from among the crew who spoke a language, who were supposed to represent the deck crew.

When all preparations were completed, Luckner received an order to wait for the return of the German submarine Deutschland, which was making a commercial flight, from the USA. The British doubled the patrols, trying to intercept the transport submarine. The likelihood to please in the network of the enemy increased. I had to wait twenty days, but during this time the real “Maleta” left Copenhagen at sea. The whole legend crumbled like a house of cards. Break the entire directory of Lloyd, Luckner found another ship, similar to the Seeadler, the sailboat Carmoe. While making the appropriate changes in the camouflage and the legend, it turned out that the true "Carmoe" was inspected by the British. Everything collapsed a second time. Spitting on failure, the desperate graph renames his ship into the fictional “Hero”, hoping that the British are not so careful in studying the Lloyd’s reference books. Properly patched stolen “Malety” logbook and the same ship-borne ship's documents were designed for the inspection party to read everything that was needed, but didn’t pick it out too much. In many ways, it was pure adventure, but Lucker was not the first to risk. 21 December 1916 of the year, taking all the stocks, Seeadler left the mouth of the Weser river. There were seven officers and 4500 sailors aboard the 57-ton sailboat.

"In the flibusterskom far blue sea" new raider sails

Luckner planned to go along the Norwegian coast, then go around Scotland from the north and go to the Atlantic by the usual ship route. December 23 Seeadler hit a violent storm that its commander marked as a good sign. Now it was not necessary to invent a reason for the British, why the ship's documents and the magazine are dampened. On Christmas, 180 miles from Iceland, the raider was stopped by the British auxiliary cruiser Avenger armed with eight 152-mm guns. With such a battery, even if it wasn’t new guns, an Englishman could have planed chips from a German sailboat in minutes. Therefore, the entire calculation was on a carefully prepared and rehearsed theatrical performance. On the deck piled up a sham of a forest that was allegedly transported by a pseudo-Norwegian. The British were not burdocks and watched Seeadler quite thoroughly. But the Germans played their roles well: Luckner was a tipsy Norwegian skipper, and one of his officers, Lieutenant Leiderman (who served, by the way, before the war with Ferdinand Laesh, the famous owner of Flying P windjams), was a hospitable senior staff member. After seeing the "Norwegian", the British wished them a happy voyage and warned of a possible threat from the German submarines and auxiliary cruisers. The latter was listened to with intense attention. Avenger continued its guard service, and Seeadler began its ocean flight.

Having plunged into the ocean, the disguise was dropped - a decorative load of wood flew overboard, and the canvas capes were removed from the guns. Observers with powerful binoculars were sent to the Mars. 9 January 1917 of the year in 120 miles south of the Azores from a raider noticed a single-tube steamer, which went without a flag. With the Seeadler, a signal was requested to read the chronometer — a usual procedure for sailboats of that time that had not seen the coast for a long time. The steamer lowered its speed, and at that time a German military flag was raised on a harmless “Norwegian” barge, the bulwarks lowered and the shot rang out. The steamer not only did not stop, but tried to go in a zigzag manner, but the next projectile exploded in front of the bow, the third one flew over the deck. The ship stopped the cars and raised the flag of the English merchant fleet. Captain Gladys Royle, coming from Buenos Aires with a cargo of coal, arriving at Seeadler, said in surprise that he noticed the German flag only when the third shot sounded. Before that, the British thought that the “Norwegian” was attacking a submarine, and even began to perform anti-submarine zigzag. Secretly delighted with this confirmation of the thoroughness of the disguise, Luckner sent the boarding party, which set up the explosive charges, and Gladys Royle went to the bottom. Account has been opened.

The next day, January 19, observers found another steamer. The ship haughtily did not respond to all the signals of a sailboat, and then Luckner ordered to cut the stranger’s course, hoping that, in accordance with the rules, he would give way to the sailing ship and slow down. However, the ship lane forward, not even thinking to stop. Infuriated by such blatant rudeness, Luckner ordered to raise the German flag and open fire. "Landy Island" (the so-called impudent merchant) tried to escape, but the Germans opened rapid fire - after four hits, he stopped and began to lower the boats. Luckner demanded that the captain come on board with the papers, but this was not done. The Germans had to lower their boat. When the captain of the ship was brought to Seeadler by force, the following was revealed. The ship went with a cargo of sugar from Madagascar, and its owner wanted to make good money on it. When the shells began to fall into the vessel, the crew of the natives, throwing everything, rushed to the boats. And then Captain George Bannister himself took the helm. But one of the hits was interrupted by a shipwreck, the ship lost control - the sailors fled, leaving their captain. After learning the details and appreciating the courage of the Englishman, Luckner calmed down, and Landy Island was finished off with guns.

Seeadler continued to move south. On January 21, he captured and sank the French bark Charles Gounod, and on January 24 a small English schooner Perseus. On February 3, during a turbulent weather, a large four-masted bark "Antonin" was seen from the raider. For the sake of sporting interest, the Germans decided to arrange a small regatta - there were many daredevils in the crew who had served on the windjammers before the war and knew a lot about such fun. The wind grew stronger, the Frenchman began to clean the sails, fearing for their integrity. Luckner did not remove a shred - the Seeadler approached the side of a French barge, from which they looked at the "crazy Norwegian" in surprise. Suddenly, the German flag was raised, and the machine-gun burst turned the sails so protected by the captain of the "Antonin" as rags. After inspecting the loser of the bark race was sent to the bottom. February 9 raider captured and sank the Italian sailboat "Buenos Aires" with a load of saltpeter.

Seeadler team with four-legged prisoner

In the morning of February 19 an elegant large four-masted barque appeared on the horizon. Seeadler chased after him, the stranger accepted the challenge by adding sails. He was a good walker - the raider began to fall behind. Then the Germans started to help the auxiliary diesel, and the distance began to decrease. What was the surprise of Luckner himself when, in a stranger, he recognized the ship of his youth - the British bark “Pinmore”, in which he happened to go around Cape Horn. The war is merciless to the feelings of people and, obviously, decided to joke evil with the commander of "Seeadler." No matter how hard it was, but an old friend was sent to the bottom - to the raider he would be only a burden. On the morning of February 26 in the claws of the Orlan hit the bark of the “British Yomen”, whose name did not cause doubts in its nationality. "Yeomen" transported a variety of animals: chickens and piglets. Therefore, in addition to the crew, the Germans captured quite a few cackling and grunting prisoners, and then sunk their prize. In the evening of the same day, the French cargo bark “Laroshfuko” added to the collection of trophies of the German raider. February 27 named after the philosopher-moralist ship without too much philosophizing unceremoniously sank.

Next time, “Seeadler” was lucky on the evening of March 5. In fine weather, on the background of the moon, the signalmen saw the silhouette of a four-masted sailboat. Approaching a short distance, the Germans signaled: “Stop. German cruiser. Soon, the captain of the French barge "Duplet" Charnier climbed aboard in a very bad mood. He was just sure that he was the victim of someone's stupid joke or an awkward joke. All the jokes ended when the Frenchman saw a portrait of Emperor Wilhelm II on the wall in the cabin of Luckner. Charnier was very upset - a rumor was already crawling along the coast of South America that something was wrong at sea, merchant ships began to accumulate in the harbors. However, he did not wait for the shipowners instructions, but decided to take a chance and left the safe Valparaiso. The count showed sympathy and poured the enemy colleague an excellent trophy of French cognac. Duple was less fortunate - it was undermined.

March 11 on the eyes "Seeadler" after a series of sailing ships finally caught a large ship. As in their very first hunt, the Germans raised a signal asking them to indicate the time by chronometer. The steamer did not respond. Then, hunting for all sorts of fiction and improvisation, the count ordered to start a smoke generator prepared in advance, depicting a fire. At the same time, the signal flares were launched. The British imbued with such a dramatic picture and went to the rescue. When the steamer "Horngart" came closer, the Germans noticed an impressive weapon at its stern that could bring the wooden raider into serious trouble. It was necessary to act decisively, and most importantly, quickly. The distance between the ships decreased, the "fire" was suddenly brought under control. A specially-dressed sailor appeared on deck, waving affably to the approaching steamer. While the British were clapping their eyes, the bulwark sank and the 105-mm cannon aimed at the steamer, at the same time the German flag was raised. The captain of the "Horngarth" was not one of the timid, either, and refused to capitulate - the servants ran to the cannon. But it was not easy to resist Luckner and his floating theater troupe. A boarding team with headers and rifles jumped out onto the Seeadler's deck. For solidity, they immediately set up a machine gun. While on board the “Horngart” they were watching how some kind of unkind bearded men, suspiciously similar to the accomplices of captain Flint and Billy Bons, scurry about on a gloomy sailboat, a special noise gun fired from a pipe and filled with gunpowder fired from the raider. There was a terrible roar, at the same time the Germans fired from a real gun - the projectile demolished the radio station’s antenna. The culmination of the performance was the simultaneous roar of three people into megaphones: “Prepare torpedoes!” Such pressure, such expression was impossible to resist - the turmoil on the ship subsided, and the British waved white rags. After picking up several musical instruments from the obstinate steamer, including a piano for the mess room, the Germans sent him on a flight to Neptune.

March 21, capturing the French bark "Cambrnn", "Seeadler" replenished with provisions. Taking advantage of the fact that her Frenchman was abundant, Luckner decided to get rid of, finally, a large number of prisoners, which by this time there were already more than three hundred people. The content of such a crowd became overhead - ship stocks were destroyed at high speed. Yes, and guard the prisoners was troublesome. It was not possible to send “Cambronn” with the prize game - the raider’s crew was few in number. The Germans couldn’t provide the sailing ship into the hands of the captives either - it would quickly reach the coast and warn the enemy. Received slyly. At Kambronn, they simply cut down the branches, destroyed the spare mast and threw overboard the sail. Now the boat could reach the nearest port of Rio de Janeiro no earlier than ten days later. East of Trinidad, the Frenchman was released with the wishes of a happy voyage.

Seeadler hike scheme

Having done things in the Atlantic, Luckner decided to change the region of activity. Seeadler moved south and April 18 skirted Cape Horn. The raider was so deep in these inhospitable latitudes that he even met several icebergs. Carefully advancing along the coast of Chile, the Germans managed to safely reach out to the auxiliary cruiser Otranto, known for having managed to survive in the extremely bad battle for the British at Cape Coronel, in which Maximilian von Spee defeated the English squadron of Admiral Cradock. In order to put down the vigilance of the enemy, Luckner resorted to another improvisation. Overboard were thrown boats and life jackets, previously removed from the sunk ships. The inscriptions "Seeadler" were made on them. At the same time, the radio of the raider transmitted several short messages that terminated halfway through with the SOS signal. Considering the west coast of South America rather dangerous place, Luckner decided to go to a more calm, free from enemy water patrols. In early June, the raider was in the area of ​​Christmas Island in the Pacific Ocean, where his crew learned about the US entry into the war on the side of the Entente. The range of possible mining has increased. Already on June 14 was captured and burned - shells were saved - four-masted American schooner “A. Johnson. " Then two more American sailboats fell into the hands of Luckner.

In late July, the commander of the raider decided to give his team a rest, and at the same time to carry out some repairs to the Seeadler itself. The shortage of fresh water and fresh provisions began to be felt on board, which threatened scurvy. He anchored off the island of Mopelia from the archipelago of French Polynesia. It was quite deserted here, it was possible not only to sort out the ship diesel, but also to clean the bottom of the ship - for the long voyage Seeadler was thoroughly overgrown, which affected its speed characteristics.

Adventures of new robinsons

Wreck "Seeadler" on the reefs

2 August 1917, an unexpected event put an end to the military career of the auxiliary cruiser. Von Luckner himself describes this in his pictorial memoirs as a sudden tsunami. According to him, in the morning of August 2, a sudden huge wave suddenly threw Seeadler onto reefs. It all happened so quickly that the Germans could not even start their diesel to take the ship out of the bay. Captured Americans later poisonously told another historyas if 2 August morning was really hard for the count and his team because of the fierce fighting with a green serpent, in which he won a convincing victory. The anchors of the Seeadler left unattended were crawling, and the raider carried the reefs astern. No data confirming the tsunami in the area has been preserved. The bottom line was sadly - Luckner and his people suddenly turned into island inmates. But the active nature of the experienced earl was uttered by the career of Robinson Crusoe looming in front of him and the crew, although Mopelia had water and a lot of vegetation, and the Germans managed to save most of the provisions and equipment. It seemed that you should sit on the bank and wait until you pick up - but no. On August 23, Luckner and five sailors took to sea in a lifeboat named after the “Crown Princess Cecilia” - this was the name of one of the German transatlantic airliners. The purpose of the journey was the Cook Islands, and if circumstances allow, then Fiji. The count was planning to capture some sailboat, return for his people and continue cruising.

26 August boat reached one of the Cook Islands. The Germans were posing as traveling Dutch. However, moving from island to island, Lucker did not manage to find a single any acceptable watercraft. The New Zealand administration began to suspect something about the suspicious Dutch, so the “travelers” considered it a blessing to go further. The transition to Fiji was difficult - the fragile shell of a boat was winding in tropical storms, its crew sizzled with the heat of the equatorial sun, lack of provisions and water led to scurvy. Finally, the extremely worn out “Crown Princess Cecilia” arrived at Wakaya Island, located near one of the largest islands in the Viti Levu archipelago. Barely recovering from the most dangerous and full of adversity campaign, the Germans decided to seize a small schooner with a load of clothing and provisions. Preparations for the assault were in full swing when a steamer arrived on the island with a group of armed policemen. The administration became aware of the arrival of dangling individuals with an unkind spark in their eyes, and she reported where to go. Luckner forbade his people to resist. The Germans did not have a military uniform, and, according to the laws of wartime, they could simply be hung on the nearest palm trees as ordinary thugs. On September 21, the commander of the Seeadler was taken prisoner along with his people.

In the fate of their comrades robinzonstvuyuschih on Mopelia, in the meantime, there was an unexpected turn. On September 5, the French schooner Lutezia approached the island. Left behind the senior officer, Kling began to give distress signals, his people dismantled weapon. The greedy Frenchman saw the wreckage of “Seeadler” and agreed to help for a third of the sum insured. The Germans happily agreed, "Lutetia" anchored, and a boat with armed sailors approached it ... The French were asked to clean the ship. Leaving the prisoners of the Americans on the island from the schooners captured by the Seeadler together with the French and their excessively caring captain, Kling led his trophy to the east. Three days later, the Japanese armored cruiser Izumo approached the atoll and was involved in the search for a German raider, who took the captives from the shore. It turned out that the “Lutetia” had previously belonged to the Germans and was called “Fortune” - the ship returned its former name. Kling planned to go to Easter Island and prepare the ship for the transition around Cape Horn - he was still hoping to return to his homeland. However, on October 4 1917, Fortune swooped in on a reef not marked on the map and was wrecked. The crew was able to get to Easter Island, where he was interned by the Chilean authorities until the end of the war.

Return of the prodigal graph

The tireless graph and in captivity was deprived of peace, which caused a lot of trouble. 13 December 1917, he and his people fled from New Zealand on a boat that belonged to the commandant of the prison camp. The boat was armed with a skillfully made mock machine gun. Luckner once again took the risk, deceiving and desperately bluffing. The Germans managed to capture a small moa schooner. The indomitable corsairs were already preparing to continue their march when a patrol ship approached the board of the Moa. His commander paid tribute to the courage and resourcefulness of the Germans, but very seriously proposed to stop naughty. Luckner sighed and agreed. He was captured again. Until the end of the war, he stayed in New Zealand. Count Felix von Luckner returned to Germany defeated in the Versailles Peace Treaty in 1919. By 1920, the entire crew of the Seeadler was already at home.

During the 244 day of the cruise, the last German auxiliary cruiser destroyed three steamboats and eleven sailboats with a total tonnage of more than 30 thousand tons. The idea of ​​a disguised as a harmless sailboat raider fully justified. The Seeadler's wreck was inspected by former shipowners after the war, and its condition was deemed unsuitable for further restoration. Felix von Luckner lived a long and rich life. He died in the city of Malmo in Sweden 13 April 1966, at the age of 84 years. The raid of the sailing auxiliary cruiser at the height of the era of iron and steam was a unique experiment, and the only one left. As if times and heroes of Stevenson and Sabatini for a moment returned from the past, flashed into obscure silhouettes and melted in the ocean haze, like the era of the Jolly Roger, piastres and gentlemen of fortune.
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 7 January 2016 07: 49
    Beautiful story. Opponent worthy of respect. Adventurers are lucky.
    1. goblin xnumx
      goblin xnumx 8 January 2016 17: 43
      here is not only luck :) here he helped himself with his hands and head :)
    2. CHILD
      CHILD 10 January 2016 11: 01
      yes ..... romance))))
  2. Rurikovich
    Rurikovich 7 January 2016 08: 05
    I read about the adventures of "Seeadler" earlier, where the version of his death with the tsunami was officially featured. But fighting the green snake seems more believable. Fortune's trust limit was exhausted and fate said "enough" to play pirates.
    Article five good hi
  3. kuz363
    kuz363 7 January 2016 09: 13
    Amazing story. Although a novel can be written by any writer or a film can be made. These are truly real adventure sailors. Although Russia considers itself a maritime power, it did not have real victorious modern naval battles. With the exception of long victories over the Turks or Swedes under Peter 1 and later. And so the total defeat - the Crimean War of 1854, Tsushima in 1905, the death of the Black Sea squadron in 1918, the defeat in the Baltic and the Black Sea in the Second World War. Yes, there was escort of foreign convoys in the Arctic, raids of submarines or landings on the Kuril Islands. But this is a trifle compared to the grand naval battles of huge battleships, cruisers, aircraft carriers, aircraft and submarines of Germany, Italy, England, the USA, Japan ... So they are true sea powers that have sailed for a long time across all oceans and fought.
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 7 January 2016 12: 57
      "Russia ... had no real victorious modern naval battles."
      I ask for more about the victories of Italy, I did not find any interest.
    2. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 8 January 2016 04: 35
      Dear kuz363!
      "But this is a trifle compared to the grandiose naval battles of huge battleships, cruisers, aircraft carriers, aircraft and submarines of Germany, Italy, England, USA, Japan ..."

      Look out the window. The "asymmetric answer" was invented yesterday, but we brought it to life at sea when. One Turkish War of 1877 what is it worth. Turkish newest miracle battleships and zilch. In vain you brush off Gangut, in galleys against a squadron of handsome LK. And the Swedish naval power, which inspired respect for another naval power, England, wept with resentment and rage. I hasten to please you, the opinion about the Crimean War is no longer so unambiguous. There were no grandiose sea battles? Something logic refuses you at all. Defeat in Krymskaya before our eyes, and a grandiose victory a year before the war of "long-term victories over the Turks."
      A sea power is not LCs and aircraft carriers, but something else ... Trafalgar is good, but Tsushima teaches you more. The rest of the pearls can be considered the same, but why.
      Summary. 1. Sorry, Russia reckoned with Petit, reckons and will reckon herself with the sea powers. One hatred and attention to our fleet of our enemies is worth it. 2. It does not matter what to read, it is important what to look for. 3. And you will be happy, Happy New Year.
      1. Tjeck
        Tjeck 8 January 2016 13: 20
        I think you didn’t understand a bit about what kuz363 wrote. Although I also did not quite understand the point about the greatness of battleships, etc. .. But it seems to me that he had in mind experience and a list of maritime traditions, in Russia full-fledged navigation began much later than in Holland, England, Spain, Portugal and several other countries. Although a rather powerful fleet was already built under Catherine’s, for me the doctrine of Russia, or rather Russian, until the end of the Second World War, was mostly land.
        1. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 8 January 2016 15: 44
          "he meant the experience and the list of maritime traditions" - it is not clear, please clarify.

          1. As for the comrade, who is not at all comrade to us, he expressed himself clearly and clearly.
          2. Honestly, I did not encroach on the priority of the ocean crossings of the Tumbu-yumbu tribe. I think they will wipe the nose of both Holland and Spain and others like them. By the way, do you know the campaigns of the Chinese squadrons?
          3. "already under Catherine," why does Petin's fleet not inspire you? It's a shame.
          4. Geographical discoveries, circumnavigations of the world, steam fleet, the campaign of Rozhestvensky’s squadrons, unprecedented, by the way in terms of the number of ships, can be thrown into a cart. Well, you won’t be forcibly sweet. World War I in the Baltic, mine positions - sku-ka-shadow.
          5. Why do you even deal with issues of building and doctrines of the Navy, if they are to say the least ....
          1. Tjeck
            Tjeck 8 January 2016 17: 27
            Maritime tradition is when a country lives at the expense of shipping and shipbuilding for centuries. This approach is paying off, for example, when we were preoccupied with Nikon's reforms (to be baptized with two or three fingers) in England, we learned to comb out the exact displacement of ships. In fact, this is nothing terrible, because in those days everyone had their own cockroaches, but this indicates us to the sea powers ..

            Now point by point .. What kind of friend? I did not quite understand the first, second and fourth paragraph.

            Peter is certainly the ancestor of the Russian fleet, but under Peter there was still no full-fledged linear fleet. We smashed Swedes on rather peculiar vessels. But already under Catherine, we were sailing squadrons of battleships of the 1/2/3-rd class, which could equally withstand, for example, the same British.

            Tell me, where did I say that I deal with questions of building and doctrines of the Navy? Unlike 90% of forum users, I'm not a professor or even an expert .. laughing Glued models of the ships in youth - yes! Well, I am fond of history to this day in my free time, although for the most part the sea battles do not cause me interest.
            1. Mavrikiy
              Mavrikiy 9 January 2016 07: 55
              Dear, let's get less Western European rot. By it I mean sticky, soft and sweet formulations. It is necessary to speak smoothly and correctly, that is, pleasantly, at the Geyropskiy forums, where they will understand you and appreciate you with a grant.
              1. "Maritime traditions are when a country has lived at the expense of navigation and shipbuilding for centuries. This approach bears fruit." The sweetest fruits came from piracy and the slave trade. Very clearly noticed - for centuries. Here I have nothing to argue, I bow down.
              And everyone sinned with this - the struggle for the colonies. And the winner was the one who had not only the sharpest knife, but ... and yes, but whose hand did not tremble when he cut it. Well, excuse me, while they were doing a useful thing there, we are miserable, here we "measured the earth with steps", you know Siberia, yes, as you were pleased to note, we counted our fingers. At the same time, thank you "for your understanding" and your indulgence. "In fact, there is nothing terrible about it" - it's so cute. But for my family of cockroaches, I love you .... Oh, mederators ... You have to be law-abiding, but you don't want to, you have no strength.
              By the way, dear "non-experts" where did the nasty England get the shipbuilding culture and maritime traditions in 30 years? And where are the enlightened maritime powers of Spain and Portugal. I look out the window and cannot see. Glasses need to be bought, but I think the "small scope" will help more. By the way, I’m curious how they are doing there, we’re all like that, and they go bursting with fat, oh, we would.
              "In fact, there is nothing terrible in this, since in those days everyone had their own cockroaches, but this points us to the maritime powers .." Did you understand what you wrote, heart? If a foreigner - I will forgive, if ours - I will send to the Soviet school, yes, yes, for the second year.
              Dear Tjeck! I didn’t get to the points, I apologize.
              From the previous "doctrine of Russia, or rather Russian until the end of the Second World War", what can I say, I have no words. In this dispute I am powerless and even the ascorbic acid will no longer help me.
              1. Tjeck
                Tjeck 9 January 2016 18: 28
                Not only do you write off topic so also rude, I'm sorry for you ..
                1. Mavrikiy
                  Mavrikiy 10 January 2016 06: 44
                  Dear Tjeck!
                  Let me explain the situation.
                  If you are interested in the history of the Russian fleet, which is noteworthy on the Russian website, you must follow a couple of rules, believe me, I’m introducing them not personally for you, but to help you avoid such situations.
                  1. Change the condescending tone, if not respectful, then neutral, I hope this is not difficult.
                  2. Understand your own fleet, whose fleet you are interested in: "the doctrine of Russia, or rather the Russian doctrine, up to the end of the Second World War, was for the most part land-based." Here explain to me, stupid, the differences. By the way, here the "doctrine" was drawn. And for one thing, look for who said and when: "Russia has only two allies, the army and the navy," maybe the time frame will expand.

                  "Unlike 90% of the forum users, I am not a professor or even an expert," compared to me, you are an academician, I did not even glue the models.
                  1. Mavrikiy
                    Mavrikiy 10 January 2016 14: 15
                    Sir (how powerful is the Russian language, instead of: citizen), how can I, a citizen of Russia, calmly discuss with you the "doctrines of Russia" if Russia fought "on rather peculiar courts"?
                    Write on the topic, although I wrote on it, please.
                    The previous opponent (kuz363) denied Russia the right to be called a naval power on the grounds that it did not have "real victorious modern naval battles." I expressed my disagreement with his criterion and I can develop this topic for a very long time.
                    You considered it necessary to come to his aid and suggested the following clarification "he meant the experience and reckoning of maritime traditions." Once again I repeat the experience and transfer of maritime traditions among the Papuans of the Tumbu-Yumbu tribe by an order of magnitude more than in England and the United States taken together. I stubbornly regard as a naval power only that country that can and is solving its problems at sea and ocean. Although I really do not want to consider the United States as such, and probably I will refuse it.
                  2. Tjeck
                    Tjeck 10 January 2016 21: 33
                    Change the tone to neutral? Yes, I’m not rude to you .. The forum is not Russian but Russian-speaking, if you follow your logic, then oh my God - the Internet is American ?! Only now your logic is destructive if you divide Russians and Russians, for example, Belarus, but I consider myself Russian and not going to listen to your nationalistic heresy. As for the fact that I dared to speak out, I think it was carrying unnecessary praise in my opinion correctly. It is not intended to recognize the successful experience of others is not patriotism - it is insanity.

                    The slogan about the army and the fleet is certainly beautiful, but for some reason the main deterrent from the beginning of the atomic bombing of the USSR in 1945 was not the fleet but the ground forces, in particular mechanized units.
                    1. Mavrikiy
                      Mavrikiy 12 January 2016 04: 25
                      "but the main deterrent from the start of the atomic bombing of the USSR in 1945, for some reason, was not the fleet, but the ground forces, in particular mechanized units."

                      Honestly, I again did not understand what you wrote. But seeing the "main restraining factor" of "the USSR in 1945" "was not the fleet but the ground forces," I dare to suggest the following. Do you think that the USSR, roughly until 1945, was not a sea power. I disagree with that. Sorry, it won't be short.

                      1. Opponent "course" gave the criterion for defining the term "sea power" in the form of high-profile victories - "although Russia ranks itself as a sea power, it did not have real victorious modern sea battles." I disagreed with the criterion.
                      2. You have suggested the following substitution of the definition "he meant experience and the list of maritime traditions". I disagree with him. The experience of sailing among the ancient Greeks and Arabs was no less than that of the British.
                      3. Dealing with the history of world wars, and there were not two, but much more, in the West they introduced "civilization of the sea" and "civilization of land" and they understood something for themselves.
                      4. Indeed, after the war, to ensure our own security, we began to build an ocean fleet. We did not need it for navigation and the transfer of marine traditions. And your hint at the post-war period, says that at that time there were only 2 sea powers: the USA and the USSR, whose Navy plowed all the seas and oceans.
                      Thanks, of course, but don't.
                      5. I dare not speak on behalf of "professors and experts of Russia", but I think the term "sea power" is applicable to countries whose ships not only trade, but most importantly, which can defend their interests in maritime theaters, up to remote ones. Not Such an approach says that there have always been several sea powers, and Russia with access to the Sea of ​​Peter.
                      6. We do not accept examples of the type "ships of 1/2/3-rd class that could equally withstand, for example, the same British." The fleet is built to meet the challenges of the STATE at sea. Your confrontation is a general battle, and our TASKS are in the first place. And we have always had an asymmetrical answer. The British were building the LC, and we are armored cruisers, they are LC, and we are submarines, they are in the 19th century squadrons of the LC to the United States, we are squadrons of cruisers. Turkey battleships, we are mine boats. Hence the "rather peculiar courts" of Peter 1.
                      7 There is no need to promote Western theories in our field; they will not take root here. We ourselves will determine whether we are a sea power or not. By the way, by my theory, I propose to leave England in the sea, but you seem to not love her and throw it away.
                      8. Favorite topic of the Westerners: nationalism, it seems everywhere and plunges into a stupor.
                      It took me a mention of the Russian site to call for more respect for the subject.
                      1. Mavrikiy
                        Mavrikiy 12 January 2016 05: 49
                        Yes, from 1905 to 1950 it’s hard to call us a sea power, but before that period - no, brother naughty!
        2. 97110
          97110 8 January 2016 21: 48
          Quote: Tjeck
          in Russia, full-fledged seafaring began much later than in Holland,

          and Dezhnev, Khabarov and other Pomors are the distorted nicknames of the Dutch drug addicts, who, when they were high, pulled away from the prosecutions of the police far away.
    3. Aleksander
      Aleksander 8 January 2016 14: 47
      Quote: kuz363
      Although Russia considers itself a maritime power, it’s real victorious modern maritime had no battles. With the exception of long-standing victories over the Turks or Swedes under Peter 1 and later. And so continuous defeats - Crimean War 1854 Mr. Tsushima in 1905, the death of the Black Sea squadron in 1918, defeat in the Baltic and the Black Sea in WWII

      So much aplomb, but basic things about battles, are not known: the Crimean War began in 1853, and not in the 1854 year, and it was during her time that the famous Sinop battle (1853)when the Turkish fleet under the command of Osman Pasha, which consisted of 16 ships with 472 guns and was covered by 38 coastal guns, was destroyed. After the battle, which lasted 4 and a half hours, all Turkish ships were destroyed, except for one that escaped. Turks lost more 3000 killed and wounded, the commander of Osman Pasha, two ship commanders and 200 sailors were captured.
      The Russians lost 38 killed and 235 people wounded. If this is not a victory, then what is it?
      For comparison, in the largest battle at sea-Jutland in 1916 the German losses were the same - 3 000 killed and wounded.
      1. 97110
        97110 8 January 2016 21: 52
        Quote: Aleksander
        If this is not a victory, then what is it?

        It doesn’t count, it’s all Putin wins. Undemocratic like that.
  4. Korsar4
    Korsar4 7 January 2016 09: 19
    Quote: kuz363
    a trifle compared to the grand naval battles of huge battleships, cruisers, aircraft carriers, aircraft and submarines of Germany, Italy, England, the USA, Japan ... So they are true sea powers that have sailed for a long time across all oceans and fought.

    I would not be so categorical. We had, for example, the Battle of Sinop. And the States have Operation Cottage.
    1. xan
      xan 7 January 2016 11: 27
      Quote: Korsar4
      I would not be so categorical. We had, for example, the Battle of Sinop. And the States have Operation Cottage.

      there were fights in the Baltic in WWI.
  5. parusnik
    parusnik 7 January 2016 09: 32
    However, on October 4, 1917, Fortuna hit a reef not shown on the map and crashed.... Fortune turned its back on "Fortune" that day .. Thank you, Denis ... very interesting ...
  6. Amurets
    Amurets 7 January 2016 09: 33
    I don’t understand why the author writes that in Germany there were few sailors sailing? Before the First World War in Germany there were companies that sailed bulk cargoes from South America. In particular, the company Layesha. So sailors could be found. Article plus for interesting submitted material. Well, for those who want to read about large sailing boats, here's another link.
  7. pts-m
    pts-m 7 January 2016 09: 35
    Interesting article. Sometimes I don’t think of it. Especially in those days when progress was moving forward.
    1. 97110
      97110 8 January 2016 21: 54
      Quote: PTS-m
      at a time when progress was moving forward.

      And when back?
  8. 89067359490
    89067359490 7 January 2016 09: 44
    The sight of Seeadler under full sail impressed the captain of the barge Antonin so much that he ordered a photograph of a German raider to be taken - this picture is a reproduction of that very photo.
  9. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 7 January 2016 10: 04
    Only such adventurers could go on such adventures. It's amazing how the wooden ship withstood the recoil of the large guns. It's good that the "green serpent" defeated the brave Germans. They could have done a lot of trouble in Oceania.
  10. Para bellum
    Para bellum 7 January 2016 10: 16
    Thanks, very interesting! Who does not risk, he does not drink champagne! drinks
  11. Robert Nevsky
    Robert Nevsky 7 January 2016 10: 32
    God, what a scoundrel these Germans !!!
    German means mean.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 7 January 2016 11: 17
      Quote: Robert Nevsky
      God, what a scoundrel these Germans !!!

      And here the Germans? Read Gleb Blagoveshchensky "World History of Piracy". What are the names and surnames. Drake, Morgan are well-known names, and you know that they were in the service of the English crown? And not only them. Capers, that's the scourge of the seas. During wars, the governments of the belligerent states issued patents to their merchant sailors for waging an unlimited war against the enemy's merchant fleet, but using these patents, privateers robbed not only enemy ships, but also neutrals, and even turned their ships into pirates. The most widely used this right was the English, Spanish and Dutch sailors. About the raiders of Germany you can read I. Bunich. "Corsairs of the Kaiser" and "Pirates of the Fuhrer". And also about the raider campaigns of Hitler's cruisers and "Pocket battleships." and raiding.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 7 January 2016 11: 36
        And also Dampierre, etc. "The Kaiser's Corsairs" were very popular in their time.
    2. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 7 January 2016 13: 16
      Dear Robert Nevsky!
      Your review "Lord, what scoundrels these Germans are!" In war, as in war. Well, the Kaiser (from the modern point of view, "big is seen at a distance") lacked the notion that England can only be defeated by a blockade and that submarines and cruiser-raiders are needed and not LK. Hence the results. Or will we drip tears over "peaceful" sailing ships, human rights? The war was not for destruction, as in WW2, but also "peaceful" got it.
      By the way, in Russian "German" can mean "dumb" or "not us", who likes what.
    3. igordok
      igordok 7 January 2016 13: 58
      Quote: Robert Nevsky
      God, what a scoundrel these Germans !!!
      German means mean.

      In general, they did not kill captured sailors, and after drowning the prize, they carried with them. And fed from their diet, and, if possible, fused (got rid) of prisoners without cruelty.
      Question. What does the word "German" mean in Bulgarian? Or how are Germans called in Bulgaria?
      ALEA IACTA EST 7 January 2016 17: 25
      Insolence is not a vice, especially in war.
  12. lilian
    lilian 7 January 2016 10: 37
    When the Horngart steamboat came closer, the Germans noticed a cannon of impressive size on its stern, which could bring major trouble to the wooden raider.

    The sailboat was steel.
  13. xan
    xan 7 January 2016 11: 36
    I live in St. Petersburg, I often see various ships. But from the sailboats I feel some energy, my head is spinning. There is something in them, words can not convey.
    1. 97110
      97110 8 January 2016 21: 58
      Quote: xan
      I see various ships. But from sailboats

      The supporter of the view on supporting weapons (cannon or sailing) is a ship. No - the ship.
  14. Plombirator
    7 January 2016 12: 35
    Quote: kuz363
    So they are the true maritime powers that have sailed all over the oceans and fought long ago.

    You see, dear colleague, you, of course, correctly listed our failures, but do not forget that only superficially, the heroic deed of the brig "Mercury", Navarin, Sinop and the very successful use of mine weapons in the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878 can be added to the assets of the Russian fleet in the XNUMXth century. Well, due to political circumstances, the Russian eagle and the British lion did not clash not in a diplomatic, but in a military battle, although both were preparing for this. And we had steamers of the ROPiT company, which in case of war would have to carry out other laughing functions. But now this is a topic for modeling an alternate reality). As for defeats, France, which considers itself a great maritime power, had a great many of them - almost the entire XNUMXth century, and Trafalgar as the culmination. And nothing - they didn't come from the fleet. Another thing is that we have "historians" - rippers - and "Varyag" - not "Varyag", and he is stupid, but he is cowardly.
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 7 January 2016 12: 53
      Denis, I suggest you open the topic of the French fleet ... and especially take the period from the 13th to the 16th century, essentially France, spread rot the future mistress of the seas England ... The 3th century was with varying success, to Trafalgar .. The people’s opinion is mainly that England has ruled the seas for centuries .. although this is far from true ..
      Thank you for your congratulations .. Mutually! hi
      1. Plombirator
        7 January 2016 13: 11
        Thank you, colleague!) I will work on this vast and very interesting topic)
      2. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 9 January 2016 08: 31
        Is it worth it? Black cable, do not wash to white.
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 7 January 2016 14: 56
      Quote: Plombirator
      Another thing is that we have "historians" - rippers - and "Varyag" - not "Varyag", and he is stupid, but he is cowardly.

      What I want to say! "Varyag is" Varyag "and his feat is immortal. And there is nothing to say about it. But what a forced feat is another matter. Why did the" Varyag "end up in Chemulpo? Why are there legends about the fastest ship? secrets are hidden in the secret of the orders of "Varyag" and "Retvizan" at the firm "Kramp and Sons". And these secrets are ajar, but not fully disclosed in the books of R.M. Melnikov "Tsesarevich" and "Cruiser Varyag". Why allowed forbidden in Russian navy boilers Niklos? Why only once was "Varyag" able to develop the contract speed? Why were the machines constantly out of order? There is no answer to these questions. These same malfunctions pursued the "Varyag" in the Japanese fleet, where it was called "Soya" .And again in the Russian fleet, when it was required to strengthen the "Northern Ocean Flotilla" during the 1st World War. And even its death carries many mysteries.
    3. 97110
      97110 8 January 2016 22: 01
      Quote: Plombirator
      the Russian eagle and the British lion did not clash in diplomatic, but in military combat

      And why did their Palmerston worry that all the water of the Pacific Ocean wouldn’t be enough to wash away the shame ... Or leavened patriots lie, shame doesn’t eat their Palmerston’s shame.
  15. Plombirator
    7 January 2016 13: 05
    Quote: Robert Nevsky
    God, what a scoundrel these Germans !!!

    Believe me, dear colleague, during the XVII-XVIII centuries and the period of the Napoleonic wars, the British suffered so much from the actions of the French corsairs and capers that the results of the German raids in the First World War seemed to be just a little hooliganism. Of course, I do not take into account the operations of submarines, but only surface ships. The count of captured and drowned prizes after each European war is calculated in hundreds and thousands of ships. The names of Jean Bara (the first French dreadnought was named after him), Rene Duguay-Truin and who became a highly respected lord in his homeland of Robert Sirkuf are honored in France no less than their English counterparts - Drake, Raleigh and other respected gentlemen. laughing
  16. mitya1941
    mitya1941 7 January 2016 13: 12
    Interestingly, the largest battle of the 18th century The Battle of the Islands of All Saints took place from April 9 to 12, 1782 between the islands of Dominica and Guadeloupe between the English and French fleets during the War of Independence in North America 1775−83.36 battleships of Britain, 33 battleships France.
  17. Alex
    Alex 7 January 2016 13: 30
    Denis, great article. Truly, he read and enjoyed an entertaining plot and an excellent syllable.

    Thanks! "+" good
  18. Nikolay71
    Nikolay71 7 January 2016 13: 37
    Thanks to the author! I learned a lot.
  19. Seasoned22
    Seasoned22 7 January 2016 14: 01
    The most interesting thing was that there was a Wolf raider nearby under the command of the second-rank captain Nerger. But both captains did not know that they were in the same area.
  20. python2a
    python2a 7 January 2016 14: 15
    As the Russian proverb says: "The boldness of the city takes."
    1. Kombrig
      Kombrig 8 January 2016 11: 28
      [quote = python2a] As the Russian proverb says: "The courage of the city takes"

      The courage of the city takes; the impudence - the streets. (no less popular continuation of the saying ..))))))
  21. Bashibuzuk
    Bashibuzuk 7 January 2016 15: 28
    This is not directly German, but reckless Russian, honestly.
    Looks like he was young when he was young, when a young man came to our ship.
    Count Felix von Luckner.
    Wonderful personality.
    And, the fight against the green serpent ... well, before that it's "pirate". Beauty.
    Interesting article.
    At the same time we learn that back in 1917-1920. sailing ships worked with might and main. Yes, and not trunk lines.
  22. napalm
    napalm 7 January 2016 15: 56
    It would be very interesting to have more such articles.
  23. fa2998
    fa2998 8 January 2016 09: 56
    Quote: Mavrikiy
    Russia with Petit reckoned, reckons and will reckon itself with the sea powers. One hatred and attention to our fleet of our enemies is worth it.

    But in my opinion, both under "Pete" and under "Katya" Russia was continuously building the FLEET - there is a fleet - there are victories! And at the moment, only corvettes and small rocket boats. When Russia last launched a CRUISER or, at worst, a destroyer ?? hi RS-use the legacy of the USSR which has not been there for 25 years (we are talking about surface ships) yes hi
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 8 January 2016 18: 17
      "When was the last time Russia launched a CRUISER or, at worst, a destroyer ??"

      Dear, I am also for cruisers and armadillos, honestly, they are so powerful. Yes, the slipways are crammed with Modernization and the auxiliary fleet. How much was given for needs, so they planned.
      It bothers me how you put out of the brackets of the submarine. They are not a fleet? But Tjeck is concerned about the transfer of marine traditions of the ocean fleet. Let's swim on what to eat and wait for what when they build it.
      I’m curious if the latest missile cruiser appeared in the ranks and we will send it around the US border patrol, or will we save it in the port, in case of nuclear war?
      In my opinion, far from being a specialist, but from the point of view of common sense, the patrol would be better carried out by the submarine and White Swans. To come to China and show such a flag to the allies is spectacular, they will be respected more, no words. But no, and no trial.

      Agree in recent years for the Navy to revive, not only repairs, financing, but yes, yes, fighting. The war 08.08.08., Dispersed small kazyavochki, but they were planning to strike the US experts. I think this is interesting and useful. Operations in Syria. If the newest CD, would the operation have gone differently? I think they were shaking and shaking more over him. England in the Falklands lost their newest “Sheffield” are still in shock.
      You know, logically, a sea or ocean power is one that solves problems on the sea or ocean. We decide there. All? I do not know. They will set the task to destroy the escort group, they will decide, and ten, let the General Staff plan.
      So far, instead of training, we are solving combat tasks, when was the last time with us, the Caribbean, Egypt, Vietnam?
      I suggest: do not sprinkle ash on your head, but swim and swim.
      I remembered expert Kedmi, "yes, there were ships in the roads, I saw them, showed flags, but this is not a fleet," he spat well. And after hitting with Gauges, I got close, serious and thoughtful.
      I found the Italian Navy has a modern aircraft carrier, destroyers, and so on. I think it can be called marine with a stretch. He has tasks only off his coast. States can kick out a boat to the Black Sea and go home right there, or help Libya roll it out. Well, here everything is in the past. Everything is ruined for us, but we are recovering, there is no other way out.
      Nice analogy with Tsushima. They completed the "First-Called" and "Paul", but we remained unfinished in Nikolaev. The next battleships had to wait a long time and did not really ripen for the war. Then they rushed to build mine ships and did not lose. Now small missiles, for the first cover.
  24. mitya1941
    mitya1941 8 January 2016 11: 20
    Germany had the “Cormoran” a German auxiliary cruiser during the Second World War. He also piracy pretty well. That would have published an article about him.
    1. askold
      askold 8 January 2016 18: 34
      I also wanted to write about this. To the successful, in general, raiding of the "Cormoran", 11 merchant ships, it should be added that its crew managed to sink a combat ship, the light cruiser "Sydney". Moreover, the surviving sailors of the raider managed to reach the coast, where, although they were captured, they survived (more than 300 people). But, we learned about the fate of the cruiser almost recently. The fact is that, engulfed in flames, the cruiser disappeared into the night, and took with it the secret of its death, there were no survivors (crew of more than 600 people). And only after almost 70 years, during the search expedition in 2008, the cruiser skeleton was found at a distance of 150 km from the coast of Australia, at a depth of 2,5 km. Its hull is broken into two parts, - the nose end lies separately, the rift is just in the place of the torpedo hit. Most likely, in the stormy sea, the damaged ship structures could not stand it and the cruiser, having lost its bow, quickly sank. On the sides of the ship, they counted more than 80 !!! hits from 150mm German guns.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. askold
        askold 8 January 2016 18: 40
        I wanted to attach a photo of the 2015 expedition of the University and Museum of Western Australia. One of the Cormoran's weapons, the Linda, is also visible with a skull with crossbones. Behold the people of the real pirates of the twentieth century ...
        1. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 9 January 2016 08: 43
          Well, why so, a pirate. Let's not repeat British propaganda. Auxiliary cruiser, during the war on enemy communications. Pirates are mostly for Britain. A wonderful photo, never seen.
  25. Captain45
    Captain45 8 January 2016 15: 13
    Article +++. Dashing sailors. There is still sailing, something attractive. Most likely it is a man, the wind and the ocean, and only his strength and knowledge against the elements.
  26. polkovnik manuch
    polkovnik manuch 9 January 2016 13: 42
    The article is certainly interesting and informative. I read it with pleasure, thanks!
  27. Pomeranian
    Pomeranian 10 January 2016 00: 41
    Luxurious article. The author is definitely a plus.
    Quote: askold
    I also wanted to write about this. To the successful, in general, raiding of the "Cormoran", 11 merchant ships, it should be added that its crew managed to sink a combat ship, the light cruiser "Sydney".

    Did you mark the Providence grin? The Germans called the first captured Russian steamer Ryazan, which was turned into an auxiliary cruiser, "Cormoran" in the First World War. And "Sydney" at the same time was drowned by the best raider of Kaiser Wilhelm "Emden" ..
  28. Santor
    Santor 19 January 2016 19: 41
    Quote: Plombirator
    The names of Jean Bar (the first French dreadnought was named after him), Rene Duguay-Truen and became a very respected gentleman in his homeland, Robert Surcuf are revered in France no less than their English colleagues - Drake, Reilly and other respected gentlemen

    It's just that in the USSR they didn’t talk much about it, and even in a Russian school.
    I advise you to watch an old French film with Gerard Barré in the title role (the same D. Artagnan) about Surcuf. Look there at the jump, there are two films of colorful