Long-range anti-aircraft missile system capable of fighting with modern means of air attack at a range of about 400 km.
The need to create an air defense system with a range of destruction near 400 km was due to the expansion of combat capabilities and the field of application of Avaks-type aircraft, jammers and guided aircraft carriers weaponsable to solve their tasks without entering the affected areas of existing anti-aircraft missile systems. Modernization of long-range ground-to-surface missiles C-200 did not solve this problem.
The project to create a C-400 “Triumph” missile with a distant zone of destruction near 400 km was considered in 1988. The development of a system capable of solving air defense and non-strategic missile defense tasks was entrusted to Almaz Central Design Bureau under the supervision of General Designer A.A. Lemansky. As a prototype, the ZRS C-300P was used. According to its characteristics and combat capabilities, the new anti-aircraft system belongs to the air defense systems of the “four plus” generation.
Air defense generation "four plus."
The Triumph SAM can use both existing missiles for C-300PMU1 and C-300PMU2, as well as newly created ones. The first launch of the modified 48H6E rocket in a closed control loop took place on 12 on January 1999 of the year at the Kapustin Yar test site. The bulk of the state test system, besides the new long-range missile, was completed in 2001 year. At the end of 2006, the missile was successfully tested to destroy ballistic targets by physically destroying their warheads.
Watch movie: Shock Force: The Path to Triumph
With the C-300P complex, there was an equally exciting story. At the end of 90's, two C-300P complexes were sold to the US through one-day front-end firms and through third countries, and already in the US they were literally dismantled using screws. This was done in order to study the unique Russian air defense system. But Americans, figuratively speaking, "threw" - some key components of this system were not installed on the resulting complexes.
The story of creating the world's best air defense system, which began in 1950 year on the personal instructions of Joseph Stalin. The dramatic fate of the famous designers A.Raspletina and B.Bunkin, the war of intelligence services and spy scandals, at what price the American reconnaissance pilot Powers was shot down by 1 in May 1960, and who sent him to certain death? An exclusive interview with Alexander Lemansky, General Designer of NPO Almaz, a person who has worked under the “Secret” heading all his life, this person came up with the “theory of detecting black bodies” almost 40 years ago and signed the verdict of “Stealth technology”.
Assignment of missiles
SAM S-400 "Triumph" is designed to destroy aerodynamic air targets (tactical and strategic aircraft aviationjammers, such as Avax, KR), including those made using the Stelt technology at a range of about 400 km, as well as ballistic missiles with a launch range of up to 3500 km, hypersonic targets and friendtheir modern and promising means of air attack.
The composition of the ZRS
The composition of the basic variant of the Triumph SAM system is similar to that of the C-300 type AAS system and includes: 64НХNUMX type target radar, 6Х76 type sector radar and a new radar with target detection range around 6 km; multifunctional radar control type 600H30; command post ZRS with a computer complex of a series "Elbrus"; launchers; 6H48Е and 6Н48Е6 anti-aircraft missiles, as well as new 2М9Е, 96М9Х96 missiles and a very long-range missile.
The three-coordinate interference-free radar with a phased antenna array, which is part of the KP ZRS, in the circular view mode provides detection, route tracking and determination of the nationality of all types of targets in the area of the Triumph system.
According to the radar, the C-400 command post distributes the targets between the guided air defense missile systems and provides them with the necessary data in the conditions of the massed actions of the enemy’s enemy NFR in difficult air and jamming environments. KP ZRS can also receive additional information on targets from higher command posts, directly from the ground radar on duty and on-board radar of the airborne systems.
The new generation of missiles (missiles with a range of up to 400 km, 9М96Е and 9М96Х2 medium range) differ from each other in their propulsion systems, maximum flight range, reachability and weight and size characteristics. Due to the implementation of new ideas in them and the use of a transverse correction propulsion system, they surpass the French Aster missile defense system in a number of indicators.
SAM with a range of up to 400 km is intended for hitting air targets outside the zone of visibility of ground guidance stations. A large range of action is ensured by a fundamentally new homing head mounted on a rocket (developed by Almaz Central Design Bureau), operating in semi-active and active modes. In the latter case, the rocket, after climbing from the ground, is transferred to the search mode and, having discovered the target, is guided by it independently. Up to four such missiles can be deployed on one C-400 launcher.
The 9М96Е2 rocket is optimized for combat with the WTO, KR and BR, equipped with a 24 kg warhead and small-sized equipment, 4 times are lighter than the 48Н6 SAM and are almost as good as the last. Instead of the standard TPK with one 48H6 rocket, the launcher can accommodate a package of 4 TPK with the 9М96Е2 SAMs. This was first demonstrated at the air show in the town of Zhukovsky near Moscow in 1999. These missiles, along with the already existing ones, can be used by the C-ZOOP complexes, which expands their combat capabilities and increases the combat stock of the missiles without increasing the number of launchers.
With a mass of 420 kg ZUR 9М96Е2 provides target destruction at a distance of 120-150 km with a height of its flight from 5 m to 30 km. The time of preparing the rocket for launch while it is on the launcher does not exceed 8 seconds. The warranty period of the rocket is 15 years, which can be extended after the technical examination in the places of its operation.
The 9М96E SAM with a mass of 333 kg and a lower engine power ensures that the target is hit at a distance and altitude up to 40 km and 20 km, respectively.
Targeting these types of missiles at a target at the initial and middle sections of the flight path is carried out by an inertial control system with radio correction and an active radar homing on the final flight segment. The combined control system provides high pointing accuracy, reduces the dependence of the missile flight on external factors, and contributes to an increase in the air defense missile channels in the target and the rocket. The use of active seeker does not require tracking and target illumination on the homing area from the radar station and expands the capabilities of the locator by the number of accompanied targets. It is possible to use promising active semi-active seeker capable of independently conducting a search for a target using angular coordinates.
On these types of missiles can be installed controlled military equipment, significantly increasing the probability of hitting various types of targets, including in 1,5-2 times the combat units of unmanned aerial vehicles, by increasing the density and speed of fragmentation. This is expressed in the "stopping" (destruction of the structure) action during the interception of manned and defeat (neutralization) of the combat load of unmanned targets.
The main advantages of the Triumph system, as compared to the C-300PM ground-to-ground missile system: the possibility of hitting all existing EAS, including the BW with flight speeds up to 5 000 m / s; increased in 1,5-2 times the range and height of the affected area of jamming aircraft, such as AWACS, as well as modern reconnaissance and attack systems; increased 4-5 times by the total density of jamming noise immunity; increased fire performance by 2,5 or more; 2-2,5 times the increased combat effectiveness of the system while reducing its personnel by 2 times; the possibility of firing targets at nearby ZRK; the possibility of integration into the Air Force and other types of Armed Forces.
In the Triumph air defense missile system, a “cold” launch of missiles is used, in which the work of the main engine begins at an altitude of more than 30 meters after the missile launcher is ejected from the launch canister with a powder catapult and its gas dynamic system is inclined towards the target. This increases range reach and reduces the near boundary of the affected area. Technology highly maneuverable missile control was developed in the ICD "Torch" in the period 1988-1993. on an experimental short-range anti-aircraft missile.
The versatility of these missiles allows them to be used in ship and land-based anti-aircraft missile systems. It is assumed that they can become the main long-range weapons of the air-to-air class and combat aircraft of the Russian Air Force.