USA "stepped on the foot" "crocodile baron"?
It is known that the United States of America throughout the twentieth and coming XXI centuries. by all means they strive to assert their political influence in the world, including resorting to the requirements of extraditing politicians, businessmen, military, and even ordinary citizens who, for some reason, did not suit the American authorities. Initially, this practice was applied, primarily, in relation to Latin America. Since the second half of the 19th century, the USA considers the southern part of the Americas and, especially, the countries of Central America (the “isthmus” and islands of the Caribbean) to be its “fiefdom”. In this connection, any political activity on the territory of these countries that is in conflict with American interests is highly negatively assessed by Washington. Measures of a punitive nature act immediately. So, at the end of 2015, the United States demanded that Honduras extradite Honduran politician and entrepreneur Jaime Rosenthal to American justice. Jaime Rolando Rosenthal Oliva is eighty years old. He comes from a rich and influential family of immigrants of Jewish descent who settled in Honduras and played an important role in the political and economic life of the country. Rosenthal has a fortune of 690 million dollars and is the owner of one of the largest crocodile farms on the continent with livestock in 10 000 crocodiles. Of course, both Jaime Rosenthal himself and his relatives are difficult to suspect of communist or anti-American sentiment. But, nevertheless, an elderly Honduran politician "for some reason" was required by the American law enforcement agencies.
October 7 2015 American bank accounts owned by Jaime Rosenthal and his relatives - 50-year-old son Yani Rosenthal and 46-year-old nephew Yankel Rosenthal Antonio, were arrested. The formal reason for this is the accusation of the Rosenthal family of money laundering, criminally acquired money, namely, the receipt of income from drug trafficking. But is it worth doubting that in no way the alleged involvement in the drug business was the real reason for the demand to issue Rosenthal? Jaime Rosenthal was a member of the Honduran National Congress in 2002-2006, and at the end of 1980's, from 1986 to 1989, he served as vice president of the country. Rosenthal himself hopes to prove his innocence in court: “We will win in court, because these accusations are false. We will struggle hard and hope that the truth will prevail with God's help ”(http://secretmag.ru/news/2015/10/13/rozental/). It is necessary to understand that Rosenthal and his activity did not please the American leadership. But it is very strange. After all, Honduras has long remained one of the most reliable American satellites in Central America. Unlike Guatemala, El Salvador or Nicaragua, the USA had practically no problems with Honduras. In particular, a powerful partisan communist movement, which would be comparable in importance to the fronts of them, has never been formed here. Farabundo Martí in El Salvador and the Sandinista front in Nicaragua. Honduran politicians of pro-American orientation, to which, without any doubts, Rosenthal could have been attributed until recently, have done a great deal of merit. What is behind the requirement of its issuance? It is possible that the reason for all - "financial offense." He did not share with someone, did not pay taxes, and so on. But the fact of the demand from a sovereign state to issue the policy of the "first echelon", which was once the second person in the country, is impressive. The United States, by the way, shows that it retains the role of a “host” in Central America. Apparently, a criminal case was opened against Jaime Rosenthal and in Honduras itself - an elderly entrepreneur is accused of tax evasion - in the near future he can still be arrested and extradited to American special services.
Capture Noriega. To kidnap the president, the United States launched a war
It should be noted that, until now, the conclusion of the former dictator of Panama, Manuel Noriega, who was captured by 26 years ago, in early January 1990, is still serving his sentence. 11 February 2016, he should be 82, he was born in 1934. The very life of Noriega is quite typical for a Latin American political leader of the second half of the twentieth century. He graduated from military school in Peru and in 1962, he began serving in the National Guard of Panama with the rank of junior lieutenant. Then he rose to the captain's shoulder straps and became the battalion commander. In the 1968 year, being already a major, he supported the military coup of General Omar Torrijos and was appointed to the post of commander of the military zone in the province of Chiriqui. In December, 1969 of the year headed the Directorate of Military Intelligence and Counterintelligence of the General Staff. Naturally, all this time Noriega actively collaborated with the American intelligence services - without this, he could not get high military posts in Panama, the former one of the US satellites. It is known that in 1967, he even began to receive a salary from American intelligence. For obvious reasons, after the death of Omar Torrijos in a plane crash in 1981, he headed the general staff of the armed forces of Panama, and in 1983 he became the commander of the Panama National Guard, then the commander of the National Defense Forces of Panama. Thus, by 1983, Noriega actually concentrated the highest power in the country - in Panama, as in many other countries of the region, the military elite played a crucial role in political life. But in the second half of 1980's. Relationship Noriega and the American leadership significantly deteriorated. The reason for this was the growing ambitions of the Panamanian leader (officially his post was called the “Supreme Leader of the National Liberation of Panama”) and the transition to an overly independent policy. Most of all, the United States was worried about the possibility of nationalizing the Panama Canal zone - it was for this that General Omar Torrijos, the predecessor of Noriega, who perished in a strange disaster, spoke out. The United States feared it as a fire — after all, the economic and political losses from the nationalization of the Panama Canal would have been disastrous for Washington.
After Panama, under the leadership of Noriega, began to strengthen friendly relations with neighboring Nicaragua, where the Sandinistas were in power, the American leadership decided that Noriega no longer satisfies American interests. These suspicions intensified after Noriega refused to grant the territory of Panama for subversive activities against Nicaragua in 1987. In particular - for the bases of the Nicaraguan counterrevolutionaries "Contras". Relations between the United States and Panama have deteriorated. In June, the 1987 Foreign Minister of Panama, Habadia Arias, has become so impudent that he sent a diplomatic note of protest to the US Secretary of State, in which he expressed his displeasure with the US interference in the internal affairs of the Panamanian state. Washington could not tolerate such "arrogance" on the part of a small Latin American country. In July, the 1987 The US government officially announced the cessation of former military and economic assistance to Panama. Simultaneously, work began on the overthrow of Manuel Noriega. The US government has resorted to its favorite pressure mechanism - accused the Panamanian dictator of drug trafficking and money laundering. However, Noriega had or did not have any involvement in the drug business - a minor question, it is important that American intelligence services became interested in Noriega’s alleged criminal activities only after Panama’s foreign policy contradicted American geopolitical interests in Central America. In February, the 1988 The US Department of Justice's Anti-Drug Administration has filed charges of drug trafficking and a number of other criminal offenses, including extortion, against the commander of the National Defense Forces of Panama, General Manuel Noriega. A Florida court has “established” that Manuel Noriega is a member of an organized criminal group that extorts and transports drugs from South American countries to the United States. Thus, the American special services openly accused the former ward of drug trafficking and money laundering - as we see, this is a “duty accusation” to intimidate Latin American politicians. In March, the 1988 The United States imposed a ban on the provision of any assistance to Panama, in April 1988. increased military contingent in Panama on 1300 military personnel, and in May 1988 appealed to Manuel Noriege with a proposal to leave Panama and give up power in exchange for the removal of charges of drug trafficking. Manuel Noriega refused the American offer, after which in April 1989. US economic sanctions against Panama were introduced. In May, the 1989 2000 of American servicemen were also sent to the country, ostensibly to “ensure the safety of American citizens”. In fact, the US government conducted open preparations for the impending invasion. In parallel, however, used other methods. So, October 3 1989 a group of Panamanian officers, which received the support of the American special services, attempted to carry out a military coup in the country in order to remove Noriega. The conspirators were headed by officers who underwent military training in the United States and, most likely, were recruited by the American special services while they were still studying - Major Moises Giroldi Vega, Colonel Ou Wong and Lieutenant Colonel Palacios Gondola. However, government forces managed to crush the resistance of the rebels. Major Vega was killed, 9 conspirators died, and 37 soldiers who participated in the coup were arrested. After that, Noriega conducted an investigation, a number of Panamanian officers were shot on charges of treason. At the end of October 1989 Panama deported a group of Americans from the UPI news agency - they published materials that discredited the Panamanian policy. 15 December 1989, General Manuel Noriega, speaking in the Panamanian parliament, said that the country is at war with the United States. At the same time, a number of provocations were undertaken - for example, the Panamanian soldiers (it is possible that they received the task) shot the American lieutenant of the marines, and wounded another officer, his wife - raped him.
Around 1: 00 20, December 1989 of the year began a US military operation against Panama, in which the 26 000 of the US military was involved. They had to crush the resistance of the 12-thousandth Panama Defense Forces. Naturally, the parties were completely unequal in terms of strength, armament, and level of training. Already in the morning of December 21, American troops seized the building of the General Staff of the Panama Defense Forces. Nevertheless, Noriega armed the population of the country through trade union organizations, which appealed to Panamanian citizens to continue the armed struggle against the American aggressors. The fighting in Panama, the capital of the country, lasted several days. The US military blocked the entrances to the embassies of Cuba, Nicaragua, Peru and Libya, because they feared that Noriega would be able to hide in the territory of the embassy of any of these countries and receive political asylum. In the end, Noriega really fled to the embassy - not only Cuba or Libya, but the Vatican. After that, the United States appealed to the Vatican with the requirement to issue a Panamanian leader. The embassy of the city-state was cordoned off by the US military, and through special speakers at a deafening loudness began broadcasting rock music. It became impossible to stay in the Vatican Embassy and, in the end, 3 in January 1990 in Noriega itself went out to the Americans and surrendered. In the meantime, this orgy continued in Panama. The Americans released several hundred criminal offenders from prisons, which led to a sharp deterioration in the criminal situation in the city. On the other hand, hundreds of Panamanians who resisted the American invasion were arrested. Approximately 300-500 civilians in Panama died as a result of the actions of the American military. Opposition leader Guillermo Endar Gallimani, who 10 February 1990 decided to disband the Panama Defense Forces, became the country's new president. The family of Manuel Noriega - his wife, three daughters and granddaughter - were able to escape thanks to the help of Cuba, in whose embassy they hid until March 1990, after which they left for Cuba and then to the Dominican Republic, where they received political asylum.
American aggression against Panama was the first example of the armed invasion of the American army under the slogan of "restoring democracy". The head of a sovereign state, disagreeable to the United States, was armed by force captured in the capital of his country. Nevertheless, all countries of the world, including the Soviet Union weakened by Gorbachev’s policy, “swallowed” this spit of American imperialism in the face of humanity. Manuel Noriega was flown by an American helicopter to the US Air Force base in the Panama Canal zone, from where he was transported to the United States. 10 July 1992. An American court sentenced 58-year-old Norieg to 40 years in prison for drug trafficking and extortion. At the same time, Jesuit had taken into account the collaboration of Noriega with the CIA in his younger years - during this episode, the Panamanian general was “cut off on time” and eventually gave 30 years of imprisonment. At the same time, Noriega officially had to serve his sentence as a prisoner of war, which eliminated the possibility of his extradition to a third party. But after 17 years after his arrest, in August 2007, the United States spat on international rules for the second time. Manuel Noriega was extradited to France, where a French court back in 1999 filed accusations in absentia of money laundering and drug smuggling to the Panamanian dictator and sentenced him in absentia to seven years in prison with confiscation of bank accounts. In 2010, the city of Noriega was transported to France, but already 11 in December, 2011 was extradited from France to Panama - there he was to “sit down” the term. After all, back in 1995, the pro-American court of Panama sentenced Noriega in absentia to 20 years in prison for organizing political assassinations. From now on, Noriega is serving a sentence in El Renacer (Revival) prison in Gamboa, Panama.
The seizure of Manuel Noriega is the most famous and blatant example of the “hunt” of American special services for objectionable citizens of other states. Meanwhile, less scandalous arrests of foreign citizens on behalf of American law enforcement agencies are much more common. The satellite countries of the United States absolutely meekly give out to American “justice” not only foreign nationals found on their territory wanted by American special services, but also their own citizens who are disagreeable to the United States. Trying on the role of the “world gendarme”, the United States appropriated the right to arrest, judge and impose sentences on foreign nationals. No exception and citizens of Russia. According to Konstantin Dolgov, the authorized representative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation for Human Rights, Democracy and the Rule of Law in an interview with the newspaper Izvestia, 22 knows a similar case regarding citizens of the Russian Federation. The case of the Russian citizen Viktor Bout received the widest publicity.
Recall that the Russian businessman Viktor Anatolyevich Bout, born in 1967, since the beginning of the 1990s. was aviation broker. Since 1993, he resided in the United Arab Emirates, and his airline transported a wide variety of cargoes - mainly in third world countries. In 2001, Bout had to leave the Emirates and move to the Russian Federation. However, already in 2002, the UN banned Bout from moving, and in 2005 the United States demanded to freeze all its accounts and the accounts of enterprises and citizens associated with it. In 2006, then President of the United States George W. Bush signed a decree to freeze Victor Bout's assets. The formal reason for this was the accusation of Bout of activities threatening the implementation of American policy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In 2008, the United States resorted to its favorite tactic, employing specialists from the US Drug Enforcement Administration. They lured Victor Bout to Bangkok, posing as Colombian rebels from the FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - Army of the People) - ostensibly in order to enter into supply transactions weapons, after which 6 March 2008. Viktor Bout was detained by Thai police. A warrant for his arrest was issued by a court in Thailand, who accused Bout of helping Colombian "terrorists", who introduced themselves to US intelligence officials. However, 11 August 2009 Thai court refused to extradite Viktor Bout to the United States because he did not have the proper amount of evidence of guilt. In addition, a Thai court found that the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia are not a terrorist, but a political organization. However, the refusal to extradite to the United States did not lead to the release of the Russian citizen. 2 September 2009 Mr. Victor Bout was refused release on bail. A long “bargaining” between Thailand and the United States began, which ended not in favor of the Russian. 20 August The 2010 Court of Appeals of Thailand decided to grant the US request for the extradition of a citizen of the Russian Federation Viktor Anatolyevich Bout.
16 November 2010, Viktor Bout, accompanied by six employees of the US Drug Enforcement Administration, was flown by a special flight to the air base of the US National Guard in the city of Newburgh, 60 km. north of new york. So a citizen of the Russian Federation was in the hands of American intelligence services. Soon the court of the Southern District of New York chose in relation to Bout as a preventive measure, detention at the Temporary Detention Center on Park Row. The Russians were placed in complete isolation, in solitary confinement. Walks were banned. In these terrible conditions, Viktor Bout spent 15 months. On October 11, 2011 was launched a lawsuit against Viktor Bout, and on November 2, a jury of the jury unanimously convicted Victor Bout. 2011 On April 5, a federal court in New York sentenced citizen of the Russian Federation Viktor Bout to 2012 years in prison. The arrest and detention of Viktor Bout in the USA caused a wave of protests in the Russian Federation itself. Thus, in Moscow and St. Petersburg, a number of pickets were held outside the buildings of the US Embassy and American consulates, demanding the extradition of Viktor Bout to his homeland, to Russia. However, at the present time, Viktor Bout continues to be in an American prison.
Russian pilot - in an American prison
Another high-profile case involving the detention of a citizen of the Russian Federation on the territory of a “third country” and its subsequent extradition to American law enforcement agencies is the arrest of the Russian pilot Konstantin Yaroshenko in Liberia. A native of Rostov-on-Don, Konstantin Vladimirovich Yaroshenko was born in 1968, after graduating from the Krasnokutsk civil aviation school, he worked at the Rostov helicopter plant as a co-pilot of the An-32. Since 1998, periodically engaged in freight and passenger traffic in several African countries. 28 May 2010, Konstantin Yaroshenko was arrested in Liberia by members of the local special service, the Liberian National Security Agency. As in the Booth case, the Colombian rebels from the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia again appeared in the Yaroshenko case. Initially, the Liberian authorities accused the pilot of preparing a large shipment of cocaine for transportation. Two days after the arrest, 30 May 2010, Yaroshenko was handed over to employees of the US Drug Enforcement Administration. There was no doubt about that, given that Liberia is one of the key US satellites in West Africa - Liberian statehood was created at one time with the direct participation of the United States, and “American repatriates” from the United States — African Americans — became the backbone of the Liberian political and economic elite moved to Liberia. The pilot was brought from Liberia to the United States. Four other people were arrested along with him - Chigbo Peter Umeh, Jorge Ivan Salazar Kasatno, Nathaniel French and Kudufia Mavuko. They were citizens of Nigeria, Colombia and Ghana. American justice has accused Yaroshenko of preparing for the shipment to Liberia and Ghana of three batches of cocaine weighing a total of 4 tons and worth 100 million dollars. Suppliers of cocaine, according to the Americans, were the militants of the left-wing radical organization FARC - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia.
7 September 2011 American court sentenced Konstantin Yaroshenko to 20 years in prison, and in June 2013 the appellate court refused to consider the appeal in the case of Yaroshenko. It is significant that Yaroshenko was not even accused of transportation, but of preparing to transport cocaine from Colombia to Liberia and Ghana. Why, in this case, was the pilot arrested by the US authorities and convicted in the United States? After all, it would be more logical to investigate this matter to the law enforcement agencies of Liberia or Ghana. Meanwhile, the American court explained the need to convict Konstantin Yaroshenko in the United States very strange: “as a pilot and a businessman, I agreed to supply aircraft, pilots and crews that were to be used to ship cocaine from South America to Liberia, as well as from Liberia to others items in west africa. He realized (!) That part of this cocaine from Liberia would later be imported into the United States, so we can conclude that he was involved in a conspiracy to import cocaine to the United States worth more than 100 million dollars "(http: // www. pravda.ru/world/northamerica/usacanada/17-02-2014/1192643-udav-0/).
American journalist and writer Stephen Landman believes that the pilot Konstantin Yaroshenko was a victim of political intrigues of the United States of America, so he can rightfully be considered a political prisoner of the United States. Landman reports that according to his data, Yaroshenko was demanded to testify against Viktor Bout, but he refused to do so. “There was no weapon. No money passed from hand to hand. But it did not matter for the so-called American "justice," Lendman brings his resume under the high-profile case of Viktor Bout (http://www.pravda.ru/world/northamerica/usacanada/17-02-2014/1192643-udav-0/). Thus, Russian citizens have added to the list of political prisoners in the United States, which, according to Landman, far more than one hundred people - here are activists of opposition political organizations of the left-radical and right-radical orientation, and human rights activists, and military personnel or officials who tried to tell the truth about the “underworld” American politics. Although formally there are no political prisoners in the United States, and the States themselves position themselves as the most important fighter for human rights and democracy, in fact hundreds of people receive gigantic sentences in US prisons, are subjected to psychological and physical abuse. As American lawyer Stan Willis noted, the American authorities in their country “practice injustice with a capital letter” - they are imprisoned and subject to slow painful death of people whose whole fault lies in purely political disagreement with the existing American regime. The Russians detained by the American authorities, Viktor Bout and Konstantin Yaroshenko, were no exception.
The theme of the use by the American government of methods prohibited by international law in relation to its political opponents, prisoners of war, citizens of other states suspected of criminal offenses, is very undesirable in the American press. Nevertheless, the issue of multiple violations of human rights in the United States and in zones of American jurisdiction is increasingly being raised. Russian Foreign Ministry Commissioner for Human Rights Konstantin Dolgov notes that the problem of secret prisons created and used by the US Central Intelligence Agency has not yet been resolved (http://izvestia.ru/news/600690). Such prisons existed, and some of them may still exist today, on the territory of such states as Afghanistan, Iraq, Djibouti, Morocco, Thailand, Poland, Lithuania and Romania. For decades, the American authorities used the practice of abducting foreign nationals suspected of committing any crimes or undesirable activities for the American state. Torture methods, prohibited by international law, were used against people who got into American dungeons. But, despite the fact that various international organizations have repeatedly drawn attention to human rights violations in US prisons, the authorities of the United States of America practically do not respond to public outcry. Those guilty of using unlawful methods bear no real responsibility for their criminal actions. Thus, the story of the Guantanamo prison, in which the 2015 prisoners were in December 107, is widely known. Almost all of them are held in prison for many years, indefinitely and without charge. This is a flagrant violation of international law, to which the United States of America does not pay any attention. The Russian position on the prison on the basis of Guantanamo and other similar institutions remains unchanged - the Russian Federation is in favor of closing them and ensuring the legal rights of all prisoners held in such prisons.
What to do with the "hunt for the Russians"?
On Viktor Bute and Konstantin Yaroshenko, unfortunately, the list of our compatriots who fell under the “thresher” of the American judicial system does not end. Third countries, most often politically and economically dependent on the United States, are unable to deny US law enforcement agencies that they are required to extradite Russian citizens. So, 27 August 2014 Lithuania issued the United States a citizen of the Russian Federation Dmitry Ustinov. He is accused of smuggling American night vision devices and thermal imagers. Another Russian, Maxim Chukharev, in the spring of 2014 was issued to the United States from Costa Rica. He was suspected of committing illegal money transfer transactions. 5 July 2014 at the airport of Malé, the capital of the Maldives, US intelligence officers detained a citizen of the Russian Federation Roman Valerievich Seleznev, 1984, who was born. The man was detained in the presence of his wife and young child. Later, the President of the Maldives Republic, Abdullah Yamin, said that the Maldivian policemen had detained Seleznev, otherwise it would be completely ugly that the American agents were operating in the Maldives as at home. Roman Seleznev is the son of State Duma deputy from the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia Valery Seleznev. American intelligence agencies accused Roman Seleznev of committing numerous hacker attacks. He was arrested and taken to a US military base on the island of Guam in Micronesia. Seleznev is suspected of computer fraud, hacking, hacking bank accounts, stealing personal data of credit card holders, which, according to US law enforcement officials, caused US damage to 2 million dollars. According to American law, Roman Seleznev can be sentenced to several decades in prison. The American side claims that 18 million dollars were found in Roman Seleznev’s bank accounts, which a man could have received as a result of illegal operations. It is known that Roman Seleznev was transferred from Guam to Seattle, where he is awaiting trial. Roman Seleznev’s father, deputy Valery Seleznev, denied the possibility of his son’s participation in hacker attacks, since the latter does not have the appropriate skills to carry them out. In July 2014, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation regarded the detention of a Russian citizen Roman Seleznev as an abduction and recommended citizens of the Russian Federation to refrain from visiting the Maldives if claims against them could arise from third-party law enforcement agencies. “The position of the Maldivian authorities, which, contrary to existing international legal norms, allowed the special service of another state to kidnap a Russian citizen and take it outside the country, cannot but cause indignation,” the Russian diplomatic department said in a statement (http://www.gazeta.ru/social/2014/07/08/6101421.shtml).
- Roman Seleznev, a Russian citizen held in the USA
New high-profile arrests and extraditions followed at the end of the last 2015 year. So, December 13 2015 was detained in Israel by a citizen of the Russian Federation Alexey Burkov. He was arrested at the request of the American authorities and accused of committing cybercrimes related to banking data. Despite the absence of an Interpol detention order, a Russian citizen was arrested by the Israeli police. So far, more precise details about the nuances of this case have not been disclosed - both the US and Israeli law enforcement agencies are silent. 19 December 2015 in Finland, also at the request of US law enforcement, was arrested a citizen of the Russian Federation Yuri Efremov. The details of this case are also kept secret. As the wife of the detainee reported to the press, the American special services were interested in visiting Ephraim’s arms exhibition in the US in 2011. Speaking about the case of Burkov’s detainee in Israel, the Russian Foreign Ministry’s plenipotentiary for human rights, democracy and the rule of law, Konstantin Dolgov, noted that ““ we, of course, immediately formulated our position. We proceed from the fact that the Israeli authorities are listening to our argument - to the fact that this is a vicious practice, an illegal practice - and will not extradite Burkova to the United States. But of course there is no guarantee ”(http://lenta.ru/articles/2015/12/29/transit/).
Meanwhile, the widespread practice of detaining Russian citizens in third countries and their subsequent extradition to the United States of America causes the increasing interest of the Russian authorities. The fact is that a dangerous precedent has been created for the use of criminal charges as an instrument of political pressure. It is not by chance that the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs drew attention to this practice, which characterized it only as a “hunt” for the Russians. On the other hand, in the State Duma and the Council of Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, they are also concerned about what is happening. In particular, the Chairman of the Federation Council Committee on Constitutional Legislation and State Building, Andrei Klishas, stressed that it is necessary to create legal mechanisms to counteract the extraterritorial application of the laws of the United States of America against citizens of the Russian Federation. It is obvious that some diplomatic notes in response to illegal detentions and seizures of Russian citizens in other countries on the “order” of the American special services and law enforcement agencies have a very weak impact on the real situation. In fact, they are not able to correct it, which makes the Russian state the need to develop new measures that will allow it to respond more effectively to the actions of the United States. It is likely that these may be sanctions measures, as well as retaliation against citizens of the United States of America taken by the Russian law enforcement system - of course, if there is evidence of their guilt in committing crimes in the territory of the Russian Federation or third countries. Sanctions measures can be directed not only against the United States itself, but also against those third countries that are involved in the extradition of Russian citizens to the American side. They must be convinced that the response of the Russian state will be symmetrical and that issued by a Russian citizen on trumped-up charges can be expected of serious economic sanctions.