One proof is enough to dispel doubts about a man’s flight to the moon.
Saturn V flew
If the eyes of tens of thousands of eyewitnesses gathered on the launch day on m. Canaveral, the 2300-ton carrier was able to ascend into the sky, then all disputes about flags, improper dust and fake photos no longer matter. The energy capabilities of launch vehicles and accelerating units (thrust, specific impulse) are the defining moment in interplanetary flights. And if they were able to overcome the most difficult test, the remaining stages of the path could not cause problems. In technical terms, docking, flying and landing on the surface of the moon is easier than creating the Saturn V superracket.
Tourists on m. Canaveral, on the launch day of the Apollo 11
Each of the five engines of the first stage of “Saturn” burned two tons of liquid oxygen and a thousand liters of kerosene per second. The gas generator developed power, like atomic icebreaker turbines. In just two minutes, the thousand-ton design accelerated to a hypersonic speed of 10 thousand km / h and reached an altitude of 68 kilometers.
If modern “whistleblowers” could feel the tremors of the earth and see the fire storm with their own eyes, they would be ashamed to publish their “revelations”.
“Saturn V” certainly flew. His start thirteen times in a row personally witnessed thousands of witnesses. And on the other side of the Earth, the powerful Soviet telescopes closely watched the course of the lunar mission. The military and scientists could not be mistaken, seeing as the 47-ton ship went on the departure trajectory to the Moon ...
In the end, who else, besides the “Saturn V”, could bring out the Skylab orbital station (77 tons, 1973 year) ??
There is one more reinforced concrete argument, the authenticity of which cannot be doubted. Above the lunar program seriously worked in the Soviet Union. That means only one thing - domestic experts did not consider landing a man on the Moon a technically insoluble task. As part of the Soviet lunar program, a full range of technical equipment was created: the super-heavy launch vehicle H-1, the lunar-orbital ship LOC, the launch module LK and the lunar spacecraft “Krechet”.
All this was repeatedly tested and participated in space flights!
Instead of reading the fascinating books of Y. Mukhin, better find out detailed information about the secret victories of the Soviet Cosmos.
“Cosmos-379”, “Cosmos-398” and “Cosmos-434”. Three consecutive successful flights of the descent module Lunar LK (unmanned version) with a cycle of maneuvers in near-earth orbit.
“Cosmos-146”, “Cosmos-154”, as well as a series of 12 launches on the probe program. All this is a test of the Soyuz 7K-L1 spacecraft, created for a manned flyby of the Moon (without landing). Constructively, this was the Soyuz spacecraft without a domestic compartment, instead of which the accelerating block D-1 was docked. Also, the lunar “Soyuz” was distinguished by the presence of a system of remote space communications and enhanced thermal protection. It was considered by the Soviet leadership as a relatively simple and cheap ersatz project for inflicting yet another defeat on America in the Space Race.
The ships Zond-5, 6, 7, 8 perfectly completed the flyby program. It was Zond-5 that became the first spacecraft to fly around the Moon with living organisms on board with their subsequent safe return to Earth (hello to all fans of tales of terrible radiation belts, as if they were killing all life).
With regard to a number of failures - the state commission came to the conclusion that, if the “probe” were in a manned version, its crew with a high probability could correct the mistakes that were still imperfect automation.
The real problems have arisen only with the most complex component of the system - the super-heavy carrier rocket H-1. But even in this case, one cannot doubt the reality of its existence. As for the first unsuccessful launches of H-1, it really did not have time to “bring”. Could, but did not have time.
And after that come the various “fly”, and talk about shooting in the pavilions of Hollywood. Disgrace.
As for the landing of Americans on the moon directly:
The fact of the existence and flight of the super heavy RN Saturn V is beyond doubt.
The next component of the lunar expedition is the heavy manned Apollo spacecraft. The Soviet cosmonauts A. Leonov and V. Kubasov, participants of the experimental flight under the international program “Soyuz-Apollon” (docking of two ships in orbit, July 15 1975) could confirm the existence of this ship.
The volume of the command compartment - 6 cube. meters
Estimated autonomy - 14 days (with a duration of lunar missions from 8 to 12 days).
Fuel capacity in the service compartment tanks - 7 tons.
The stock of oxidizer is over 11 tons.
The total mass of the spacecraft (without the lunar module) - 30 tons.
Life support systems are normal. A full supply of 18,4 tons of fuel (excluding 120 kg of nitrogen tetroxide for engines of the orientation system). Large and heavy "Apollo" had all the technical capabilities for the lunar expedition (of course, because it was created for this).
Landing on the moon. For some reason, this one is the most questioned among the exposers of the “moon swindle”. The Americans built a rocket, but could not put the module, because ... Because all this is incredibly difficult from the point of view of the inhabitant.
But how big is the complexity of such maneuvers for those who seriously dealt with the problem? Planes with vertical takeoff and landing can give the answer.
24 is considered to be 1966 in March of the Russian VTOL aircraft. On this day, three years before the Americans landed on the Moon, the Soviet Yak-36 performed a vertical take-off and landing.
What was the difference between the vertical landing of the “Yak” and the landing of the lunar “Eagle”?
In both cases, the fuel supply is limited. Overview of the cab leaves much to be desired. “Yaku” is even more difficult - unlike Armstrong and Aldrin, his pilot has to deal with the negative influence of the earth’s atmosphere, including dangerous gusts of side wind. At the same time, driving two lift-marching engines + a system of jet rudders in the front and rear parts of the fuselage.
In this case, the engine “Eagle” was two times less than the total thrust of the engines Yak-36 !!! Under conditions of six times less gravity, the lunar module was content with the total 4,5 ton (against the YN 10 ton). Taking into account the fact that at the time of landing he was working on a minimum mode, this explains the absence of any “terrible craters formed by a jet” at the site of the landing of the Eagle.
And they landed! With proper preparation, this trick was becoming commonplace.
In 1972, the first Yak-38 made a vertical landing on the swinging deck of a moving ship. The total flight time during the operation of these machines was 30 000 hours !!
During the events of the Falkland War, the British managed to land their “Harriers” on the decks of aircraft carriers in a solid fog when the amplitude of the vertical movements of the deck reached several meters. And this was done by ordinary combatant pilots. Without the help of modern computers. Exclusively based on his flying skills and intuition.
But Armstrone and Aldrin's hands apparently grew from the wrong place. They couldn’t put an “Eagle” on a static surface, even if they were alone, provided they had informational support and advice from the mission control center.
As for the cosmic velocities of the “Eagle”, then descending from orbit and approaching the surface of the moon represented a set of algorithms for switching on the braking engine, compiled even on Earth. Accurate to the second. As with the usual return of astronauts to Earth.
What is special about it?
Finally, if everything was so bad, how could SIX soft landings of automatic stations “Surveyor” (1966-68, the purpose of the mission is to check the density of the soil, to collect information about the relief and features of the areas selected for the work of subsequent manned missions).
Further more. Moonlight Soviet stations:
“Luna-9” - 1966 g., The first soft landing on the surface. Followed by “Luna-12, 16, 17, 20, 21 and 24”. Seven domestic vehicles successfully reached the Moon, moreover, taking into account the level of development of 1960's technologies, they did it almost blindly!
“Luna-16” not only she levitated, but also took off, delivering samples of lunar soil to Earth in September 1970. “Luna-24” did the same.
“Luna-17” и “Luna-21” Lunar rovers successfully transported to the surface of the satellite 800-kg.
And then the charlatans will come and say: “What about the American flag waving? Technique of the time did not allow to fly to the moon ".
Moreover, the Soviet and American space programs have always been at the same level. And if we could - why could not they?
Why did you stop flying to the moon?
A manned flight to the moon is of no practical value even in the perspective of the coming decades (neither industrially, nor economically, not even militarily). What can we say about the 70-s. last century!
For a similar reason, the Yankees froze manned flights on the ISS for a whole decade — from 2011 to the beginning of 2020. (renewal, plan). But is this not a reason for doubting the existence of “Shuttles”?
“Mukhin and Co.” may consider themselves the smartest of all, deftly “calculating” fakes and traces of retouching on photographs of American expeditions. ABOUT! - here is the second light source. And this is a narrowing shadow. There is not that stone. And it all looks ridiculous. It is logical to assume that if people who built the 2300-tonnage “Saturn” decided to really deceive everyone, then you would not have guessed about a fake.
Although what are fakes for? Is there a ready-made PH of the required power, a ready-made ship and a landing module? Everything is ready for the expedition, but decided to shoot in Hollywood. So that the whistleblowers could earn millions on their "revelations".
Forty years have passed, didn’t there really appear a single device capable of taking photographs of Apollo’s landing sites, once and for all to dispel doubts?
Launched to 2009, the Lunar Orbital Scout (LRO) helped to compile a detailed 3D map of the lunar surface with a resolution of up to 0,5 m. All Apollo landing sites and Soviet automatic stations were captured.
Landing place "Apollo 12"
Landing stage of the Soviet AMC "Luna-24"
Of course, this argument is not worth a penny in disputes with supporters of the "lunar conspiracy." All traces of a human being on the Moon were undoubtedly drawn in Photoshop.
But the main arguments remain unshakable.
Thirteen successful launches of the super heavy RV Saturn V
Fully ready Soviet lunar program, not implemented solely because of the will of the top leadership of the country. To put it more precisely - the loss of the need to continue the “lunar race”.
If the Yankees half a century ago built a rocket engine with 700 tons of tons (the thrust of one F-1 exceeded the thrust of all 32 LREs in both stages of the Soyuz launch vehicle), then why did these “geniuses” fly on Russian engines?
The production technology of “Saturn” is irretrievably lost, as well as the technology of making damask steel. And this is never a joke. Six million parts - the most complex of systems ever created by man. Despite the preserved drawings and even engine samples, now no one remembers the order in which all this was collected and what materials were used in the manufacture of individual elements. But the main thing is that even having spent billions on the analysis of the remaining samples of the LV design and having fully restored the technology, it is completely incomprehensible who will now undertake the manufacture of the “Saturn”.
In the work on the program “Saturn-Apollo” was attended by hundreds of contractors, many of which over the past 40 years have changed their occupation, were bought out, merged with each other or went bankrupt, dissolved in time.
Currently, a pleiad of 16 rocket engines and boosters is being used across the ocean (Rocketdine 68, RL-10 family, Centaurus, Falkens Ilona Mask, SRB solid propellant accelerator - the most powerful rocket engine ever built, with double more than the Saturn LRE, etc.).
Among them - only two engines of Russian origin. These are the RD-180 (the first stage of the Atlas-III / V PH) and the upgraded NK-33 (the first stage of the Antares RV). This is not an argument in favor of NASA's technological powerlessness. This is a business.
Start 130-meter RN "Saturn V"
Soviet lunar spacesuit "Krechet"
Samples of lunar soil, delivered by the Apollo-11 expedition, Moscow, Exhibition of the Exhibition of Economic Achievements
Camera of the automatic station "Serveyor-3", delivered to Earth by the Apollo-12 expedition (the module was sent in 400 meters from the site of the "Surveyor")
The article was posted on the website 2016-01-05