The simple origin, however, did not prevent Andrei Snesarev from revealing his talents as a scientist, teacher and military leader.
After the parochial school in which his father taught classes, Andrei 7 spent years studying at the gymnasium in the village of Nizhne-Chirskaya, and then for two years at the gymnasium in Novocherkassk, the capital of the Don Cossacks.
His parents did everything possible so that the children would grow up healthy, get an education and become worthy people of their country. In 1884, Mr .. Andrew graduated from the gymnasium with a silver medal and entered the Moscow University in the Faculty of Mathematics, having graduated from which in 1888, defended his scientific work on infinitely small quantities. The young mathematician was also a capable linguist: by the 23 years he studied four languages, and later mastered fourteen languages, including Uzbek, Afghan, Hindi, Urdu, and others.
Before Andrei opened the prospect of a professorial career. Only at first he had to fulfill his civic duty: according to the laws of the Russian Empire, persons with a higher education were obliged to undergo semi-annual military service, but A.E. Snesarev chooses Alekseevskoe military school. This is more interesting for him than the formal fulfillment of military duty as a volunteer, only in this case it was necessary to serve not six months, but a year to complete the program of the full course of the military school.
The study and service turned out to be fascinating, and participating in the school choir of the cadet Andrei Snesarev revealed a musical talent and an amazingly beautiful voice.
After graduating from military school with entering his name on a marble board, he received the rank of second lieutenant, but did not retire from military service, which he was entitled to, but remained in the army. His service continued in the 1 th Life Grenadier Yekaterinoslav Regiment, which was located in the Kremlin. In the regiment, Andrei Evgenievich served 7 years. In the early years of the officer service, he took singing lessons, preparing for the operatic stage. He was predicted to be an opera singer, he even performed on the stage of the Bolshoi Theater. However, due to the sudden loss of voice with the dream of becoming an opera singer Andrei Evgenievich had to part.
In 1896 – 1899 Lieutenant Snesarev studied at the Academy of the General Staff, graduated with honors from the main and additional courses and was promoted to headquarters. During this period, in the Russian army, by the initiative of D.A. Milyutin began work on the military-geographical description of possible theaters of military operations. A significant proportion of the work on the study and description of the Middle East Theater fell on the staff captain Snesarev, who was assigned to the Turkestan Military District as an chief officer for missions.
In the district, his service began with an expedition to India. In 1899 – 1900 He crossed the whole of the Pamirs from north to south, visited remote areas of Kashmir, collected geographic material and made interesting observations in northern India. Acquaintance with India, Afghanistan, Tibet, Kashgaria allowed Snesarev to create further fundamental works on Oriental studies, military geography, ethnography, statistics, etc.
In the autumn of 1900, he traveled to England, where he worked in the library of the British Museum, studied literature on oriental studies. In 1902 – 1903 Snesarev commanded the Pamir detachment. In 1903 in Tashkent his military-geographical work “North-Indian Theater” was published, and in 1906 in St. Petersburg the work “India as the main factor in the Central Asian issue came out. View of the natives of India at the British and their management ". Continuing his service in the headquarters of the Turkestan Military District, Andrei Evgenievich studies languages, economics, history, the life of countries bordering the district, the state of their armed forces. He writes articles in a collection of information published by the district headquarters, speaks to officers with lectures on military geography, and teaches geography and mathematics in the cadet corps.
From 1904, A.E. Snesarev was transferred to the service in the office of quartermaster general of the General Staff. At the same time he taught military geography at junker schools, gave lectures and reports in various scientific societies, was a full member of the Geographical Society. From 1905, Head of the Central Asian Division of the Main Directorate of the General Staff. In 1906, Mr .. Andrey graduated from the courses of Oriental studies and was elected chairman of the Central Asian department of the Society of Oriental Studies. Two years later, he participated in the work of the XV International Congress of Orientalists in Copenhagen, where he gave two presentations in German: "Religions and customs of the Highlanders of the Western Pamirs" and "Awakening of the national consciousness in Asia." This served to increase his authority not only in Russia, but also abroad. In 1909, Snesarev published the textbook "Military Geography of Russia".
Since September, 1910, Mr .. Andrey Evgenievich - Chief of Staff of the 2-th Consolidated Cossack Division, which was stationed in the city of Kamenetz-Podolsk. The division consisted of the following regiments: 16 of the Don Cossack General Grekov 8, 17 of the Don Cossack General Baklanov, 1 Line Cossack General Velianov Kuban Cossack troops 1 Volga Cossack Cossack Cossack Army The deep knowledge of life and life of the Cossacks were of great help to him in the service and inspired respect, both among the commanding staff of the division and among the Cossacks. It was in this position that World War I found him.
With the beginning of the war, the division immediately entered the battle. The 4 (17) of August, near the village of Gorodok, in the equestrian battle, the division defeated the Austro-Hungarian 7 Cavalry Division, 10 (23) of August outside the river Zbruch inflicted a new defeat on the number of enemy cavalry. During the August battles 1914, Andrei Evgenievich Ball was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir 3-st. with swords and george weapons.
Col. A.E. Snesarev on the eve of the First World War.
From October 1914, he commanded the 133 Simferopol Regiment of the 34 Infantry Division, which was repeatedly distinguished during difficult moments of hostilities. So, in December 1914, the enemy, breaking through the front of defense near Kolomiya, created a threat to the rear of the Russian troops. Having arrived with the regiment to the threatened area, Colonel A.E. Snesarev produced night reconnaissance, and at dawn he personally led the regiment to the offensive.
The enemy was knocked out of the occupied trenches and from the village of Tsysovo with a powerful bayonet strike. For his personal courage and skillful leadership of the regiment during the fights, Andrei Evgenievich was awarded the Order of St. George 4 degree.
There were legends about the love of soldiers and officers for him as a regiment commander. Under his command, officers and soldiers wanted and served to serve and fight. According to the results of hostilities, his regiment became one of the best on the South-Western Front. In August 1915, A.E. Snesarev was appointed commander of the 1 th brigade of the 34 th infantry division and was awarded the rank of major general for distinction. In February, 1916 was appointed Chief of Staff of the 12 Infantry Division, which participated in many battles, including the summer of 1916, in the famous Brusilov breakthrough. From September 1916 for three months, he temporarily served as chief of the 64 Infantry Division of the 18 Army Corps; at the same time, he was awarded the Order of St. George 3-st. In certification for Major General Snesarev, the corps commander wrote: “Despite short-term service in the corps ... he proved himself to be brave, with great combat and service experience, highly active, knowledgeable, very demanding and caring for the parts entrusted to him and ranks. "
After the February Revolution, A.E. Snesarev was appointed Chief of Staff of the 12 Army Corps, and in April 1917 was appointed Chief of the 159 Infantry Division. In September, 1917, after the failure of the Kornilov revolt, he became the commander of the 9 Army Corps 2 Army of the Western Front, and in October - promoted to lieutenant general.
At that time, the collapse of the army became irreversible and in the middle of November 1917, the new authorities put an end to the combat biography of Lieutenant-General A.Ye. Snesareva and he departed from the front in the long-term vacation to the family in Ostrogozhsk Voronezh province.
The October Revolution split the country into two camps. The front and the army were falling apart. The Soviet government began to create a new army. General Snesarev, like many others, was faced with the problem of choice: to stay in his own country or try to flee abroad. The question of the future of the motherland has always determined the line of conduct of the general; he considered his sacred duty to equip and defend his country, and he never departed from this principle. And Snesarev makes a choice - to remain in his country, with its uncertain and now already obvious - an incredibly difficult future.
From 28 in January 1918, on the basis of a decree of the Council of People's Commissars, the Red Army began to form, and military specialists of the Russian army were also involved in this task. 2 May 1918 A.E. Snesarev voluntarily joined her ranks and received an appointment as the military leader of the North Caucasus Military District. In fact, this meant that he was appointed commander of one of the most important at the time revolutionary fronts of the Soviet Republic. The directive of the Supreme Military Council of 12 in May 1918 assigned the command of the district: "To collect and organize the necessary forces and means with all possible measures to counteract the further offensive movement of the enemy ... At the first opportunity to proceed to action ...". In pursuance of this directive, A.E. Snesarev takes measures to reorganize on a regular basis all the detachments of both those who were in Tsaritsyno (Volgograd) and who came from the Don and Ukraine. He resolutely fights against attempts to revive the general election of commanders and concentrate the control of troops in the hands of the committees, because these measures have become obsolete, have already contradicted the line of Soviet power and could lead to the collapse of the army.
With his usual energy, Andrei Evgenievich took measures to repel the enemy. Most of the time he spent in parts on positions. The Red fighters knew and respected him and always enthusiastically received the news of his arrival to the unit.
2 June 1918. The Supreme Military Council of the Republic clarified the task of the district troops: “Prevent enemy invasion of the area east of the Don River” and “strive to maintain the Gryazi-Tsaritsyn railway line”. Snesarev developed a plan for the defense of the city, providing for active hostilities. According to this plan, outlined in order No. 4 of 23 in June 1918, the Voroshilov group was created from the most persistent and prepared, mainly proletarian, detachments, and later deployed to the 10 army. As a result of the measures taken, the enemy was stopped and the situation stabilized.
However, not all the red commanders and commissioners with due confidence reacted to the orders and instructions of the military commissar of the district. At this time there was a serious clash between Snesarev and those who were at that time in Tsaritsyn IV Stalin and K.E. Voroshilov. It came to the arrest of Andrei Evgenievich and his staff. However, the central authorities from Moscow demanded not only the release of the general, but also the fulfillment of all his orders. The arriving Moscow commission made a “Solomon” decision: I.V. Stalin and K.E. Voroshilov leave in Tsaritsyn, and A.E. Snesareva transfer to another position.
After the signing of the Brest Peace Treaty, the Soviet government of 19 in March 1918 created the Western section of the Veil units, consisting of several regions, to cover the German frontiers from the western frontiers of the Republic. 11 September of the same year, the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic appointed A.E. Snesareva. Later, in connection with the reorganization of the Western Veil, from November 1918 he commanded the Western (from March 1919 - Belarusian-Lithuanian) army. In August 1919, A.E. Snesarev was recalled from the army and was appointed chief of the Academy of the General Staff of the Red Army, established in December 1918.
His appointment was quite natural, because the service in the Red Army, Andrei Evgenievich managed to establish himself as an unconditionally honest and sincere supporter of Soviet power. In the Russian army, he was one of the most educated and reputable officers. His versatile education could not be more consistent with the new appointment, and authority among the general staff could be used to attract the old professors to the academy. The new appointment of Andrei Evgenievich gave him the opportunity to realize the most extensive knowledge of military affairs, a unique experience, reflections on the new tactics, strategy and war as a social phenomenon. He understood perfectly well that now the preservation of continuity and the further development of Russian military thought on the basis of studying the experience of the First World War and the Civil War depend on him personally.
A.E. Snesarev (in the foreground in the fur hat) during the First World War.
At the initial stage of its activities at the academy, it was necessary to significantly rework the curriculum and update the academic course with the knowledge necessary for the command staff in the new conditions, to increase the number of practical exercises. A.E. Snesarev poses the question of in-depth study of the tactics and strategy of the Civil War, and in 1920, for the first time, lectures on these issues began. According to Snesarev, although they were too general, they represented a new step in the development of military history science. Among the first professors who taught this course was the head of the academy itself. He also introduced, and in large part, he himself read another new course - “The Psychology of War”.
Chief of the Academy of the General Staff
A.E. Snesarev. Andrei Yevgenyevich believed that the academic course should not be made dependent on poorly trained students and thus reduce the academy to the “simple, rudely vocational school”, that the training of red commanders should be pulled up to the level of the academic program. The head of the academy turned out to be right: the young commanders, according to his apt remark, "entered the science in a rather vigorous step."
The winter of 1919 – 1920 was a severe test for the academy. Everybody was hungry - both students and teachers. Classes were held in unheated, almost unlit classrooms. Outerwear is not removed. Snesarev took measures to improve the life of the academy, solved questions on the procurement of food and firewood.
Listeners who went to the front, helped by parcels. Everything went into a common pot and was divided on an equal basis between students and professors. But lectures and practical classes did not stop. An example of smartness, vigor and accuracy was given by the head of the academy himself: he was not late for the lectures and could not stand them.
In the spring of 1920, the graduates went to the front. Andrei Evgenjevich, as usual, personally conducted the Academy pets and gave a speech. In the autumn of the same year, an additional course was opened at the Academy. Red commanders who had previously graduated from the academy and had already been on the fronts came to him. An additional, enhanced course made of them, by his definition, qualified military, ready for any practical path of military affairs.
During the two years of his tenure as chief of the Academy of the General Staff of the Red Army, the former Tsarist General Snesarev did a lot. A good creative staff of teachers was assembled, who had already proved themselves to be recognized military theorists and professionals in their field, the backbone of the team consisted of former general staff AA students. Svechin, V.F. Novitsky and others.
The academy was created by the editorial board, whose task was to ensure the selection and production of high-quality works of scientists and teachers of the academy. The experience of this council was perceived by the leadership of the country's military department. As a result, the Supreme Military Editorial Board was established under the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic, which decided to organize the issue of domestic and translated foreign military literature. Thus, a review of world military thought was established in the country.
In 1921, the Academy of the General Staff of the Red Army was renamed the Military Academy of the Red Army, its chief appointed M.N. Tukhachevsky. A.E. Snesarev remained a professor at the academy and at the same time was appointed the chief director of military geography and statistics and the head of the newly created Eastern Branch of the Academy.
With the active participation of Snesarev, the Institute of Oriental Studies was opened in 1921, later named NN. Narimanov. Andrei Evgenievich, appointed by the rector of the institute, was able to gather here scientists of orientalists scattered throughout the country by revolution and war.
In 20-s. Andrei Evgenievich worked on a four-volume summarizing work “India. The country and the people. In 1926, the first part of it was Physical India. By 1929, the second part was prepared - “Ethnographic India”. Planned the third book - "Economic India" and the fourth - "Military-political India." He made a large number of scientific reports on various topics, translations of books by foreign authors, wrote several hundred articles and reviews.
In 1926, the decision of the Soviet government introduced the highest non-military training in civilian universities. The former military leader A.A. was appointed as the senior military leader of this training. Samoylo. The military leader and professor of the Institute of Oriental Studies was approved by A.E. Snesarev, dismissed from the post of rector. At the same time he taught military affairs and geography.
Trudy A.E. Snesareva.
One can only wonder at the energy and performance of Andrei Evgenievich during these years. In addition to his work at the Military Academy of the Red Army, the Institute of Oriental Studies and the Supreme Military Editorial Board, since February 1924 he has been a professor and senior director of the geography and statistics cycle of the Military Air Academy, since 1926 he has been a professor at the Military-Political Academy and since 1923. He does a lot of work as an assistant to the chief of the statistical part of the Legislative Department of the Administration of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR. 22 February 1928 The decree of the Central Election Commission of the USSR Andrei Evgenievich Snesarev for one of many years of useful work in the construction of the country's Armed Forces was one of the first to be awarded the title Hero of Labor. In 1929, his candidacy was nominated to the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
But 27 January 1930, Mr. A.E. Snesarev on trumped-up charges was unexpectedly arrested and sentenced to death. However, the death sentence was replaced by 10 years of imprisonment. Severe conditions undermined the health of A.E. Snesareva. In 1934, he was prematurely released, and on December 4, 1937 died. Andrei Evgenievich was buried at the Vagankovo cemetery. In January 1958, A.E. Snesarev was rehabilitated.