Military Review

Fight off Cape North Cape 25-26 December 1943

21
Immediately after the German attack on the USSR, on June 22, 1941, the British government offered the Soviet political leadership "assistance in everything that it can help" in the fight against the common enemy. Already on July 12, Moscow signed the "Agreement on the joint actions of the Government of the USSR and His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom in the war against Germany." In accordance with it, a temporary operational group of the British naval forces was created in the Barents Sea to combat fleet enemy and disruption of its sea lanes in the Arctic. However, the situation that developed in the summer of 1941 forced us to reconsider priorities, and the main task of the Allied forces was to protect communications between Great Britain and Iceland with Soviet ports.


The first allied convoy, consisting of six transports, arrived in Arkhangelsk on September 1. The Wehrmacht’s main command did not cause this particular concern, since it believed that the supply of arms, military equipment and materials to the USSR could no longer influence the general course of the war. Until the end of 1941, the Allies conducted thirteen convoys in both directions. At the same time, about 750 were delivered to Arkhangelsk and Murmansk tanks, 800 aircraft, 1400 vehicles and more than 100 tons of ammunition, industrial equipment, strategic raw materials, food and other cargoes.

As the failure of the “blitzkrieg” war plan became more and more obvious, the military-political leadership of Germany was forced to change its attitude toward the Allied convoys. In the middle of November, 1941, A. Hitler decided to relocate the strongest warships krigsmarine (Navy) to the Arctic. The creation of the Nord naval grouping was completed by the spring of 1942. It included the battleship Tirpitz, the heavy cruisers Admiral Scheer, Lutz, Admiral Hipper, Prince Eugen, the Cologne light cruiser, two fleet destroyers, up to 20 submarines. The task of disrupting the Arctic communication between the British Isles and the USSR was also assigned to the command of the 5 fleet of the Luftwaffe, whose aircraft were based on the airfields of Northern Norway.

The German armed forces inflicted the strongest blows on Allied navigation in the North in the summer of 1942, defeating the PQ-17 convoy and inflicting heavy damage on the PQ-18 convoy. Because of this (and according to the British military cabinet and in connection with preparations for the landing of the Anglo-American troops in North Africa), convoy operations were suspended, and the Soviet Northern Fleet was forced to confront the powerful Arctic naval grouping of the enemy without the help of allies. By that time there were only nine destroyers in it. By total firepower (25 - 130-mm, 12 - 102-mm, 8 - 76,2-mm, 3 - 45-mm guns), for example, they were inferior to a single German heavy cruiser Lutz (6 - 280-mm, 8 - 150-mm, 6 - 103-mm guns).

In an effort to maximize the use of a favorable environment, the command of the kriegsmarine conducted an operation "Wunderland" in August of 1942. During its course, the heavy cruiser “Admiral Scheer” sank the icebreaking steamer and fired at the port of Dickson, damaging the patrol ship and transport. However, the enemy did not succeed in completely interrupting Allied shipping in the North. With the onset of the polar night movement of the convoys resumed.

Fight off Cape North Cape 25-26 December 1943

"Scharnhorst" (it. Scharnhorst), the battleship of the German Navy in World War II.

In the spring of 1943, the German command sent the battleship Scharnhorst to Northern Norway to replace the two cruisers transferred to the Baltic. However, until the fall, the battleships remaining in the ranks were virtually inactive, as the British Admiralty again suspended the movement of the convoys. The only joint exit "Tirpitz" and "Scharnhorst" was held in the first half of September, but the result of their artillery fire on the coastal facilities on the Svalbard archipelago was negligible. 22 September 1943, the British ultra-small submarines heavily damaged the Tirpitz. The next day, the heavy cruiser Lutzov left for repair in Germany. Such a serious weakening of the grouping of the German Navy in the Arctic and problems with the provision of fuel remaining in the ranks of the ships called into question the expediency of its continued existence. In this regard, the command of the kriegsmarine was forced to look for a case in order to prove the opposite.

Meanwhile, in November 1943, the movement of the Allied Arctic convoys resumed. Until the end of the year, four convoys were conducted in both directions. For example, in December, two convoys were simultaneously deployed, which followed each other: RA-54B - from the USSR to the West and JW-55A - in the opposite direction. Their immediate operational cover was carried out by Rear Admiral R. Barnett's compound, consisting of two Belfast and Sheffield light cruisers of the same type and the Norfolk heavy cruiser (the so-called "Washington type"), the long-range operational cover — by a compound that included a battleship The Duke-of-York (under the flag of Metropolitan Fleet Commander Admiral B. Frazer), the Jamaica light cruiser and four destroyers of the destroyer.

Aviation the enemy found the convoy RA-54B on December 23, 1943 in the Faroe Islands. But, having performed on it only one unsuccessful air attack, the pilots lost it. Two days later, the same convoy was discovered by a German U-601 submarine. However, successive attempts at the beginning of this boat, and then the U-716 to attack transports were thwarted by security ships. Then Admiral K. Dönitz decided to strike a convoy with surface ships. The battleship Scharnhorst (the flag of Rear Admiral E. Bey) and five destroyers (Z-29, Z-30, Z-33, Z-34, Z-38) came to intercept him ").


British battleship "Duke of York" (English Duke of York - "Duke of York"). Modern design.

On the morning of December 26, the German compound spread out in the area between Bear Island and North Cape to increase the search bandwidth. At that moment, Rear Admiral E. Bey did not know that British radio intelligence had intercepted and deciphered his radio communications talks. Meanwhile, the British ships have already begun the hunt for the Scharnhorst. The battleship "Duke of York" with a cruiser and four squadron destroyers followed to the area from the west, and from the east cruiser R. Barnett approached it. It was they who first discovered the enemy battleship, having established a radar contact with him at a distance of 17,5 miles (33 km). The Scharnhorst radars were turned off: in this way, E. Bey hoped to achieve surprise when the convoy attacked.

The battle between the Scharnhorst and the British cruisers began in 9 hours 25 minutes. The first volley of lighting shells produced a light cruiser "Belfast". A minute later, the 203-mm guns of the heavy cruiser "Norfolk" opened fire. One of the shells destroyed the antenna of the radar station of the German ship. After that, the fire control of two towers of its main caliber could only be carried out according to data obtained with the help of optical rangefinders, which in the conditions of the polar night was almost equivalent to shooting blindly. But the excitement of the sea did not allow the British cruisers to develop the most complete course, and the Scharnhorst managed to break away from them.


Norfolk is a heavy cruiser of the Royal Navy of Great Britain during the Second World War.

The German battleship again lay on the course, which led to the area where, according to calculations, there could be an Allied convoy. However, around noon, the Scharnhorst was again pinned by the Belfast radar. After about 20 minutes, the fight resumed. This time the German ship, whose artillery was stronger than the artillery armament of the entire R. Barnett unit, achieved several hits at the Norfolk. One of the four towers of the main caliber of the British cruiser was disabled. Despite the success achieved, the German flagship, while still pursuing the goal of defeating the convoy, evaded further fire contact and, ordering its squadron destroyers to resume the search for an allied caravan, sent the Scharnhorst to the southeast. At the same time, he did not know that the chosen course leads towards the formation under the command of Admiral B. Frazer.

At about 13 hours 15 minutes due to ambiguity of the situation E. Bey nevertheless canceled his decision and ordered to return to the base. The remaining Scharnhorst aft radar was switched off again to make it more difficult for enemy ships to detect. Two hours later, a radiogram was sent to the shore from the German battleship, in which E. Bey called the estimated time of his return. He did not guess that the cruisers of R. Barnett "led" his flagship, maintaining continuous radar contact with him, and the RA-55B long-range operational cover was directed at him.

The fight resumed at 16 hours 47 minutes. The British light cruiser "Belfast" and the battleship "Duke-of-York" were the first to open fire with lightning shells. The Scharnhorst responded with a major caliber, but its 283-mm projectiles did not pierce the armor covering the vital parts of the enemy’s battleship. Soon, on the German battleship itself, one was damaged and another nose tower was damaged. In addition, 356-mm projectile struck the board in the area of ​​the main caliber aft turret. But for this ship, which had a developed protection system, all this was not fatal.

Taking advantage of the speed, E. Bey sought to increase the distance of the battle, and as long as he succeeded, the British destroyers could not carry out the order of their flagship on the attack with torpedoes. By 17 42 minutes, the distance between the Scharnhorst and the English ships increased so much that only Duke-of-York and only the main caliber could fire at it.

Despite the significant removal of the target, the shooting of the British battleship, controlled by radar data, was accurate. Around 18 hours 20 minutes 356-mm projectile exploded under the first boiler room of the German ship, and its speed dropped to 8 nodes. The measures to repair the damage were taken quickly, after which the Scharnhorst was even able to increase the speed to 22 units, but by that time it had already lost most of its artillery. In 18 hours 24 minutes the last radiogram was sent from him: "We will fight until the last round."

A quarter of an hour later, the Duke-of-York guns temporarily stopped firing, and Admiral B. Frazer re-ordered the destroyers to make a torpedo attack. This time they managed to get close to the Scharnhorst at a distance of volley. After hitting four torpedoes, the speed of the latter did not exceed 12 nodes. Having reduced the distance to 9,1 km, Duke-of-York again opened fire on him with 356-mm guns. When the speed of the enemy ship fell to 5 nodes, and it almost ceased to obey the helm, B. Frezer ordered to complete his destruction with torpedoes. In the course of 20 minutes, the Schnhorst launched 27 torpedoes, of which seven reached the target. In 19 hours 45 minutes after a powerful internal explosion, the German battleship engulfed in flames went under water. Of the 1968 people on board, the English sailors saved only 36.

Having received the news of the battle at Cape Nordkap, I.V. Stalin sent a message of congratulations to British Prime Minister William Churchill, Commander of the Metropolitan Fleet, Admiral B. Frezer and the "valiant sailors" of the Duke-of-York battleship. Perhaps it was the only case in the whole of World War II, when the tactical, from a formal point of view, success of the Allies received such high appreciation from the mouth of the first person of the Soviet state.

After the death of the Scharnhorst, the British military cabinet stopped viewing the Kriegsmarine’s Arctic grouping as a fatal threat to the northern convoys. Their movement is not interrupted. There was no need to bring the main forces of the fleet to conduct convoy operations, so that the British Admiralty could withdraw from its composition and send an aircraft carrier, two battleships and a battle cruiser to the Pacific Ocean. This was the military-political and military-strategic importance of the victory won by the Allied naval forces of December 26 1943.

The battle in the Barents Sea showed that organizing the escorting of convoys in the form of an operation, in which all types of forces of the Allied fleets were involved, was the most expedient decision. On the other hand, the attempt to strike at the Allied convoy, which was not supported by either intelligence or operational camouflage measures, failed completely naturally. The reliance on the high maneuverability characteristics of ships of the type to which the Scharnhorst belonged (as well as the battle cruisers in general) proved to be untenable. In the armed struggle at sea, the range, accuracy and power of the means of destruction acquired decisive importance, and shipborne radiolocation, originally intended primarily to cover the situation, became the main means of controlling artillery fire.
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  1. Denis Obukhov
    Denis Obukhov 12 January 2016 18: 34
    +5
    The duel between York and Scharnhorst can perhaps be called the last artillery battle of the battleships in the history of wars. It is not clear why the Germans tried to compete with the British on surface forces. In vain only a huge amount of money spent. They have a submarine fleet with all the tasks on the seas, and one so perfectly coped. The main submarines were much cheaper, and the effect of their use was huge .................
    1. KBR109
      KBR109 12 January 2016 19: 13
      +4
      And the Pacific Ocean! The death of "Yamashiro" 25.10.1944/XNUMX/XNUMX.
    2. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 13 January 2016 05: 25
      +2
      The huge costs of the LC are not surprising. The Germans had excellent experience in using submarines in WW1, that is the mystery. Perhaps the theorists, the Englishmen, have screwed everyone up. By the way, the money would be useful to us, but the series of the Sovetsky Soyuz aircraft was being built.
      1. Per se.
        Per se. 13 January 2016 09: 59
        +4
        Quote: Mavrikiy
        The Germans had a great experience using submarines in 1mv, that’s the mystery. Perhaps theorists in the English brains all fooled.
        The fleet cannot solve all tasks at sea with one class of ships. The ideas of a "mosquito fleet", when "cheap and angry", were vigorously discussed in the 20s and 30s of the last century, but not a single cloud of torpedo boats or submarines alone can win a war at sea, solve the entire spectrum of emerging problems and tasks. The Germans lost the battle for the Atlantic, the cross on their very good boats, left without cover from the surface fleet, delivered base and deck anti-submarine aircraft, a variety of anti-submarine ships. If we talk about the beginning of the construction of battleships in Germany, then you need to know about the "Z" plan, which included the creation of a powerful Reich fleet, capable of completely dominating the Atlantic by the end of the 40s. Actually, if we talk about the Scharnhorst project, it is more of a battle cruiser than the actual battleship. The Bismarck and Tirpitz became the real battleships, and the battleships of the next series with 406 mm cannons could already be classified as super-battleships. After the battle with the Bismarck, the British were in awe for a long time, after the very existence of the second battleship, Tirpitz, chained considerable forces of the Royal Navy to neutralize it and attempts to destroy it. The pogrom of the PQ-17 convoy took place from the abandonment of transports by warships on the news that the Tirpitz was intercepted. The fleet is like chess pieces on a board, it is foolish to try to play with pawns alone; a battleship or aircraft carrier is as necessary for a full-fledged fleet as a queen or rooks are in a chess game.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 13 January 2016 10: 32
          0
          Quote: Per se.
          Actually, if we talk about the Scharnhorst project, it is more of a battle cruiser than the actual battleship.

          Well ... in the final version (from 3x2-38 cm) "Gneisenau" was nevertheless closer to the LC.
          Quote: Per se.
          After the battle with the Bismarck, the British were in awe for a long time, after the very existence of the second battleship, Tirpitz, chained considerable forces of the Royal Navy to neutralize it and attempts to destroy it.

          If you look at the history of the service of the "Kings" and "Illastries", then in Scapa 1-2 combat-ready post-Washington LKs and 1 AB were usually on duty. The rest either underwent a course of combat training, or were repaired, or were in other theaters. Moreover, the goal of the Home Fleet linear forces was not only "Tirpitz", but also "Scharnhorst".
    3. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 13 January 2016 10: 24
      +1
      Quote: Denis Obukhov
      The duel between York and Scharnhorst can perhaps be called the last artillery battle of the battleships in the history of wars.

      But what about the battle in the Surigao Strait? The Yankees there even built a line of LC. smile
      Quote: Denis Obukhov
      The main submarines were much cheaper, and the effect of their use was huge .................

      If the Germans are not building a battleship, the Limes are cutting back on their "big pot" programs in favor of escorts. And the aggregate capabilities of the Metropolis, Dominions and those who joined them The USA (which in 1941, while still neutral, built escort ships of all classes for Britain, including aircraft carriers) is still much larger than that of the Reich.

      And about the cheapness and effect ... uv. Exeter cited data that the cost of the most massive German submarine - "seven" - was approximately equal to the cost of three special-purpose anti-submarine corvettes. But besides them, the limes had a cloud of "free" mobilized trawlers, on which they stuck a GAS, a couple of guns and a supply of GB - and received an ASW escort.
      The effect of the submarine’s actions was not so significant. how they like to write about it in memoirs. In fact, the tonnage of the cargo fleet of Britain decreased by several percent in only one of the quarters of 1943. And in 1943, the submarines themselves were already in the role of the game - KPUG and APUG PLO with escort aircraft carriers entered the communications. In 1944, the full fifth point came - the Allies got aviation RSL and homing anti-submarine torpedoes for airplanes.
  2. Denis Obukhov
    Denis Obukhov 12 January 2016 18: 38
    +2
    Captured German sailors on board Duke. Of the crew of almost 2 thousand people. only 38 sailors escaped.
  3. serezhafili
    serezhafili 12 January 2016 18: 59
    +1
    This fight in History is known as the "New Year's fight" ...
    1. tlauicol
      tlauicol 13 January 2016 06: 32
      +3
      no it's a different fight
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 13 January 2016 10: 45
      +3
      Quote: serezhafili
      This fight in History is known as the "New Year's fight" ...

      The New Year’s battle was a year earlier - when 6 British EMs (some of which had only 102-mm guns) and 2 KRLs managed to drive away the German squadron from 1 Panzerchiffe, 1 KRT and 6 EM from the KON protected by them. Moreover, the first hours of the battle of 5 British EM fought alone with a German group of 1 SRT and 3 EM.
  4. Foxbed
    Foxbed 12 January 2016 19: 14
    +3
    Not bad. But it would be more interesting if the author wrote how "Scharnhorst" and "Gneisenau" ended up in the Norwegian fjords, slipping through (!!!) the English Channel under the nose of the "Royal Navy" ... Operation "Cerberus" against "Fuller".
  5. Scharnhorst
    Scharnhorst 12 January 2016 19: 17
    +4
    The Reich fleet before WWII did not strive for a direct confrontation with Britain and France. All capital ships were conceived primarily as raiders, acting alone or in pairs. The losses at the beginning of the war of the "pocket battleship", "Bismarck" and then "Gneisenau" unbalanced the young fleet. Goering took over the naval aviation. The emphasis on the use of submarines has become a necessary measure - less costly in a war, but not the most effective.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 13 January 2016 05: 38
      +1
      I have not found anywhere more effective measures of struggle at sea with England than submarines. Enlighten me, please, what’s worth it to you.
    3. Per se.
      Per se. 13 January 2016 10: 32
      0
      Quote: Scharnhorst
      The Reich fleet before WWII did not seek a direct confrontation with England and France.
      It was from the very beginning that this very confrontation was conceived, and first of all with England and the USA (plan "Z"). "Pocket battleships" were created within the limits of Versailles, even before Hitler came to power, and this was a very effective, if not ingenious, decision to create a ship within the limit, capable of breaking off in speed from enemy battleships, and surpassing any enemy ship with artillery. catch up. Although the Germans themselves slyly called their ships "battleships" and the British "pocket battleships", in fact they were heavy cruisers with powerful artillery and huge cruising range thanks to their diesels (these ships are still the world's largest military diesel ships). Raiding German large ships is more of a necessary measure, even a mistake, than a rational decision. Sending "Bismarck" and "Prince Eugen" to the Atlantic for raiding was a dubious action, apparently, the loss of "Admiral von Spee" from South America was not enough. Already in the Baltic, the Swedes snitched to the British about the exit, and in the Danish Strait, where the Germans hoped to sneak through in snow charges, they were tracked by the English cruiser with its locator. Only by a happy coincidence for the Germans, the cruiser's radio messages were not accepted by the British Admiralty. Otherwise, even the heroic battle of "Bismarck" with the whole British squadron could not take place, pull up the British before the force. In general, the Anglo-Saxons allowed Hitler to come to power not so that he would challenge the masters of capitalism at sea, but for a war against their main enemy, the Soviet Union, with its socialism beyond the control of world capital. In that sense, the anti-Hitler coalition became a natural phenomenon, as did the inevitable fiasco of Nazi Germany, which had no real chance of winning either the war at sea or on land. However, Hitler was only needed for that, so as if not to win, then to weaken the USSR, to give the United States and Britain a chance to profit from a new war.
      1. Mooh
        Mooh 14 January 2016 12: 18
        0
        it was very effective, if not a brilliant decision to create a ship within the limit, capable of breaking off in speed from the enemy’s battleships, and surpassing any enemy ship capable of catching it with artillery.


        You are wrong. "Battleships" were inferior to battle cruisers both in speed and in armament.
  6. polkovnik manuch
    polkovnik manuch 12 January 2016 19: 36
    -1
    As if we were not "puffed up", the help of the allies was both weighty and timely. The figures are different, but the amount of equipment and weapons received in aggregate amounted at different times from 12 to 20% of the total needs of the fronts, not to mention motor transport and railways. locomotives. There were, of course, incidents, but the allies in the North (and in the South and East!) Made a worthy contribution to the common cause of defeating the Nazis. The bad news is that at first we were silent about the amount of aid, but now they forget the lessons of the past and are trying to overestimate the contribution of the USSR to victory over fascism.
    1. bulvas
      bulvas 12 January 2016 19: 57
      0
      Quote: polkovnik manuch


      Good comment on a good article, thanks


    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Sergey S.
      Sergey S. 13 January 2016 01: 13
      +2
      Quote: polkovnik manuch
      How would we not "puffed up", and the help of the allies was both weighty and timely

      Strongly disagree.
      Moreover, in Soviet times, the role of the allies was supported within a decent framework, contrary to the opinion of the front-line soldiers.

      My father-in-law, twice a disabled war veteran, who fought in Leningrad, said: "The second front we called the American stew" ... And he spoke with anger in his voice. For he knew the price of help during a terrible war.
      And by 1945, he was so convinced that Zhukov had stopped in vain, it was necessary to drive the Nazis to the English Channel ...
      But these are emotions.

      And in the case.
      We needed help ...
      I.V. Stalin sent so many letters on this subject ...
      But what did Churchill do? Slowed down ...
      And at the most terrible time for us - the summer of 1942, he stopped the Polar convoys altogether ... And he betrayed PQ-17 on purpose to justify his "cowardice".

      And amery good.
      That is, the planes were decent ...
      But if you calculate when, how much and what the Americans gave us under Lend-Lease, we get a strange picture.
      Most of the American ships and boats came to the USSR too late to fight the Nazis ... and the Pacific Fleet ... and only for the USSR to go to war with Japan.

      And immediately after the end of the war, Amer. Demanded the ships back.
      Our ships were put in order, completed according to the inventory of reception, even put a tool ...
      Amer.y received and ... pointedly drowned ...

      Summary.
      We really wanted to have allies.
      And we really wanted to have friends, brothers in arms.
      But in the entire history of Russia, only Serbs, Cubans and Vietnamese have become such.
      1. rubin6286
        rubin6286 14 January 2016 23: 57
        0
        Your father-in-law correctly wrote about the American stew. Still, we must be honest: our entire army was sitting on studentbackers, dodges and jeeps, there were small numbers of tanks and armored personnel carriers, amphibians. The fleet received British and American submarines, torpedo boats, and minesweepers. Air regiments were received by British and American fighters, bombers,
        torpedo bombers, transporters, flying boats. Their quality and technical condition were different. One can argue about this. Different arguments can be given, but in war they fight with what they have, and if there is nothing? We have forgotten about small arms - machine guns, rifles, radio stations, aluminum, manganese, copper, cobalt, lead and gunpowder, cotton, uniforms, boots, boots, underwear, overalls and jackets, helmets, aviation gasoline, oils and greases, and much more. In addition to stew, there was also "lard" (you probably don't know what it is), flour, concentrates,
        alcohol, milk powder, medicines and so on. The help of the Allies was invaluable, especially in 1941-43. The Soviet people, in the end, would certainly defeat fascism, but the struggle would last longer and there would be more victims.
    4. Scraptor
      Scraptor 13 January 2016 05: 05
      +3
      and even worse that you are silent about the help of the allies of Nazi Germany through neutral countries with strategic materials without which the war would have ended with the end of the blitzkrieg or in Stalingrad, a year before this "New Year's battle"
      in the delivered military equipment, which amounted to 9% -12% of the total number, Russian soldiers were killed, not English and American, who did not come to the Eastern Front with her, even through warm Iran.
      and in general, by landing in Denmark (and not in Morocco) they could quickly capture Berlin while the Wehrmacht was bogged down far in Russia without fuel
      It would be if they fought seriously, but didn’t pull the continental powers off the leash of Hitler in 1938 and then sat watching from behind the Ditch, thinning out the German civilians from the air after the backlash was defeated by the USSR Air Force in the Air Battle over Kuban.
      and then came to Europe for their sphere of influence, and German trophies
      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 13 January 2016 05: 52
        +1
        Well, judge for yourself. They would defeat fast Germany and ... What are the results?
        1. Strong USSR
        2. Where honestly earned loot.
        3. England did not overtake.
        4. Your defense industry is not promoted.
        It was early to end the war. Not for that, they started it and Hitler was fed.
        And what happened with the USSR military-industrial complex, and half of Europe went under it, well, who knew? It so happened, production costs.
        1. Scraptor
          Scraptor 13 January 2016 06: 27
          0
          They simply would not have killed a sufficient number of Russians with German hands.

          As in Asia, they killed the Chinese with Japanese hands

          Loot is simply printed on a machine, and even Russian women then do not give birth to so much.

          everything went according to plan, and no one even made a secret of this, especially since the fact of deliveries in such volumes was impossible to hide ...
          If we see that Germany is winning, then we should help Russia, and if Russia is winning, then we should help Germany, and thus let them kill as much as possible ... Harry Truman (New York Times, 24.06.1941)

          Well, something like this ...
          1. Scraptor
            Scraptor 13 January 2016 06: 30
            0
            You can still ...
            http://www.texemarrs.com/images/truman_masonic_regalia.jpg
            1. Scraptor
              Scraptor 13 January 2016 06: 37
              0
              it’s in childhood ... and they are generally almost all like that
  7. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 13 January 2016 11: 46
    +1
    Here is a picture of Duke:
  8. Scraptor
    Scraptor 17 January 2016 09: 31
    0
    Quote: voyaka uh
    Here is a picture of Duke:

    why so little? laughing