Military Review

Thrice Master Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov

63
“What would your good do if there was no evil, and what would the earth look like if the shadows disappeared from it? After all, the shadows are obtained from objects and people ... ".
"Among human vices, he considers cowardice to be one of the most important ..."

M.A. Bulgakov


15 May 1891 was born into the family of Associate Professor of the Kiev Theological Academy Afanasy Bulgakov, who was born the firstborn, who was named Mikhail. Afanasy Ivanovich, a former son of a priest, in addition to the obligatory ancient languages, knew English, French and German, read Slavic works in the original and in the end of his life received a doctorate in theology. His wife, Varvara Mikhailovna, was the daughter of the cathedral archpriest and had a cheerful and simple disposition. Children in their family appeared one after another - after Michael, the same days as Vera and Nadezhda were born, then Barbara, Nikolai, Ivan and Elena.



The eldest son of Bulgakov grew up to be an avid bookworm, and there were no restrictions on the literature of the children of the Master of Theology - the house had children's books, Russian classics, and foreign works, including the then most popular Ibsen, Wilde and Nietzsche. In 1900, the Bulgakovs bought a summer cottage in the village of Bucha, where children, with the permission of their parents, “got rid of themselves”. They ran barefoot through the nearest forest, boated on the Dnieper and played different games. Bulgakov, by the way, was a good athlete - he skated beautifully, was fond of tennis, croquet and football. One of the favorite entertainment of adults and children of those years was home performances. Michael in them, as a rule, was the director, and also shone in comic roles. In general, jokes and laughter were the hallmarks of the family. Varvara Mikhailovna, although she liked to laugh with the children, but forced them to work - the older children looked after the younger ones, the boys cleaned the garbage in the garden, uprooted trees with the father and cleared the paths, and the girls repaired the brothers' clothes.

At 1900, Mikhail was enrolled in the first Kiev gymnasium, and at 1907 a terrible misfortune happened to his family - 48-year-old Afanasy Ivanovich died from a kidney disease. There were seven children left on Varvara Mikhailovna, and at first, at a loss, she did not know what to do. Subsequently, the mother told children more than once: “I cannot give you capital or a dowry. However, I can give you an education - the only capital you will have. ” And she managed to learn all seven. At the same time, the older children, trying to help, were hired by tutors, and Michael during the summer holidays worked as a controller on the country trains. Some time later, when the Bulgakovs just started to come to their senses, Afanasy Ivanovich’s brother in Japan brought his two sons Kostya and Kohl to them. A year later, cousin Lilya Bulgakova arrived in Kiev from the Lublin province in Kiev. As a result, there were already ten children in the hands of Varvara Mikhailovna.

While studying at the gymnasium, Michael was fond of real adult theater and opera. In addition, he devoted a lot of time to the natural sciences - a microscope did not emerge from the future writer's life, the young man had marinated snakes, dissected beetles, collected a wonderful collection of butterflies. At 1909, Mikhail Afanasyevich graduated from high school and ended up in the medical faculty of Kiev University. The choice of profession was not accidental - there were doctors among his relatives and from the side of the father, and from the side of the mother. At home, a matured Michael, who in a youthful manner was ardently fascinated by the provisions of Darwin, stopped stepping into fasting — it seemed nonsense to the family of the late professor of theology.

At the same time, Mikhail Afanasyevich met Tatyana Lappa, a high school student, who had come to Sarah to visit her aunt (friends of Bulgakov’s mother). Her aunt and introduced the young man - they say, he will show you to Kiev. Young people really walked around the city a lot and every day they liked each other more and more. A year later, the schoolgirl returned to her aunt, and Varvara Mikhailovna, in order to avoid her son's daily trips from the cottage to Kiev and back, invited the girl to live in Bucha. And for the Christmas holidays 1911-1912, medical student Bulgakov himself went to Saratov. By the summer of 1912, Mikhail Afanasyevich, despite the protests of his mother, was determined to marry. In mid-August, Bulgakov brought the bride from Saratov, and soon Tatyana Lappa entered the women's courses in Kiev. One of Bulgakov’s sisters wrote down in her diary at that time: “How did they both fit each other in the careless nature?”. At the end of April 1913, a modest wedding took place - the bride who was not discouraged had no veil or wedding dress, only a silk blouse and linen skirt. Crowned, as expected, in the church, with images. Varvara Mikhailovna, who still considered the wedding “an insane step”, came down to the next day with a high temperature - experiences were reflected. The young people rented a separate room on Reitarskaya Street.

Mikhail Afanasyevich gave private lessons; some funds were sent from Saratov by his wife’s relatives. However, the money in the family did not stay as soon as they appeared, the young took a taxi and rushed to the theater. Therefore, it is not surprising that they regularly dined in the old apartment on Andriyivskyy Descent, where it was still noisy and fun. At Christmas 1913, the young wife left for her parents, and Mikhail Afanasyevich gave her the word that she would stop shaving. When Tatyana, who was delayed in Saratov, reappeared in Kiev, the husband grew a beard. This, by the way, happened for the first and last time in his life - the writer always preferred to remain a dandy.

The war broke out suddenly, finding the Bulgakovs in Saratov, where they left for the summer holidays. Returning to Kiev, Mikhail Afanasyevich went to study at the university, and Tatiana and her aunt got a job at the hospital. The distance from Kiev to the border was only 300 kilometers, and when 1915 approached the city in the fall of 1916, the future writer almost sent his spouse to Saratov by force. But two weeks later, she reappeared in Kiev. In April, XNUMX Mikhail Afanasyevich graduated from the university course and, having received the title of “doctor”, worked in the hospital, and then volunteered to the South-Western Front. At the end of the summer, Tatyana also left for her husband. Bulgakov met his wife in Orsha, on the way to Chernivtsi (now Chernivtsi), where the hospital was located, their car was stopped. Bulgakov was asked for a pass, which he did not have. Without thinking twice, Mikhail Afanasyevich handed the recipe, and the soldiers who did not know the letters, when they saw the seal, missed the car.

Since all the experienced zemstvo doctors were sent to field hospitals, they barely completed the course of young doctors were sent to their places. The queue reached Bulgakov - in September 1916 he ended up in Nikolskaya Zemsky Hospital, located in 40 kilometers from the town of Sychevka. Wife, of course, went with him. Mikhail Afanasyevich worked in the Zemstvo hospital for more than a year - the first cases from his practice were truthfully and in some places with already truly Bulgakov humor told in the Notes of the Young Doctor. Almost anecdotal moments, such as mustard plasters glued over the sheepskin coat or refined sugar, placed in the birth canal to lure the unwilling to go out into the white light of a baby, were side by side with the realistic work of the provincial doctor. The lyrical hero of the writer exclaimed: “What kind of wounds I sewed up, what kind of purulent pleurisy I observed, what kind of pneumonia, crayfish, typhoid, hernia, sarcoma, hemorrhoids ... I, as it turned out now, was happy then. Prompt, vinyuzhniy, unforgettable year ".

In Sychevka, Bulgakov became addicted to morphine - having made the first injection in the summer of 1917, in order to protect himself from allergies, which were an adverse reaction to anti-diphtheria serum, Mikhail Afanasyevich continued to prick. This dependence was aggravated in the Vyazma city local hospital where the writer was transferred to the turning point for the country of the year. At the same time, Tatyana Nikolayevna, who followed her husband, was forced, due to his morphinism, to have an abortion. The report on the course of the disease turned out to be subsequently recorded in the story “Khan's Fire”, written in 1924, whose lyrical hero read the diary of another doctor who had shot himself in despair. However, the writer himself managed to overcome drug addiction, completely rid of it by the spring of 1918. Never again did Bulgakov allow this devil into his blood.

In 1918, the couple returned to Kiev, where the hetman Skoropadsky, supported by the Germans, ruled. They settled in the old apartment of the Bulgakovs on Andrew’s Descent. In addition to them, a mother lived in the house, Varya’s sister with her husband, a career officer Leonid Karum, younger brothers Vanya and Kohl, as well as another cousin from Zhytomyr. However, they didn’t have the cooks, and the family members took turns preparing the food. With the support of his wife, Mikhail Afanasyevich became involved in private practice - in Vyazma and Sychevka he became a good specialist in venereal and skin diseases. When the Petliurists approached Kiev, the Germans, leaving the hetman to the mercy of fate, left the city. Previously, Skoropadsky banned the formation of Russian units, and the Germans requisitioned all weapon. Nevertheless, the remaining Russian officers tried to keep the city, but the forces were unequal. In December, 1918 Ukrainian nationalists occupied Kiev. Contemporaries recalled that in the first days after the invasion of the Petliurists many hospitals were being treated in the hospitals were killed, and all landfill sites were literally clogged with corpses, most of which were traces of monstrous torture. Among other things, the Petliurists burned the Bulgakovs' cottage in Bucha, making a fire right in the middle of the house. And when Mikhail Afanasyevich went, as required by the disposal of the new power, to the commandant's office to be noted, he was mobilized. He will write about it in 1926 in the story “I killed”: “This is a brilliant army leaving corpses on the street ... and I am in this company with a red cross on its sleeve ...”. When the opportunity presented itself the first night, Bulgakov fled. In Kiev, where power was constantly changing, Mikhail Afanasyevich "personally experienced ten coups."

In the autumn of 1919, Bulgakov joined the Armed Forces of the South of Russia, and with Denikinians as part of the Third Terek Cossack Regiment went to Vladikavkaz. Upon arrival there, he telegraphed his wife, and she again followed him. Soon the future writer was transferred to a field hospital near Grozny. Tatyana Nikolaevna recalled: “We reached the detachment through high maize on a carriage. I, the coachman, and Misha with a rifle on my knees — she was given with me, and she had to be ready all the time. ” On one of the autumn nights of 1919, in the light of a candle inserted into a kerosene bottle, Bulgakov wrote his first short story. From this feuilleton "The Future Perspectives", published in the newspaper "Grozny", Bulgakov later led the reading of his literary activity, although it is known that Mikhail Afanasyevich composed in the evenings after receiving patients in Sychevka and in Kiev.

In October, 1919 Bulgakov participated in battles with highlanders in the auls of Shali-aul and Chechen-aul. Then there was Beslan, where Mikhail Afanasyevich, along with his wife, lived in the train's wagon, doing operations there and treating the wounded. They, according to Tatiana Nikolaevna’s memories, ate some watermelons. On the same train, the Bulgakovs returned to Vladikavkaz. And at the very beginning of 1920, Mikhail Afanasyevich, who went to Pyatigorsk, caught up with typhoid fever. Tatyana Nikolaevna barely found the dying writer a doctor. While Bulgakov was lying with the temperature under forty, whites left Vladikavkaz, and in a “pause” between the red and white, the city was plundered by the Circassians. After his recovery, Bulgakov, who walked with a stick, said to his wife: "From now on, medicine is finished."

The Reds who occupied the city stubbornly searched for the White Guards in it, Tatyana Nikolayevna wrote: “I still don’t understand how Michael remained alive that year — they could identify him ten times!” In the spring of 1920, Bulgakov met writer Yury Slezkin, who promoted him to take over as head of the literary and then theatrical section in the Vladikavkaz Revolutionary Committee. The writer recalled that the theater gave him a salary of cucumbers and vegetable oil. They lived on the gold chain of Tatiana Nikolaevna, tearing off a piece from it and selling it. The first plays of Mikhail Afanasyevich were staged in the Vladikavkaz Theater, but as early as May the 1921 theater was closed.

From Vladikavkaz, Bulgakov went to Tiflis, where they spent a whole month with money raised from the sale of wedding rings. Sell ​​wedding rings is considered a bad omen, but there was nothing to do - they had already eaten the golden chain. Then the couple were in Batumi. In August, 1921 Bulgakov sent Tatiana Nikolaevna to Moscow, saying at the end: "Wherever I am, I will call you, as always." To the grieved spouse it seemed that they would leave forever. According to her recollections, Mikhail Afanasyevich stayed in the city, hoping to get on some ship and leave Russia: “I negotiated with someone, I wanted him to be hidden in the hold”. However, the Jules-Vernov plans failed, and already in the month of September the writer, having no money and no belongings, walked more than two hundred kilometers from Voronezh along the tracks, reached Moscow. Laughing at friends and acquaintances, Bulgakov wrote a letter to Nadezhda Krupskaya, with whose assistance he magically obtained a room in a communal apartment in the house number 10 on Bolshaya Sadovaya.

For a long time, Mikhail Afanasyevich did not feel “solid ground under his feet” in the capital. He barely got the post of secretary of the Literary Department of the Main Political Politics, as Leto was liquidated. He wrote about this work: “In Leto, there were no tables, no chairs, no light bulbs, no ink, no readers, no writers, no books ... For hours I sat with a sad young lady. She's at the table, I'm at the desk. I read Dumas 'Three Musketeers', whom I found in the bathroom on the floor ... ”. After that, the writer went to the “Commercial and Industrial Bulletin” by the head of the chronicle department, but a month later this edition “passed away”. All March, Bulgakov worked as a reporter for the Worker newspaper, but did not work out here either. Mikhail Afanasyevich wrote to Kiev: "I can say briefly, here there is a fierce struggle for existence." And in early February, 1922 suddenly died from typhus by his mother Varvara Mikhailovna - news this shook Bulgakov. Only in April, the 1922 writer found a “stable” place - the newspaper Gudok.

By the will of fate, at that time Ilf worked with Petrov, Olesha, Kataev in the print edition of the railway workers - in other words, the whole color of the literature of that time. Mikhail Afanasyevich, 32, was almost ten years older than the rest and kept himself apart. The rest of hudkovtsy perceived him as an old man, noting “that even a carefully tied necktie and a dazzlingly fresh, plaster-solid collar that were inaccessible to them” isolated the writer from their blouse fraternity. In addition, Bulgakov kissed the ladies' hands, bowed ceremoniously, and, funny to say, could not sit in the tram if there was a woman standing next to him. Mikhail Afanasyevich preferred to speak “Ersami” - “as you like, with” or “kindly with”. The whole appearance and all the habits of this “railway” newspaperman immediately showed what he came out of on Wednesday.

For life, Bulgakov earned himself by writing poisonous feuilletons and signing them, like the young Chekhov, with funny pseudonyms, like the “Starchic dickey”. The master printed his satirical feuilletons not only on the pages of the “Rings”, but also of “Red Pepper” and “Crocodile”. He wrote them, by the way, "in one spirit": "The writing of the feuilleton took away from me, including whistling and smoking, eighteen to twenty minutes." Feuilletons of the new author attracted the attention of Muscovites, but over time, newspaper habits began to annoy Bulgakov. It seemed to the writer that his taste "fell sharply", that "more and more often in the writings began to slip worn comparisons and sample words." "His" Mikhail Afanasyevich worked at night. Since autumn 1921, he dictated his works to a typist for two or three hours in the evening. She said that the writer “didn’t improvise a lot”, “there weren’t any manuscripts as such”, there were only separate leaflets and notebooks.

Unfortunately, Bulgakov’s relationship with his wife after their arrival in Moscow became more and more cool. Their neighbor in the communal apartment recalled: “The tall and thin Tatyana Nikolayevna keeps so unobtrusively, so inconspicuously, she feels herself to be a stranger in her life.” The final point in their relationship was set in the spring of 1924. At the beginning of the year, in the evening of the meeting with the “Smenovekhovtsi” who had returned from Berlin, headed by Alexey Tolstoy, Mikhail Afanasyevich met the noblewoman, by origin, Belozerskaya. They got married in April 1925. Writer Yury Slezkin wrote that Lyubov Evgenievna was a very "practical woman" and "looked at all the men who could help build her future." After the second marriage, the life of Bulgakov did not change much - the couple met with friends, went to rest in the Crimea, went to the opera and to the dramatic performances. As before, Bulgakov continued to write at night. Lyubov Evgenievna, on equal footing with a friend, kept a horse on the racetrack and, as a jockey, took part in competitions. They did not have children, but cats, cats, and also the red dog named after the servant Moliere Buton constantly lived.

During the period from 1922 to 1926, Mikhail Afanasyevich wrote such well-known works such as “Devil's Eve”, “Dog's Heart”, “Fatal Eggs”, “Kabala the Holy”, “Alexander Pushkin” and a number of others. In 1923, the writer began work on the White Guard - a novel about a sister and brothers, about protecting the house and about honor, about war and waiting for peace. The work didn’t make an impression on the staff of the “Hooter” seeking the novelty of language and form, but Maximilian Voloshin, having presented the author with one of the watercolors, wrote on it: “The first person who captured the soul of Russian strife”. Literary critic Vincent Veresaev argued that "only Leo Tolstoy started so brilliantly with us." Indeed, the “White Guard” became a kind of “War and Peace” of the twentieth century and according to its text one can study the civil war in the south of the country.

The first and second parts of the novel were published in 1924. With difficulty, partially with promissory notes, having received money for the novel, Bulgakov ordered himself a day-out suit and a tuxedo. After a long and difficult search, he got a monocle. It was a hat-bowler-like "delights" in the capital is no longer allowed. Finally, one of the writer's friends, who had a Milan bowler hat with 1913, presented it to Mikhail Afanasyevich. At the same time, the writer "was delighted, like a child, and exclaimed everything:" From now on, I can impress! ".

The White Guard was dismantled at the Art Theater, and as a result, they decided to make a play based on the novel on a contemporary theme, which in those days was practically absent. The 1925 writer was invited to the Moscow Art Theater and told him about it. Bulgakov, who from childhood loved the theater and himself had long been carrying out the plot of the play, could not refuse. Thus was born the play, which (with a three-year break) took place on the Moscow scene from 1926 to 1941 over a thousand times. For the Art Theater “Days of the Turbins”, whose main director was Konstantin Stanislavsky, they became the second “Seagull”. The performance impressed spectators who had recently passed through the same difficulties as the heroes of the play. Often in the auditorium there were "fainting and hysteria", "people were taken away in an ambulance."

After the success of “Days of the Turbins”, the workers of the Vakhtangov Theater approached Bulgakov to write a comedy for them. The writer agreed and soon, looking through the newspaper column about the incidents in the city, he came across a note about how the Moscow police found a gambling hangout working under the guise of a sewing workshop. Contained a den of a certain Zoya Buyalskaya. So Bulgakov had the idea of ​​an incredibly topical today play “Zoykin's apartment”, which premiered in the fall of 1926.

In 1928, Bulgakov wrote a new play called “Run,” which was based on the memories of white general Yakov Slaschov who had returned to Russia. The meticulous writer even drew a map, noting all the inhabited places where battles took place, and also depicting the movements of the White and Red armies. The details of life in emigration Mikhail Afanasyevich learned from the stories of his wife. The young actors of the Art Theater, on the basis of which the roles were written, liked the play. They began to rehearse, but here the play (in November, 1928), despite the protection of Maxim Gorky, imposed a ban. The reason was simple - there was no Red Army in the piece. According to Belozerskaya, Mikhail Afanasyevich loved this work, “as a mother loves her child” and “the blow was terrible when the“ Run ”was banned. Similarly, the deceased appeared in the house ... ".

In general, it is worth noting that after the release of the Days of the Turbins, all criticism took up arms against Mikhail Afanasyevich. Comrades in the literary workshop were not left aside. The play was interpreted as a White Guard sabotage, the production was discussed in disputes, and some said that "the Moscow Art Theater is a snake that the Soviet government had in vain warmed on its chest." The theater, of course, as best it could, was justified - they say, “from these positions, the Three Sisters should be studied as an army play”. Osaf Litovsky, who was the chairman of the General Repertoire Committee, dubbed Bulgakov’s play “The Cherry Orchard” of the White Guard, and Anatoly Lunacharsky, People's Commissar of Education, called the work “the semi-apology of the“ white movement. ” But rappovite Orlinsky, who made a name in persecution of the writer, was particularly rampant. In The Master and Margarita, Mikhail Afanasyevich brought all this pack to the court of the reader in the form of a critic of Latunsky.

The “Run” was just beginning to rehearse, and the burnt-off chain dogs of proletarian literature began to tear Bulgakov apart. In the magazines and newspapers of that time, articles were constantly published under the following headings: “We hit on Bulgakov’s region”, “Running must be suspended”, “Tarakany raid”. The pedantic author carefully cut out all the abusive speeches and pasted them into a special album that was swelling before our eyes - there were a total of about three hundred negative reviews and only three positive ones. By the way, Mikhail Afanasyevich, who initially held on stoically, then began to pass, became irritable, slept poorly, was afraid to remain alone, he had a nervous tic.

The upcoming 1929 turned out to be full of events for Bulgakov. Shortly after the ban of the play “Run”, in December 1928 at the Chamber Theater held the premiere of his “Crimson Island”. And at the end of February, Mikhail Afanasyevich met Elena Shilovskaya. It happened like this - the artists Moiseenko brothers organized pancakes at Maslenitsa, and among other guests, Bulgakov and Elena Sergeevna were invited there. Mikhail Afanasyevich did not want to go, just like Shilovskaya, however, at the last moment both changed their minds. At the table, they happened to be next to each other, Elena Sergeevna had some kind of strings on her sleeve, and she asked Bulgakov to tie them up ... Subsequently, Mikhail Afanasyevich argued, "that there was some kind of witchcraft here," and Elena Sergeevna, who, By the way, there was a husband and two children who tied him up. Shilovskaya herself said that from her side "it was a quick, extraordinarily fast love for life." They began to meet in secret — Elena Sergeevna even made friends with Bulgakov’s second wife in order to “penetrate” into their home.

At the same time, the resolution of the General Repertoire Committee on the removal of all the plays of Mikhail Afanasyevich from the repertoire was published. For a writer who had not been printed for a long time, it turned out to be a heavy blow. At one point, Mikhail Afanasyevich even decided to write a textbook for schoolchildren on stories. It was probably from complete despair. Not knowing which map to put on, the writer thought that after creating the textbook, they would think about him differently, and all the clouds would finally dissipate. ” However, the strongest headaches that had opened up put an end to this work.

Deprived of the last thing that remained with him, Bulgakov continued to work on the play “Kabala the Holy One”, later renamed “Moliere”. But this play, which was adopted for staging at the Moscow Art Theater, was denied by the Central Repertoire Committee in March to 1930. After that, Mikhail Afanasyevich wrote a letter to the USSR Government (among the recipients, besides Stalin, Kalinin, Kaganovich, Molotov and Yagoda were indicated) with a request to either provide an opportunity to work in the Art Theater as a laboratory assistant director, or “urgently order to leave the country”. Three weeks after that, Bulgakov was called by Joseph Vissarionovich. At first, Mikhail Afanasyevich thought it was a joke, but he was mistaken. Such a conversation took place: “We received your letter. Read with friends. You will have a favorable answer on it ... Or maybe the truth is to let you go abroad? We are very tired of you? ”-“ Recently, I have been thinking a lot about whether a Russian writer can exist outside the homeland. It seems to me, can not. " - "I think so too". Half an hour after the conversation, the writer received a call from the Art Theater and was invited to work. And some time later (in February, 1932), the play “Days of the Turbins” was returned to the repertoire of the Moscow Art Theater. In general, there are documented evidence that Stalin loved Mikhail Afanasyevich, considering him one of the best playwrights and writers of the era. For example, Joseph Vissarionovich more than fifteen times watched the “Days of the Turbins”, saying: “This is Bulgakov! Nice takes! Takes against wool! I like it". According to contemporaries, those who wrote in the spirit of politically correct social realism, the leader valued with his mind, and Bulgakov with his heart.

Meanwhile, the novel of the writer with Elena Shilovskaya continued. At the beginning of 1931, her husband Evgeny Shilovsky visited her wife's relationship with Bulgakov. According to an eyewitness, he "resorted to Bolshaya Pirogovskaya, where Bulgakov and Belozerskaya lived, and threatened the writer with a pistol." Stating that in the event of a divorce, he would not give up the children, Shilovsky thus forced the spouse to break up with Mikhail Afanasyevich for a while. For almost two years they have not seen each other, she did not answer his calls, did not accept letters, one did not go out into the street, however, when she did come out, she first saw Bulgakov, who said: "I cannot live without you." In spite of everything they decided to unite, the marriage was registered in October 1932, the children of the Shilovskys were divided - the eldest stayed with the father, and the younger with the mother.

His main novel, which had more than a dozen variants of names and many editions, Bulgakov conceived in 1928 and worked on it until the end of his life. Write in atheistic Russia a work about Pontius Pilate and Yeshua Ha-Notsri, about Satan and his charming retinue, ordering Moscow in the thirties, about love persecuted by critics of the Master, about Margarita, who has become a witch from distress and grief, and hope that it will be printed was pure madness. The same as writing in the country where the Red Army won, the work about the White Guard and believe that it will be published ... But they printed it! This was a miracle, an even greater miracle was the production of "Days of the Turbins" in the best theater of the country.

The first version of the "novel about the devil" was burned by the author in 1930. Subsequently, Mikhail Afanasyevich had to constantly break away from writing a work in order to get his daily bread in the theater. In 1936, after a critical article in the Pravda newspaper, Bulgakov's Moliere performance, shown seven times with a full house, was removed from the stage. Bulgakov left the Moscow Art Theater and became a librettist in the Bolshoi Theater. The third edition of the novel, which had the name “Prince of Darkness” in 1936, a year later it acquired the final version - “Master and Margarita”. The work was written in between the composition of the play about Pushkin and the libretto of the opera Peter the Great. In May-June, the 1938 manuscript was reprinted on a typewriter, however, editing of the finished novel (discrepancies in publications appeared due to the loss of one of the last notebooks) lasted until the last day of the writer's life.



In 1939, Mikhail Afanasyevich, a wonderful story-teller, who played hilarious improvisation scenes in front of his comrades, mentioned the fact that he was living last year. And it was filed as a humorous reprise, and was also perceived by everyone, including his wife. However, in September, there was no time for jokes - Mikhail Afanasyevich, who was vacationing in Leningrad, suddenly had poor eyesight, and the doctors made a terrible diagnosis of his father - nephrosclerosis. The writer immediately returned to the capital, where the diagnosis was confirmed by a consilium of the stars of science. One of the doctors told the patient that he had no more than three days to live. The doctor was wrong, Mikhail Afanasyevich lived for another six months, but the terrible news crippled him. As a physician, he knew how the disease developed and found one symptom after another. At the beginning of the disease, Bulgakov, according to his friend, screenwriter Sergey Yermolinsky, “got younger”, but the farther it got, the harder it became ... By the middle of February, 1940 had become blind, emaciated, and Bulgakov could not get out of bed, dictating to his wife the last phrases of the “Master and Margarita. Soon after, Mikhail Afanasyevich lost his speech, connectedly speaking only the beginnings or the ends of words. 10 March 1940 writer, after terrible agony, died at the hands of Elena Sergeevna. His body was cremated.

Elena Sergeevna gave the spouse an oath that will surely print "The Master and Margarita." When Mikhail Afanasyevich died, the Second World War had already begun, and then the terrible 1941 year began. In the conflagration of the war, not only paper manuscripts died, but entire villages and cities. Going to the evacuation, Elena Sergeevna, fearing for the fate of the work, handed over the manuscript to the Lenin Library for safekeeping. Despite the fact that Moscow was bombed, the manuscript, fortunately, survived. After the end of the war, the widow of Bulgakov again undertook a titanic attempt to publish “The Masters and Margarita” and only the sixth of them was crowned with success - the novel appeared in the notes in the magazine “Moscow” in 1966-1967. However, in this form, the work created a furor, similar to the fact that, a century earlier, after burning, the second volume of Dead Souls resurrected. Everybody got infected with romance - from intellectual to proletarian, from young to old.

But for twelve years at the grave of the author himself there was neither a stone, nor a slab, nor a cross. In 1952, Elena Sergeevna saw a huge black boulder in a deep hole in the cemetery. Local granilators told her that this stone called “Golgotha” had previously stood at the tomb of Nikolai Gogol in the Danilov Monastery. Elena Sergeevna bought a stone, and it was installed on the grave of Mikhail Afanasyevich. It is curious that the great writer of the twentieth century once wrote, addressing his classic countryman: "Teacher, cover me with your cast-iron overcoat."

Based on materials from the sites http://www.bulgakov.ru/ and http://to-name.ru/biography
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  1. Sharapov
    Sharapov 7 January 2016 09: 14
    +6
    Adore. The novel "The Master and Margarita" may seem difficult for the modern reader - he himself began to read it 3 times. But then ... I am sure the latest adaptation of the novel would have won the praise of the Master. My wife and I regularly review The Master and Margarita. I dare to give advice to ardent Stalinists not to sing laudatory odes to the leader, but to read and get vaccinated against Stalinism, because the novel is a reflection of that era and the life of the author, it can be said that it is documentary and 99% autobiagrophic in its Soviet part.
    1. atos_kin
      atos_kin 7 January 2016 10: 55
      +8
      What you definitely won't find in Bulgakov's work, dear, is the "vaccination against Stalinism". And personally, he spoke very respectfully of Stalin.
      1. Sharapov
        Sharapov 7 January 2016 14: 00
        +3
        No need to distort - I wrote "from Stalinism", and not about Stalin. Still, he would not have spoken respectfully about him, the next statement would have been in Kolyma .... And about Stalinism - the era of repression and snitching is painfully realistic.
        1. python2a
          python2a 7 January 2016 17: 52
          +9
          It was as if there was no squealing before Stalin and it disappeared with him.
        2. atos_kin
          atos_kin 7 January 2016 18: 20
          +7
          The word "Stalinism" was invented so that everyone like you thought about Stalin with hatred and scared others with it. If you want to experience with your own eyes the "era of repressions and snitching" without (even in spite of) "Stalinism", please go to Ukraine.
          1. Sharapov
            Sharapov 7 January 2016 20: 17
            -1
            You about the term "Stalinism" could tell those three million who died of hunger in the 30s and those 20 million who were on the brink ... but can no longer. My grandfathers, as well as my father-in-law, who miraculously survived in the Stavropol Territory, the granary of Russia, told me. Ukraine, of course, is fashionable now everywhere to weave, but not in the topic of Bulgakov. Yes, and already imposed.
            1. atos_kin
              atos_kin 7 January 2016 20: 44
              +2
              Bulgakov has not been read much, it is not necessary to drag him to Ukraine. Study not only stories, look at modern leaders in order to compare the departed and not born in the absence of "Stalinism" millions and not be mistaken.
        3. Nick
          Nick 8 January 2016 20: 54
          +2
          Quote: Sharapov
          No need to distort - I wrote "from Stalinism", and not about Stalin.

          And tell me please, the name of the term "Stalinism" how did it appear?
          Quote: Sharapov
          And as for Stalinism, the era of repression and squealing is painfully realistically displayed.

          The era of snitching is a permanent phenomenon ...
    2. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 7 January 2016 11: 54
      +5
      Sharapov
      "read and get vaccinated against Stalinism"

      What is so modest. Was limited to one "Master". There are "12 chairs" and "Calf" in the interior.
      Let me tell you a secret! "Master" is not about Stalin, but something completely different ...
      1. Sharapov
        Sharapov 7 January 2016 20: 20
        -2
        I sympathize, and I advise you to re-read it again .......
    3. marlin1203
      marlin1203 7 January 2016 12: 01
      11
      "The Master and Margarita" amazingly divides people into adoring him and absolutely unacceptable. I don’t know why, but this is so ... And there is no need to simplify this work to the level of an anti-Stalinist feuilleton.
    4. de_monSher
      de_monSher 7 January 2016 12: 55
      +7
      I dare to give advice to ardent Stalinists not to sing laudatory odes to the leader, but to read and receive a vaccine from Stalinism,


      You know - I also love the novel "The Master and Margarita" very much, and it shook my soul right away - I didn't have to start and put it off 3 times ... *) Although I don't belong to the camp of anti-Stalinists, and even quite the opposite. And there is no autobiography in the novel at all. To be more precise - not at all = perhaps, only, a scene with preparations for the ball at Woland's, which the Master wrote under the impression of a reception at the US Embassy =. Look for crumbs of his autobiography in the "Notes of a Young Doctor" cycle, or, for example, in very early works, for example ... = thinking =, ah! In ... "Raid. In the magic lantern."

      Your comment wouldn’t be written on, if, honestly - excuse me, some of your snobbery whether. Do not give advice, and you will not be advised - honestly. And do not look in something ofwhat in this no and never was. The master - Mikhail Afanasevich, made a magnificent cast from the world from which he lived - nothing more. This is the talent of Meter, the Master.
      But your behavior doesn’t seem to be more neo-Bolshevism. Not just like that, with all my heart I will admire a good thing, but I’ll definitely add - not normal, "I think that the author wanted to say this, perhaps! ..", and something like pointing a finger and shaking him edifyingly - "Read, and make exactly this conclusion! The only correct conclusion!".

      You yourself don’t think that this follyutterly irrelevant? If not expressed even more harshly, dear.
      1. Sharapov
        Sharapov 7 January 2016 14: 11
        -2
        Quote: de_monSher
        "I think that the author wanted to say this, perhaps! ..", and something like pointing his finger and shaking it instructively - "Read and make this very conclusion! The only correct conclusion!"

        Whose words are these, sorry? Your crazy fantasies? With stupid conclusions? If you do not agree with the autobiographical nature of the novel, I just sympathize with you. The article about Bulgakov, which we are discussing, practically describes the Master in the novel. And as for anti-Stalinism - name one more writer of the Soviet era who was not afraid to ridicule and show the vices of socialism - I will take the words back.
        1. de_monSher
          de_monSher 7 January 2016 14: 37
          +3
          If you do not agree with the autobiographical nature of the novel - I just sympathize with you


          Autobiographical - "Childhood", "In people", "My universities" Alexei Maksimovich Peshkov = better known as Maxim Gorky =. If you are ready to confuse allusions, and the author's fitting on himself, the feelings of the hero, on "autobiography" - you need to sympathize.

          name one more writer of the Soviet era who was not afraid to ridicule and show the vices of socialism - I will take the words back.


          In terms of humor, Ilf and Petrov immediately come to mind. These Masters are still more convex and relief, these very "vices" of socialism, in the "12 chairs", in the "Golden Calf". As with any work, the author always takes a snapshot of society in order to examine it in detail. And just in this respect, the works of Ilf and Petrov are more hmm ... "anti-Soviet" than "The Master and Margarita". After all, you must agree that both Bulgakov and Ilf and Petrov have taken the country out of the brackets, leaving people, worldviews, experiences. By the way ... in terms of the experiences of the heroes ... you can simply open for example ... = thought =, "Walking in agony", Tolstoy and the same "White Guard" Bulgakov and compare. Which of them is the greatest "follower" of the white movement, if you accept your logic?

          Like that...
          1. Sharapov
            Sharapov 7 January 2016 20: 34
            0
            Have you tried to compare H. with n. Is there Shvonder at Ilf? They argued with Ilf in the works, why was he dressed up in front, and who has devastation in his head? There is more humor about the color of hair coloring Kisa and about Madame Gritsatsueva. Ilf basically ridicules the vices of people in the system, and the Master - the vices of the system itself. Humor has nothing to do with it ... But distort with Tolstoy .... Why didn’t they distort with the WORD on Igor's regiment? The flight washed your marvelous .....
            1. de_monSher
              de_monSher 8 January 2016 22: 16
              0
              Have you tried to compare H. with n. Is there Shvonder at Ilf? They argued with Ilf in the works, why was he dressed up in front, and who has devastation in his head?


              Ilf and Petrov, talked about all this in their own way. Each creator sees the world from his own point of view. And each of them has their own ways to convey their thoughts to people. Ilf and Petrov very vividly, showed people of the era, perfectly adapted to life, new to them, Soviet reality. And in this regard, Preobrazhensky, talking about people peeing past the toilet bowl and singing in chorus, and Ilf and Petrov, squealing about Lyapis-Trubetskoy = in which, for example, Demyan Bednyi can be easily discerned - there was such a poet, as far as I remember =, or about Ellochka the man-eater, or about that dude, whatever his name is - "Well, you, abortion victim, quickly tell who you sold the chair to!" = I don't really like "12 chairs" and "The Golden Calf", I don't really remember any heroes, or aphorisms =. These are heroes, people who were "spawned" by the Soviet regime at an early stage of its development. And in the works of Bulgakov and Ilf and Petrov - they are all displayed brightly and prominently.

              Mdya ... so most likely it’s all you yourself, xerp with your finger, not to be confused = fingers can also be used perfectly in sex, the main thing is not to forget about hygiene =, but rather you are trying to ignore it point blank so that only your conclusions are "correct"Etc.

              like that...
        2. de_monSher
          de_monSher 7 January 2016 14: 58
          +2
          I dare give advice to ardent Stalinists not to sing laudatory odes to the leader, but to read and receive a vaccine from Stalinism, because the novel is a reflection of that era and the life of the author, it can be said to be documentary and 99% autobiagrophic in the Soviet part.


          Your words? So a question is born to you - how can you get vaccinated against "Stalinism", if the novel, in fact, even not about good and evil, = whatever these mysterious, abstract categories are, in your view = but rather that there is neither one nor the other, but there are only points of view?
          1. Sharapov
            Sharapov 7 January 2016 20: 38
            -3
            You yourself understood what points erupted? Everyone in this novel finds what he is looking for. If not looking, finds points. I found confirmation of my aspirations and life principles.
            1. de_monSher
              de_monSher 8 January 2016 21: 53
              +1
              I found confirmation of my aspirations and life principles.


              That's exactly what - Yours.

              What does the vaccine against "anti-Stalinism" have to do with it, dear?

              Just so that there isn’t a lot of blah blah blah, for my part, I’ll explain my position on the example of a childish cartoon.

              I hate people who somehow impose their position on others.

              Someone does this "intelligently", at first glance - "what are you, what are you, I do not impose, but nevertheless - 20 (30-50-100) million victims killed by cats and cats go against the fact that in the cartoon "Holidays in Prostokvashino" the cat Matroskin, who is portrayed as such a tough business executive, is in fact a tyrant, a despot, and the blood of innocent babies drips from his fangs. etc.

              Someone does it "in a simple way". "Dude, I'll tell you this that you will immediately understand that you yourself suck, and this one, like a BE cartoon" Vacation in Prstokvashino "- is utter trash. This striped curk, capitalist Mr. viciously exploiting as simple as three kopecks of Sharik ... "and so on. etc.

              What distinguishes these two positions in the PRINCIPLE? For me - absolutely nothing.

              Have you drawn your conclusions? You are well done. Keep them with you, and do not try your conclusions, "pull" like a condom on the globe, on, in fact, a valuable work of art in itself. Let other people draw their conclusions - they definitely don’t need yours.

              Like that...
            2. de_monSher
              de_monSher 8 January 2016 22: 46
              +1
              You yourself understood what points erupted?


              Who is the doctor to you, if you are too lazy, just to read carefully what your opponent wrote to you in the dispute, and to comprehend what was written? I can only advise you - read, read, read more and do not try to share your "thoughts" with which you have a problem, but just, for a start, learn to reason, or something ...

              like that...
    5. dmit-xnumx
      dmit-xnumx 8 January 2016 13: 52
      +2
      It became very easy to condemn and condemn Stalin's actions, but the country "taken with a plow and left with an atomic bomb", who, in your opinion, could have pulled it out of the hole into which international capitalism drove it under the aegis of the crown bearer who forgot the rule - "The crown is removed from the head"?
    6. Nick
      Nick 8 January 2016 20: 40
      +3
      Quote: Sharapov
      I dare to give advice to ardent Stalinists not to sing laudatory odes to the leader, but to read and receive a vaccine from Stalinism, because the novel is a reflection of that era and the life of the author, it can be said to be documentary and autobiagrophic to 99% in its Soviet part

      You, dear, do not know history well. The novel describes the 20s, when Stalin was still on the sidelines, he was just struggling for power. This period can rather be called Trotskyism. L. D. Trotsky began to lose his position of power only in the mid-20s, and I.V. Stalin only by the beginning of the 30s began to concentrate power in his hands. He was able to complete this process of strengthening his personal power only by 1939, having defeated the regional party elite, the so-called "old guard" and stopped the massive repressions of 37-38, started by this "guard".
      In a word, you incorrectly determine the period in which the action of the novel unfolds. This period can be called rather Trotskyism, with some stretch of course, but not Stalinism.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 7 January 2016 10: 09
    +9
    I found a film in the internet "The Master and Margarita" - a film adaptation of the novel of the same name by Mikhail Bulgakov directed by Yuri Kara, despite the star composition .. the film did not really like it .. Bortko did better .. Bortko is probably the best director of Mikhail Bulgakov .. Also magnificent are "Running" -Alov and Naumov, "Days of the Turbins" -V. Basov, "Ivan Vasilyevich changes his profession" -L. Gaidai, film-play "Just a few words in honor of Mr. de Moliere" -A. Efros ... But the TV series "White Guard" ... did not impress ...
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 7 January 2016 12: 03
      +2
      Dear parusnik!
      One friend taught me, if your opinion coincides with the opinion of the speaker, this is not interesting. Do not think about it. I agree, it’s logical. Over the years, I still catch myself thinking, enjoy the meeting of a like-minded person.
    2. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 7 January 2016 13: 09
      +5
      I agree. Kara took off some rubbish.
      Bortko was clearly following the book.
      All the same, the last version of the White Guard was not bad, it is more detailed, better conveys the spirit of that era. I looked with interest.
    3. Oorfene Deuce
      Oorfene Deuce 7 January 2016 13: 44
      +7
      Quote: parusnik
      . Bortko did better.

      I have the same opinion!
    4. The point
      The point 7 January 2016 15: 42
      +4
      The thing is that when reading a text you deal only with the author (+ your perception). Films are a different matter. Here, first of all, the perception of the text is visible by the director himself, then the author is visible (and even then not always). And in the very last place is our personal perception, but it no longer knows who to follow - the author, i.e. the original source, or for the director's concept. To be honest, only a small part of the directors carefully treat the author's text. Many are simply eager to write their name on the tablets of history, ruthlessly distorting the text itself. hi
      In literary criticism, there is such a concept as metatext, a kind of "limiting text" (or "text array"), that is, setting the limits within which other texts should be created so that they are culturally and stylistically legitimate. For example, in Christianity such metatext is "Bible". There are metatext in science, literature, etc. Metatext is dialectical in nature: it precedes all possible texts and at the same time serves as a vector for them. At the same time, the negative attitude towards the metatext - denying its function of legitimization - nevertheless retains an essential unity with it.
      This is in general. Next is the specification.
      Thus, we have in the form of a work of art a certain metatext, in the form of films, its refraction through the prism of directorial perception.
    5. Sharapov
      Sharapov 7 January 2016 20: 40
      +2
      I agree, all autumn is weak there .... Yu.Kara was not up to par.
  3. Kim Klimov
    Kim Klimov 7 January 2016 10: 21
    +5
    An outstanding Russian writer. Pride of Russia.
  4. svp67
    svp67 7 January 2016 11: 32
    +3
    The Great Master - Bravo !!!.
    1. tank64rus
      tank64rus 7 January 2016 16: 09
      0
      I agree. Pride of Russia. Classic. Gogol of the 20th century.
    2. tank64rus
      tank64rus 7 January 2016 16: 09
      0
      I agree. Pride of Russia. Classic. Gogol of the 20th century.
  5. Sarmat149
    Sarmat149 7 January 2016 11: 58
    +1
    The attractiveness and danger of M. Bulgakov's work "The Master and Margarita" is that evil is described with talent, good and evil have changed places. In fact, the author sings about ordinary evil spirits. And the fact that he is from an Orthodox family of an associate professor at the Theological Academy only aggravates this fact. Talent is undoubtedly, but talent glorified evil, created the attraction of devilry for immature souls. For me, this work is a mistake of this person.
    1. The point
      The point 7 January 2016 15: 44
      +1
      And what is good? Father, with a pood cross on his belly and riding a new-fashioned beh?
      1. Sarmat149
        Sarmat149 7 January 2016 16: 07
        +2
        Your example is unsuccessful, there are priests who do not believe in God, and their role is much more productive than that of the departments for combating religion in Soviet times. These people are hypocrites and traitors at best. Once again I draw your attention to whose son M. Bulgakov, from what class. The same "Father, with a pood cross on his belly and riding a brand new bekh" only from the beginning of the 20th century.
        Well, in the end, free will. You like Wolland and others like him, for me this is unacceptable. He raised children as well.
    2. Nikolay K
      Nikolay K 7 January 2016 21: 15
      0
      Perhaps this is a novel about how the road and hell are lined with good intentions and high ideas, and sometimes the opposite also happens. And sometimes it’s not clear where there was more devilry - in Soviet Moscow of the 30's or at a ball at Woland. And where there are more sane people: on the streets of the city or in a madhouse.
  6. sledge
    sledge 7 January 2016 12: 19
    +5
    I love Bulgakov. I reread regularly
  7. antiexpert
    antiexpert 7 January 2016 12: 28
    -8
    and the Bulgakov’s target made several abortions to his beloved wife, he did with the same pens with which he wrote his little books - it’s not in vain that there is an unpleasant odor there)))
    1. The point
      The point 7 January 2016 15: 46
      +8
      Are you sure that Pushkin or Lermontov were wonderful people in everyday life? But this does not negate the genius of their works.
      1. Sarmat149
        Sarmat149 7 January 2016 16: 20
        -2
        I believe that the works of A.S. Pushkin and M.Yu. Lermontov are INGENIAL, they are written by talented people. But why should I consider this brilliant? I have my own opinion, oh, and it came to me from a literature teacher at the time). And why if talent, then it is always positive. Are there not talented or in your genius villains? The poets A.S. Pushkin and M.Yu. Lermontov were people with their own problems and shortcomings, like all of us. And I don’t like everything from their heritage, certain things are simply harmful.
        1. alex86
          alex86 8 January 2016 21: 33
          +1
          Quote: Sarmat149
          certain things are simply harmful.

          Who?
  8. Baloo
    Baloo 7 January 2016 12: 29
    +6
    The author underestimated the role of Bulgakov’s first wife, didn’t say anything how she saved him from typhus, from morphinism, how they existed at her expense, how she ran around the editorial offices attaching his work. Yes, if not for this selfless holy woman, who would he be? One of many that we will never know about.
    By the way, what was Bulgakov’s last wife related to the NKVD structures?
    Very successfully Bulgakov solved the housing problem, which are the most worthy neighbors on the porch: S. Mikhalkov, General of the NKVD Konchalovsky ... One above him, the other under him, and in our times a chic apartment.
    I am in the Soviet past, when for a copy of the works of Solzhenitsin, Shalamov, Bulgakov they could easily have sewed an article for anti-Soviet propaganda, I read Bulgakov. Perhaps the most impressive Run and Turbine Days. Dr. Zhivago seemed to me boring.
    The Master and Margarita? Never could read to the end, mutot. I have never been particularly fond of fiction. A. Pikul and Ilf with Petrov each time give the impression of the first read, which is quite realistic in our time. hi
    1. Captain45
      Captain45 7 January 2016 18: 45
      +5
      Quote: Balu
      Dr. Zhivago seemed to me boring.

      Didn't Pasternak write "Doctor Zhivago"? It seems that he was also given a Nobel Prize for this novel.
    2. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 7 January 2016 19: 42
      +1
      Do not be distracted by Bulgakov. This is harmful to you. Wives, NKVD, apartments, Mikhalkovs, generals ... You cannot concentrate.
      Read, Pikul and Ilf with Petrov are also good. The main thing to read, for starters.
      1. alex86
        alex86 8 January 2016 21: 38
        0
        Quote: Mavrikiy
        The main thing to read

        I absolutely agree, while the transition from quantity to quality is very characteristic - from a certain moment even a wild person becomes decent. Therefore - to read, read and read ("Study, study and study" - as the great Lenin bequeathed, as the Communist Party teaches (quote) wink )
  9. Metlik
    Metlik 7 January 2016 13: 40
    -2
    The Master and Margarita is similar to Mark Twain's The Mysterious Wanderer in terms of the plot and the difficult path that these books have passed to the reader. But Bulgakov was able to create a complete novel, Twain did not succeed.

    "As I guessed" - the hero says about the events that took place 2000 years ago. But the author found himself in the same conditions as his characters. Stalin's time is a universal fear, terror, the struggle for survival among triumphant slanderers and envious people, this is a return to the times of Emperor Tiberius and Jesus Christ. And, like Jesus, Bulgakov faced a test. Whoever ordered him a comedy about Ivan the Terrible undoubtedly knew how Stalin would react to ridicule of this tsar. The Pharisees and scribes will again make the genius walk on the razor's edge. But he will do it.
  10. antiexpert
    antiexpert 7 January 2016 15: 42
    -3
    Ah, fans of Mishanka Bulgakov, will you still be minus the truth? Well, I’ll tell you something about him, about his overt anti-Sovietism, and therefore Russophobia, which will not seem enough!
    HERE - eat!

    We live in an exceptionally happy time, ”said A. V. Lunacharsky.
    Time is happily, obviously, in itself, without people.
    But now, if not happy writers, then they are lucky.
    Acceptance of literary goods almost without marriage. Praise is easy.
    Our time, if not the happiest, is, of course, not the worst, and they are mistaken in
    the writer is not by evil will, but subject to certain historical laws.
    The fact is that in art there are alternations of the primacy of form and material.
    Now the material is prevailing. The most experienced part of the work is the theme.
    The success of AHRR, Gladkov and Mikhail Bulgakov is of equal quality.
    This is neither good nor bad.
    There are such epochs in art, and they are necessary: ​​new material is conquered.
    As Mikhail Bulgakov writes?
    He takes the thing of the old writer, without changing the structure and changing its theme.
    So the drivers sang instead: "The driver, do not drive horses" - "Driver, do not change speeds."
    Although the speed does not change during the ride.
    Take one of the typical stories of Mikhail Bulgakov, "Fatal Eggs."
    How is this done?
    It is made from Wells.
    The general technique of Wells' novels is that the invention is not in the hands of
    inventor.
    The machine is owned by an illiterate mediocrity. So done. War in the Air
    "The first people on the moon" and "Food of the gods."
    In “The Struggle of the Worlds," mediocrity does not own the thing, but the thing is described precisely by the average person who cannot understand it.
    Now we’ll take a closer look at the Food of the Gods.
    Two scientists discover a substance whose admixture in food allows the growth of a young animal to last forever.
    They do experiments on chickens. Huge hens dangerous to humans grow.
    At the same time, one mediocre doctor stole food. He did not know how to handle her.
    Food got to rats. Rats began to grow. Giant nettle began to grow.
    Humanity began to suffer innumerable losses.
    Good giants, descendants of scientists, are growing at the same time. They went food for the future
    But people hated them too. The battle is getting ready.
    Wells's novel ends here.
    The novel, or story, of Mikhail Bulgakov ended earlier.
    Instead of rats and nettles, evil crocodiles and ostriches appeared.
    An arrogant scholastic scholar who, having stolen food, brought to life forces with
    which could not cope, replaced by a self-confident "leather man."
    Contamination was also made, that is, a combination of several topics into one.
    Snakes advancing on Moscow, destroyed by frost.
    Probably, this frost arose as follows.
    On the one hand, it is equal to the bacteria that destroyed the Martians in "Fight
    worlds. "
    On the other hand, this frost destroyed Napoleon.
    In general, this is the inertness of the earth taken with a plus sign.
    I do not want to prove that Mikhail Bulgakov is a plagiarist. No, he is a capable small kidnapping "Food of the Gods" for small affairs.
    The success of Mikhail Bulgakov is the success of the above quote


    (c) Victor Shklovsky
    1. alex86
      alex86 8 January 2016 21: 46
      +1
      Quote: antiexpert
      about his outspoken anti-Sovietism, and therefore Russophobia

      Anti-Sovietism does not mean Russophobia at all.
      And a reference to Shklovsky - that’s how the writers' environment has always been and will be a viper, he was a little closer to the Soviet regime, envy among writers has always been a driving force in criticism, and the desire to belittle one's neighbor is a normal reaction. Therefore, the above is not an argument ...
  11. antiexpert
    antiexpert 7 January 2016 15: 43
    -4
    few? Now trump will go!

    The genesis of the master and Margarita is children's jealousy of the elite and such an infantile passion to describe how the child understands the adult world. It is not strange, partly it was possible, and it was this that determined the success of this book.
    On April 24, 1935, the most luxurious and senile reception ever organized by an American diplomatic mission abroad took place. This reception brought together over 400 guests at Spaso House. There was also Budyonny, who danced trepak until morning. And the teddy bear, forcibly drunk with champagne, vomited on Radek's uniform. A flock of finches escaped from the cage and logically finished biting everyone and everything until the comedy finale. People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs Litvinov, People's Commissar for Defense Kliment Voroshilov, Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party Lazar Kaganovich, former head of the Comintern Nikolai Bukharin, Bolshevik writer and editorial board member of Izvestia newspaper Karl Radek and three Marshals of the Soviet Union - Alexander Yegorov, Mikhail Tukhachevsky. And purely by chance, our hero, an inconspicuous guest, Bulgakov, also got there.
    Who is he, this random one? - Yes, no one, and he got by accident, and he was not a person there, but he decided to create a fantasy according to all children's rules. Indeed, in his life nothing was more significant than this ball. A typical loser who in his life is nothing rounder than a bucket, sweeter than carrots and whiter than a guard. Then he decided to enter the arena of the writer's field with this children's fantasy from the sandbox - the highest standard anti-realism and children's talk about the miraculous and created the very representation on which commies swelled so long and successfully. The victorious partocracy was desperately needed such an expression of their life and entertainment.
    Anti-realism is when an artist takes as a basis a real event, but raids personal fantasy censorship there to give the event a different meaning. In this case, the goal is read simply: to put oneself in the beloved one-winged butterfly’s flight control center. Like a ghoul Sokurov rivets a film about Hitler. So that technique was used for the primitive method of borrowing, which Bulgakov is so famous for. For this very reason, the Bulgakov censorship cut out the entire party nomenclature from there.
    And then the sick imagination of the writer draloscopist who regularly abducted writing gods for his petty deeds ((c) Shklovsky) created this host. In your personal face. In full accordance with the personal poor understanding of such a great figure. A beggar of imagination, who did not create a plot, different from those read in other people's books, for his whole life, the Mishanka Bulgakov, but simply rubbed them with his older brothers, now in Spaso-House is a real authority. Like the strangely sculpted bust of the murdered President Kennedy.
    And now the bust of Kennedy is a legend in the mansion, which boasts of his involvement in the work of the master and margarita. For Thane also the representation that Bulgakov created is much closer than what happened in reality. No matter how funny, modern "writers" surprisingly correlate in their actions with the official US propaganda regarding Kennedy - all the discussion of very simple, sometimes even primitive and understandable events, they collect a collection of far-fetched links and textual pseudo - remakes of the stillborn opus "master and margarita ". It is the event that marked the very reception in the Spaso House and described by Bulgakov as the central apogee in the absolutely empty and mediocre book Master and Margarita that is the reason and genesis of the inflated popularity. This is a typical special operation against the ideology of the USSR, which was successful.

    (c) http://unlimmobile.livejournal.com/112324.html
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 7 January 2016 16: 58
      +9
      There are no major writers about whom
      it would be impossible to concoct such a "devastating" article.

      In world literature, everything is based on reciprocity.
      There will always be a similar plot and a similar hero.
      Leo Tolstoy and Dostoevsky at one time got no less.
      They wrote about Leo Tolstoy: "... such a person does not have the right to call himself
      Russian ".
      1. alex86
        alex86 8 January 2016 22: 08
        -4
        What certainly pleases is the very fact of discussing Bulgakov and "The Master and Margarita" - this means that even the local inhabitants, for the most part ardent Stalinists and misanthropists, are not alien to reading and have read at least something, albeit abusive. This means that not all is lost, since a reading person (homo legens) is hardly a fascist ...
    2. Sharapov
      Sharapov 7 January 2016 20: 56
      +1
      Who taught you so skillfully to reprint (copy) ALIEN articles? pliz, teach ....
  12. Korsar4
    Korsar4 7 January 2016 18: 45
    +2
    Favorite - "White Guard". Recently I have reviewed "Beg" with pleasure. The personal life of the writer can explain a lot. But they remember him only for work.
  13. Undermined ustoev
    Undermined ustoev 7 January 2016 19: 26
    +2
    Quote: python2a
    It was as if there was no squealing before Stalin and it disappeared with him.

    Exactly. The master and Margarita are still relevant. Classic.
  14. ikrut
    ikrut 7 January 2016 22: 48
    +3
    Quote: Sharapov
    I dare give advice to ardent Stalinists not to sing laudatory odes to the leader, but to read and receive a vaccine from Stalinism, because the novel is a reflection of that era and the life of the author, it can be said to be documentary and 99% autobiagrophic in the Soviet part.

    If you, so "adoring" the novel, consider it "documentary and autobiographical", then you (IMHO) absolutely did not understand its essence. The era of the Roman and its "autobographic character" is generally the sixteenth thing. Yes, and two "epochs" are described there :)) And what kind of "vaccination against Stalinism are you talking about"? What did you mean? Read carefully and thoughtfully ..."People are like people. They love money, but it has always been ... Humanity loves money, no matter what it is made of, whether it is leather, paper, bronze or gold. Well, frivolous ... well, well ... ordinary people ... in general, they resemble the old ones .. "(c) This is a Novel about the ETERNAL. and not about "that era". Sorry for the harshness.
    1. alex86
      alex86 8 January 2016 22: 10
      0
      Well, since
      Quote: ikrut
      This is a novel about ETERNAL

      then in any case he and
      Quote: ikrut
      about "that era"
  15. dmit-xnumx
    dmit-xnumx 8 January 2016 14: 19
    -1
    One work - "Morphine" - should be included in the school curriculum, and after reading which, an essay is required.
  16. samuraiway
    samuraiway 8 January 2016 20: 13
    +2
    Quote: Balu
    The author underestimated the role of Bulgakov’s first wife, didn’t say anything how she saved him from typhus, from morphinism, how they existed at her expense, how she ran around the editorial offices attaching his work. Yes, if not for this selfless holy woman, who would he be? One of many that we will never know about.
    By the way, what was Bulgakov’s last wife related to the NKVD structures?
    Very successfully Bulgakov solved the housing problem, which are the most worthy neighbors on the porch: S. Mikhalkov, General of the NKVD Konchalovsky ... One above him, the other under him, and in our times a chic apartment.
    I am in the Soviet past, when for a copy of the works of Solzhenitsin, Shalamov, Bulgakov they could easily have sewed an article for anti-Soviet propaganda, I read Bulgakov. Perhaps the most impressive Run and Turbine Days. Dr. Zhivago seemed to me boring.
    The Master and Margarita? Never could read to the end, mutot. I have never been particularly fond of fiction. A. Pikul and Ilf with Petrov each time give the impression of the first read, which is quite realistic in our time. hi

    The first wife is from God, the second from men, and the third ...
    He wrote well, but the “master”, read by a weak, not yet strong mind, was the first step to evil.
  17. SlavaP
    SlavaP 9 January 2016 00: 05
    +2
    Ingenious author and colossal artwork. Many levels, like in any fashionable computer game. You will only understand one level - and there is more .... Especially when you read it and look out the window at Mount of Olives and the next day you walk along the path of Christ in the Old City of Jerusalem .... and also when you read the place about farewell to the Vorobevs Mountains and understand that you also left here FOREVER ...!
  18. bober1982
    bober1982 9 January 2016 08: 40
    +1
    the novel "The Master and Margarita" has nothing to do with the theme of Stalinism, Trotskyism, snitching, etc., and reading about it in the comments is somehow ridiculous. By the way, Stalin respected Mikhail Bulgakov as a writer, and the play "Days of the Turbins "-beloved Stalinist.
    But, in my opinion, the novel itself touches on a very sensitive topic (very softly said), i.e. you shouldn’t tease and pull the tail of some, the book is harmful, as well as film adaptations. At best, read and forget (if very curious)
  19. Pvi1206
    Pvi1206 9 January 2016 14: 24
    +2
    A true biography allows you to better understand the writer's works.
  20. Asperr43
    Asperr43 16 January 2016 08: 31
    0
    ''Never. Never pull the lampshade off the lamp! The lampshade is sacred. Never run away with a rat into the unknown from danger. Doze at the lampshade, read - let the blizzard howl - wait for someone to come to you. What can be added to this ?! He also never could understand: how in that era it was possible to remain free after the `` Heart of a Dog ''? “Never read Soviet newspapers!” Etc. The genius scale saved ?! Something we did not understand, apparently about `` that era! ''
  21. Pattern
    Pattern 27 July 2017 18: 44
    0
    Illiterate soldiers ... JV Stalin's call to the morphine writer in tear tones ... You yourself are not tired of carrying this nonsense to the masses? Some citizens in the comments claim that he wrote the truth about the situation in the country. Bulgakov lived at that time, but could not know about everything that was happening. The position was not supposed to ...