Military Review

Refugees and returnees. From the experience of the postwar USSR

Refugees and returnees. From the experience of the postwar USSR

Authors who, not fearing to fall into exaggeration, call the “Great Migration of Peoples” a wave of refugees of several hundred thousand people who have now quarreled the EU countries, it is useful to recall that during the Second World War only in the Old World countries the number of refugees and displaced persons ( there are forcibly exported by the aggressor countries from the territories they occupied) amounted to more than 15,5 million people. Perhaps the long-standing Soviet experience of the repatriation of several million foreign citizens who have fallen out of their will in foreign lands can say something today to Europe as well.

* * *

The Soviet-German confrontation, which had a decisive influence on the course and outcome of the war in Europe, predetermined two main streams of repatriates and displaced persons: Soviet citizens from the territories liberated by the Red Army and allied forces to the Soviet Union, citizens of the anti-Hitler coalition states and prisoners of war who served in the armed forces of Germany and its satellites - in the opposite direction.

It must be said that the former Western allies made claims to the Soviet repatriation bodies that in the process of returning people who fought on opposite sides of the front to their places of residence, massive human rights violations were allowed: some (Soviet citizens), they say, repatriated without the principle of voluntariness (by the way, not provided for in the decisions of the Yalta and Potsdam conferences), others (citizens of allied countries and enemy prisoners of war) were detained against their will under various pretexts. Meanwhile, it was the USSR that encountered the resistance of the authorities of the allied states when returning home to Soviet citizens who were captured or taken out by the Hitlerites to work in Germany. As a rule, they were agitating against the return in order to replenish the camp of anti-Soviet emigration and form a reserve of cheap labor in the mines and plantations of the USA, Western Europe, South America, and the British dominions.

As for the Soviet Union, it has fulfilled its obligations when returning to the homeland of citizens of other states in a short time and in strict accordance with agreements between the allies. Without having any serious experience of such work, doing a great number of its citizens in parallel (and almost 5,5 million people turned out to be such), the Soviet repatriation bodies organized (not like the current EU authorities) during 1945-1946. transferred to the Western allies or directly returned to the places of permanent residence of all foreign citizens released from German captivity, and by 1951 - and the bulk of the soldiers of the Hitler coalition, who were in captivity in the USSR. In total, there were more than 5 million people.

The work on the repatriation of foreign citizens was based on the decisions of the supreme bodies of state power, primarily the resolution of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR on January 6, 1945. Collection, registration, maintenance at assembly points (commandant's offices) and in transit camps, preparing people to be sent home were assigned. at the Commissioner of the USSR SNK for the repatriation of Colonel-General F.I. Golikov and his subordinate apparatus abroad and in the troops of the Red Army. In a short time, 18 of front commandant's offices (collection points) and 9 territorial collection points in Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary and the same number of transit camps in military districts in the territory of the USSR were deployed. A material base was created for organizing food and equipment for large masses of people, their domestic and medical services, as well as transportation. By May 1945, 77 commandant's offices and transit camps had already been formed for the reception of foreigners directly on the fronts of the army and 16 camps in the territory of the USSR.

Of course, not everything could be adjusted right away, the created network of collection points could not accommodate the growing flow of liberated people, the necessary facilities were lacking, there were difficulties with food supply. However, with the end of hostilities, the repatriation system quickly improved, the Soviet repatriation bodies created the necessary social conditions for foreigners during their stay in the USSR or on the territory liberated by the Red Army, until the transfer of repatriates to the Allied authorities. And already, of course, there could be no talk of inclining foreign citizens to not return to their homeland for ideological reasons, to which the Allied authorities actively resorted in their zones of occupation in relation to displaced persons from the Soviet Union.

In those years, many representatives of the Western powers praised the efforts of the Soviet authorities. Thus, according to TASS, 3 in May, 1945, the spouse of British Prime Minister Clementine Churchill, visited transit camps in Odessa and a military hospital in which English and French soldiers were released from German captivity, expressed warm thanks for the care shown in the USSR about British subjects.

During the 1951-1956. were also released from captivity and sent home about 50 as well. Thousands of soldiers of the Wehrmacht and the armed forces of the countries that fought on the German side, convicted of war crimes for lengthy sentences in accordance with the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR 19 on April 1943 punishment measures for the German fascist villains guilty of murder and torture of the Soviet civilian population and prisoners of the Red Army ... ". The Soviet government showed mercy towards them, despite the fact that the situation of the outbreak of the Cold War with former allies in the anti-Hitler coalition, which were also joined by former opponents like the one created in 1949 and adopted in NATO in 1955 of the Federal Republic of Germany, it seemed to have no gestures ...
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  1. Alekseev
    Alekseev 11 January 2016 20: 39
    "... a wave of refugees of several hundred thousand people, who have now quarreled the countries of the European Union, it is useful to recall that during the Second World War only in the countries of the Old World the number of refugees and displaced persons (that is, forcibly taken out by the aggressor countries from the territories they occupied) was more than 15,5 million people "
    There is no need to confuse horseradish and finger. A WWII refugee (displaced person) to a 21st century refugee is "two big differences."
    The influx, and not hundreds of thousands, but millions of Africans, Arabs and other Muslims, "Andeans and Negroes" threatens to change the European order. And not for the better.
    Here the problems of accommodation, feeding, etc. are not so important.
    It is necessary to stop this relocation altogether, but none of the ruling in the geyropka knows how ... request
    1. Inok10
      Inok10 11 January 2016 21: 18
      Quote: Alekseev
      It is necessary to stop this relocation altogether, but none of the ruling in the geyropka knows how ...

      .. the article is a plus, but I also agree with the commentary .. the difference is very large between the prisoners of war and the current "refugees" .. the fact that most of them came to Europe not at all on foot, but for a very tidy sum of 3 to 5 thousand . euro, raises a question .. yes and there is a desire or the modern authorities of Europe, to decide something .. it seems that no .. hi
    2. Rezident007
      Rezident007 11 January 2016 21: 18
      Eh Germans, Germans ... You didn’t have to go to Europe and the USSR, but to the Middle East, you look, and now you would have no problems with migrants ..
    3. tol100v
      tol100v 11 January 2016 21: 54
      Quote: Alekseev
      There is no need to confuse horseradish and finger

      That's it. You just need to understand who organized it! To whom is it profitable. NO strong Russia, NO strong Europe, SGA are not needed. And from this it follows that the more problems the counterparties of the SGA have, the better for them. This is their long-term policy: to play on contradictions and skim the economic cream! While everyone comes to their senses after another shake, the SGA is already organizing a new, often bloody! Yes, right, there was an Indian Leader!
    4. 34 region
      34 region 11 January 2016 22: 53
      Alekseev! And what does the hell, finger and refugees? Refugees did not appear in Europe themselves. At first, Europe bombed the countries of residence of these refugees, but now it is outraged by their behavior! Don't like the influx of refugees? But you essentially sent them to yourself! We are outraged by bad terrorists! We are outraged by the refugees! And before that they were outraged by the lack of democracy in the countries of residence of these refugees! The rulers did not know that there are refugees in military conflicts? They knew! And they knew perfectly! Stop the relocation? It's like locking in a burning house. It was not necessary to set fire. And once set on fire, then please! Accept the fire victims! Are they not cultural? And how about culture?
      1. cap
        cap 12 January 2016 00: 37
        Quote: Region 34
        Accept the fire victims! Are they not cultural? And how about culture?

        Pants day in London January 10, 2016. Who is being raped there?
        It seems that the organizers of the performance do not care about issues of a foreign culture.
        Hijab Middle Ages! Is it culture in the subway without pants? am

    5. marl
      marl 12 January 2016 00: 34
      Quote: Alekseev
      It is necessary to stop this relocation altogether, but none of the ruling in the geyropka knows how ...

      It is no longer possible to stop the resettlement, at least while the BV is on fire. We must proceed from the fact that they, together with the Americans, have already "done". Another surprise is that such a seemingly well-thought-out, ordered Europe turned out to be completely unprepared for this natural outcome of events. It is not clear what exactly they expected. That this stream of migrants will rush to us? No. Firstly, we have a long process of obtaining the status; secondly, there are no such benefits for migrants as in Germany, only for labor migrants, and then, in case of temporary disability, i.e. sick leave; thirdly, which is important, Russia is a cold country, our climate does not suit them. They are not interested in us and therefore all the paths led to Europe and they had to be ready for this in advance, since they themselves made all this mess. And now they will have to create a completely system for the reception, placement and employment of migrants.
      You must answer for your policy. Next time they might think with their own head, and not indulge in all their American brothers.
  2. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 11 January 2016 22: 49
    The situation with refugees in Europe is unstable, something will happen in one direction or another. Various misconduct and ritual rape have already occurred. What's next? Probably the Europeans will not be able to change the situation to their advantage.
    1. zennon
      zennon 11 January 2016 23: 08
      Comparing the movement of European people from country to country with the invasion of genetic trash is simply stupid! Throughout history, for thousands of years, white people have passed through Europe. How many Germans, Poles, Czechs, etc. are in Russia? Probably more than one million. Did these people interfere? Never! How many Russians are in central and western Europe? Hundreds of thousands, maybe a million. Have we stopped anyone there? Never. Someone is going to study, work, looking for a better life. This is normal! These are white people, with close culture, mentality, religion and respect for the same white people. But the invasion of genetic debris will kill Europe! I remember the humpbacked p. they hated! Robberies, rape, arrogance of their people simply enraged! At the same time, representatives of any white nationalities coexist perfectly. It is strange that the Germans do not understand this ...
  3. 34 region
    34 region 11 January 2016 23: 09
    For Europeans, the situation is not in their favor. I'm afraid the outcome is already a foregone conclusion. And this is only a matter of time.
  4. Michael easily
    Michael easily 12 January 2016 03: 18
    Healthy Germany is beginning to openly express its vision of a European arrangement.