flying boat bomber
In 1952, Robert Ludwigovich Bartini - Head of the Department of Perspective Schemes of the Siberian Research Institute aviation named after S.A. Chaplygin (SibNIA; Novosibirsk) - creates a project for the T-203 aircraft. Being an excellent mathematician, he literally “calculated” the scheme of an airplane with a variable wing along the leading edge of a sweep. Without particularly expensive purges and significant costs.
The project of RL Bartini, presented in 1955, was planning to create a supersonic A-55 medium-range flying bomber boat. The seaplane had the opportunity to replenish the reserves of fuel in the ocean, in close proximity to the shores of the enemy, from surface ships and submarines. In addition, seaplanes did not require huge airfields with heavy-duty multi-kilometer concrete runways, which were excellent targets for the enemy's percussion weapons. Initially the project was rejected because The stated characteristics were considered unrealistic. An appeal to SP Korolyov, who helped substantiate the project experimentally, helped. Dozens of models with different versions of the wing were manufactured and purged.
In order to continue work on the project of R.L.Bartini, in April 1957 was seconded from SIBNIA to OKBS MAP (Moscow). The TsAGI and CIAM teams are involved in the strategic A-57 work. Were investigated modes of takeoff of the aircraft from the water and the possibility of a long stay it afloat.
The A-57 aircraft was a strategic integrated system including an amphibious seaplane itself, capable of taking off and landing on the water surface, as well as on snow and ice (this allowed the use of forward-based airfields located in the Arctic on drifting ice floes) and heavy controlled missile RCC, created in the design bureau P.V.Tsybina and located on the aircraft carrier. The aircraft was supposed to perform according to the “tailless” scheme with a pronounced integral arrangement (the fuselage itself was practically absent). The “self-balancing” wing (balancing achieved by swinging along the span) with minimal total wave and inductive resistance, having a variable sweep along the leading edge, had a supercritical downwardly convex profile in the center and a convex upward end. The wheeled chassis was absent, take-off and landing on ice and water were performed using a hydrolift retractable under the central part of the aircraft. For take-off from the usual airfield, it was supposed to use wheeled carts discharged from the ground. The crew of the aircraft was three people. A-57 had to carry the equipment necessary for autonomous operation in the ocean or on the Arctic ice floe: there was the necessary skipper equipment, a through passage along the entire boat, a latrine for the crew. All operations for the first priority maintenance of the bomber were performed within the boundaries of the wing and vertical tail, i.e. the plane could be serviced afloat.
At that time, the equipment of the flying boat was the height of perfection: radar SVR-1, active systems REP "Rose" and "Broom", the system for setting passive interference TRS-45, navigation system "Wind", communication complex "Planet" and hydroacoustic communication system with submarine "Okhotsk." The calculated maximum speed of the A-57 was 2500 km / h, the practical ceiling (depending on the flight mass) 18000-23000 m, the practical range 15000 km. Aircraft with takeoff weight 250 t intended to equip five Turbojet NK-10B (5 x 26 000 kgf) or temporarily, NK-6 (5 x 22 500 kgf) placed package mounted on the hull in its tail section between the keels, tilted inward. Above the engines a PCR cruise missile was to be installed, in addition, there was an internal thermally stabilized bomb bay to accommodate a 244H thermonuclear bomb with a 3000 kg mass.
The MAP Commission, which was attended by representatives of TsAGI, CIAM, Research Institute-1, OKB-156 (A.N. Tupolev) and OKB-23 (V.Myasischeva), gave a positive opinion on the project, but the government’s decision to build the aircraft was never accepted.
Total from 1952 to 1961 R.L. Bartini conducted work on five projects of supersonic amphibious aircraft, made according to the tailless scheme - А-55, А-57, Р, Ф-57 (Р-57) and Р-57АAL, on which installation of engines NK-6 was supposed, NK-10 or VK-15M.
The P-57 is a front-line supersonic amphibian bomber with a ski landing gear.
A-58 - Nuclear Marine Bomber. Developed in 1958, in OKB-256. In terms of size and take-off weight corresponded to the Tu-16 and Tu-22. The design and layout of the A-58 was similar to the A-57. As an amphibian could be applied from the waters of Europe and Asia.
In 1961, the designer presented the project of the P-57-AL supersonic long-distance reconnaissance aircraft - the development of the A-57 with a nuclear power plant.
Bomber flying boat
The project of a heavy flying boat LL-600 was developed at the OKB TMZ under the direction of G. Beriyev in the first half of the 1960-s as applied to the variants of a bomber plane and a passenger plane on 2000 seats.
To increase the range of seaplane-bombers, as well as to increase the effectiveness of the use of anti-submarine aircraft (seaplanes and amphibious aircraft) in the ocean zone, it was proposed to organize refueling of aircraft at sea from submarine tankers or special containers.
The organization of refueling points on the basis of the bundles of containers with fuel that can be secretly delivered by submarines would allow for the completion of the refueling of airplanes when flying to a target within a tactical range. To carry out a secretive meeting of the aircraft with containers at sea on one of the projects from the aircraft when approaching the refueling site at a distance of 200-300 kilometers, a signal bomb with a series of charges was dropped. After triggering in a certain sequence of charges, the hydroacoustic receiver of the container gave the command to ascend and switch on the standby radio station and means of visual detection.
After the Government Decree No. 1966-246 was released in 86, a number of anti-submarine complexes were proposed, including the LL-400 and LL-600 flying boats.
Work on the LL-600 aircraft was curtailed after successful tests of Soviet intercontinental ballistic missiles.
M-70 - supersonic strategic bomber-flying boat
The development of the 70 long-range naval reconnaissance bomber began in the design bureau of V.Myasishchev in accordance with the resolution of the Council of Ministers of 15 in August 1956. It was considered very likely that the enemy could simultaneously destroy a significant part of the long-range aerodromes. As an alternative to land aircraft in OKB-49, OKB-156 and OKB-23, under the leadership of G.M. Beriev, A.N.Tupolev and V.M.Myasischev, projects of supersonic seaplanes were developed. Previously, such a project (A-55) was proposed by R.L.Bartini.
Spreading seaplane bomber over the waters of the seas and oceans would not only save combat vehicles, but also strike back.
It was expected that the "flying boat" with take-off weight of 200 tons will fly at a cruising speed of 950-1700 km / h (maximum - 1800 km / h) for a distance of 6500-7500 km. With two refueling from submarines, the estimated range reached 18000-20000km.
The aircraft, made according to the normal aerodynamic scheme (variants with swept wings, as well as a trapezoidal wing, having a forward sweep on the leading edge and the reverse - on the rear), were designed to be equipped with 4 TRDF - 2 over the wing on the pylons and two - on each side of the keel. For takeoff and landing was used retractable ski.
In August, 1957 g. OKB-23 provided the customer with a preliminary design of a seaplane, and that was all.