Military Review

Bomber flying boat

Bomber flying boat

A-55, A-57
flying boat bomber

In 1952, Robert Ludwigovich Bartini - Head of the Department of Perspective Schemes of the Siberian Research Institute aviation named after S.A. Chaplygin (SibNIA; Novosibirsk) - creates a project for the T-203 aircraft. Being an excellent mathematician, he literally “calculated” the scheme of an airplane with a variable wing along the leading edge of a sweep. Without particularly expensive purges and significant costs.

The project of RL Bartini, presented in 1955, was planning to create a supersonic A-55 medium-range flying bomber boat. The seaplane had the opportunity to replenish the reserves of fuel in the ocean, in close proximity to the shores of the enemy, from surface ships and submarines. In addition, seaplanes did not require huge airfields with heavy-duty multi-kilometer concrete runways, which were excellent targets for the enemy's percussion weapons. Initially the project was rejected because The stated characteristics were considered unrealistic. An appeal to SP Korolyov, who helped substantiate the project experimentally, helped. Dozens of models with different versions of the wing were manufactured and purged.

In order to continue work on the project of R.L.Bartini, in April 1957 was seconded from SIBNIA to OKBS MAP (Moscow). The TsAGI and CIAM teams are involved in the strategic A-57 work. Were investigated modes of takeoff of the aircraft from the water and the possibility of a long stay it afloat.

The A-57 aircraft was a strategic integrated system including an amphibious seaplane itself, capable of taking off and landing on the water surface, as well as on snow and ice (this allowed the use of forward-based airfields located in the Arctic on drifting ice floes) and heavy controlled missile RCC, created in the design bureau P.V.Tsybina and located on the aircraft carrier. The aircraft was supposed to perform according to the “tailless” scheme with a pronounced integral arrangement (the fuselage itself was practically absent). The “self-balancing” wing (balancing achieved by swinging along the span) with minimal total wave and inductive resistance, having a variable sweep along the leading edge, had a supercritical downwardly convex profile in the center and a convex upward end. The wheeled chassis was absent, take-off and landing on ice and water were performed using a hydrolift retractable under the central part of the aircraft. For take-off from the usual airfield, it was supposed to use wheeled carts discharged from the ground. The crew of the aircraft was three people. A-57 had to carry the equipment necessary for autonomous operation in the ocean or on the Arctic ice floe: there was the necessary skipper equipment, a through passage along the entire boat, a latrine for the crew. All operations for the first priority maintenance of the bomber were performed within the boundaries of the wing and vertical tail, i.e. the plane could be serviced afloat.

At that time, the equipment of the flying boat was the height of perfection: radar SVR-1, active systems REP "Rose" and "Broom", the system for setting passive interference TRS-45, navigation system "Wind", communication complex "Planet" and hydroacoustic communication system with submarine "Okhotsk." The calculated maximum speed of the A-57 was 2500 km / h, the practical ceiling (depending on the flight mass) 18000-23000 m, the practical range 15000 km. Aircraft with takeoff weight 250 t intended to equip five Turbojet NK-10B (5 x 26 000 kgf) or temporarily, NK-6 (5 x 22 500 kgf) placed package mounted on the hull in its tail section between the keels, tilted inward. Above the engines a PCR cruise missile was to be installed, in addition, there was an internal thermally stabilized bomb bay to accommodate a 244H thermonuclear bomb with a 3000 kg mass.

The MAP Commission, which was attended by representatives of TsAGI, CIAM, Research Institute-1, OKB-156 (A.N. Tupolev) and OKB-23 (V.Myasischeva), gave a positive opinion on the project, but the government’s decision to build the aircraft was never accepted.

Total from 1952 to 1961 R.L. Bartini conducted work on five projects of supersonic amphibious aircraft, made according to the tailless scheme - А-55, А-57, Р, Ф-57 (Р-57) and Р-57АAL, on which installation of engines NK-6 was supposed, NK-10 or VK-15M.

The P-57 is a front-line supersonic amphibian bomber with a ski landing gear.

A-58 - Nuclear Marine Bomber. Developed in 1958, in OKB-256. In terms of size and take-off weight corresponded to the Tu-16 and Tu-22. The design and layout of the A-58 was similar to the A-57. As an amphibian could be applied from the waters of Europe and Asia.

In 1961, the designer presented the project of the P-57-AL supersonic long-distance reconnaissance aircraft - the development of the A-57 with a nuclear power plant.

Bomber flying boat

The project of a heavy flying boat LL-600 was developed at the OKB TMZ under the direction of G. Beriyev in the first half of the 1960-s as applied to the variants of a bomber plane and a passenger plane on 2000 seats.

To increase the range of seaplane-bombers, as well as to increase the effectiveness of the use of anti-submarine aircraft (seaplanes and amphibious aircraft) in the ocean zone, it was proposed to organize refueling of aircraft at sea from submarine tankers or special containers.

The organization of refueling points on the basis of the bundles of containers with fuel that can be secretly delivered by submarines would allow for the completion of the refueling of airplanes when flying to a target within a tactical range. To carry out a secretive meeting of the aircraft with containers at sea on one of the projects from the aircraft when approaching the refueling site at a distance of 200-300 kilometers, a signal bomb with a series of charges was dropped. After triggering in a certain sequence of charges, the hydroacoustic receiver of the container gave the command to ascend and switch on the standby radio station and means of visual detection.

After the Government Decree No. 1966-246 was released in 86, a number of anti-submarine complexes were proposed, including the LL-400 and LL-600 flying boats.

Work on the LL-600 aircraft was curtailed after successful tests of Soviet intercontinental ballistic missiles.

M-70 - supersonic strategic bomber-flying boat

The development of the 70 long-range naval reconnaissance bomber began in the design bureau of V.Myasishchev in accordance with the resolution of the Council of Ministers of 15 in August 1956. It was considered very likely that the enemy could simultaneously destroy a significant part of the long-range aerodromes. As an alternative to land aircraft in OKB-49, OKB-156 and OKB-23, under the leadership of G.M. Beriev, A.N.Tupolev and V.M.Myasischev, projects of supersonic seaplanes were developed. Previously, such a project (A-55) was proposed by R.L.Bartini.

Spreading seaplane bomber over the waters of the seas and oceans would not only save combat vehicles, but also strike back.

It was expected that the "flying boat" with take-off weight of 200 tons will fly at a cruising speed of 950-1700 km / h (maximum - 1800 km / h) for a distance of 6500-7500 km. With two refueling from submarines, the estimated range reached 18000-20000km.

The aircraft, made according to the normal aerodynamic scheme (variants with swept wings, as well as a trapezoidal wing, having a forward sweep on the leading edge and the reverse - on the rear), were designed to be equipped with 4 TRDF - 2 over the wing on the pylons and two - on each side of the keel. For takeoff and landing was used retractable ski.

In August, 1957 g. OKB-23 provided the customer with a preliminary design of a seaplane, and that was all.
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  1. Aleks tv
    Aleks tv 6 July 2013 10: 03
    How many did not read about Robert Ludwigovich Bartini - he always struck with its unusualness.

    "Red Baron", who lived in the USSR. He drank as much grief as several people could not stand, and op stubbornly continued to design aircraft.
    Unique and fantastic projects went one after another, and the planes did not go into series, but EVERYTHING used its achievements. And the same vaunted Tupolev and others. But he did not give up.

    Indeed, he did not live in his time, his work must be rethought based on their development of scientific and technological progress and emerging industry opportunities. Perhaps something is already possible today to do on his projects.

    His last plane took off ...
    1. Xnumx kopeek
      Xnumx kopeek 7 July 2013 00: 56
      Yes, it’s interesting to beat the Hungarian-Italian man. origin, also a genius smoothie. smile -
  2. svp67
    svp67 6 July 2013 13: 43
    In general, a very interesting topic, it might be worth our leadership to evaluate the combat effectiveness and operational properties of combat seaplanes and, of course, not strategic, but tactical ...
    1. Constantine
      Constantine 6 July 2013 14: 13
      The idea is certainly interesting, but I would look better in the direction of ekranoplanes. Moreover, no one was able to surpass us in this direction, and their effectiveness is very high, both militarily and civilly :)
      1. svp67
        svp67 6 July 2013 15: 26
        Quote: Constantine
        The idea is certainly interesting, but I would look better in the direction of ekranoplanes.

        WIGs are also necessary machines, but they have properties that greatly reduce their combat use, namely, that apart from the "screen" they lose all their advantages and become much worse than seaplanes. I propose to consider the option of a light combat seaplane to support the troops. Such an aircraft will have a huge advantage, it will be able to use both standard runways and "mirrors" of lakes, rivers, seas, oceans or reservoirs, which we have in abundance, as aerodromes ...
        1. dustycat
          dustycat 6 July 2013 19: 07
          With ekranoplans, not everything is so bad.
          And why should they go far from the screen?
          At sea, the waves give a sufficiently strong illumination in which the ekranoplane, and even with the stealth technology, is very convenient to hide.
          So it turns out - the sonar does not see, the noise finder does not hear, the radar does not see well.
          And he will pop out ....
      2. mr.Man
        mr.Man 6 July 2013 18: 06
        Quote: Constantine
        The idea is certainly interesting, but I would look better in the direction of ekranoplanes.

        WIGs are still very dependent on the weather and no matter how they describe their capabilities, but there are limitations .. and military equipment must "work" in any weather and time ...
        Quote: svp67
        I propose to consider the option of a light combat seaplane to support troops.
        There is a current Be-200 firefighter (it doesn’t pull on a light one, maybe there is an easier option), but if instead of tanks for water collection you use these compartments for military needs .. that probably has already been calculated by the designers ...
        Judging by the fact that this product did not enter the army, it looks like neither the army nor the navy needs these capabilities yet, but it is probably not difficult to rebuild it ...
        1. sergo0000
          sergo0000 6 July 2013 18: 35
          Quote: mr.Man
          Judging by the fact that this product did not enter the army, it looks like neither the army nor the navy needs these capabilities yet, but it is probably not difficult to rebuild it.

          Why didn’t it go !? hi Very much gone!
          Russian Defense Ministry orders 6 Be-200 aircraft for 8,4 billion rubles
          __ncCBOIoaKuhnaMjUZfa-qIovGtK-u-9LKhZcHJkMFgWukSVVYPmeiFO19CEzFi9lJSuCM? data = UlN
  3. iOfficer
    iOfficer 6 July 2013 14: 11
    Bartini - Tesla Aviation.
    1. KuigoroZHIK
      KuigoroZHIK 6 July 2013 19: 07
      I do not agree. Bartini is a lot cooler than Tesla.
  4. The comment was deleted.
    1. svp67
      svp67 6 July 2013 15: 59
      Quote: retired
      Only unlike Tesla - is a real genius
      Is Tesla mythical? belay
  5. velikoros-xnumx
    velikoros-xnumx 6 July 2013 16: 48
    A genius who is ahead of time with his ideas and projects.
  6. dustycat
    dustycat 6 July 2013 19: 09
    The boy saved from a plane crash by a Russian aviator did a good job for the saved life of the country of those who saved him.
  7. 0255
    0255 6 July 2013 19: 09
    you wonder how many interesting projects in the USSR were developed and did not go into series
    SPETSNAZ 6 July 2013 21: 16
    Very interesting article wink
  9. Hauser
    Hauser 6 July 2013 21: 52
    In the photo A-55 or A-57, the wing configuration is exactly the same as on the SU-27 of the first modification. In my integral layout (not a specialist I could be wrong), but very similar. Think about it, this is 25 years earlier than on the SU-27. Yes, really a genius.
    1. Hauser
      Hauser 7 July 2013 10: 24
      Of course, the integrated layout, to blame, I will correct it.
  10. Bashkaus
    Bashkaus 6 July 2013 21: 55
    An interesting person, the ingenious design of aircraft. But he had a project of an ekranoplan-flying aircraft carrier. Indeed, man is not one decade ahead of time.
  11. mithridate
    mithridate 6 July 2013 22: 39
    powerful, brilliant designer
  12. ded10041948
    ded10041948 6 July 2013 23: 54
    If you delve into the projects sent at one time "under the shelter" (or "on the back burner", as you like), you can find a lot of interesting things!
  13. Kir
    Kir 7 July 2013 15: 29
    You can't say anything !!!, but what's interesting is that they don't want to mention Us anywhere, and if they do mention us then when the "enlightened" were not standing next to a cannon shot, look at the same wiki and other resources only two "geniuses" Henkel and Rutan, and where is RL BARTINI? So it turns out that you need to create your own segment on the World Wide Web, with the coverage of OWN GENIUSES AND THEIR ACHIEVEMENTS !!!
  14. donRE
    donRE 7 July 2013 21: 30
    Nice article and very beautiful birds