Military Review

Accordion in war

13
I will begin my story about the Russian harmonica on the roads of the Great Patriotic War with such an episode.


I love to come to the school of Panikovets village, Zadonsky district: she is very warm and homely. So, one graduate of this school, Nikita Ganin, played great (and plays) on the button accordion. At the time of his school life, the boy did not part with this instrument, spoke at all school events, even played at recess, and after school he “sounded” football matches at home. But they announced a regional competition for fiction readers. Nikita decided to learn the famous lines of Tvardovsky about Vasily Turkin - where about harmonies - and go on stage with the instrument. And here is the problem: Nikita played the accordion. It will seem ridiculous to many: so what? The sound is very similar, the instruments are “brothers”, what is the real thing? But Nikita judged differently. He got a real three-row and learned to play it himself. At the competition, he won a prize, and since then the accordion - his true friend.

The boy read the passage and me. And how it was good and great! “... for the beginning, for order, threw my fingers from top to bottom ...” - and Nikita's right hand ran along the buttons ...

I remember, I asked the student: why, they say, you attached such importance to what kind of instrument you would have in your hands? And he said: “Yes, I wanted to understand what Russian harmonist soldiers felt” ...

Of course, there were button accordions in the war, not just accordions. And there were balalaikas and guitars. But the boy did the right thing, since the ring took our memory so respectfully and scrupulously.

And now, as they say, to the point. Yes, she walked along with all our soldiers along the roads of the war. “Who said that there is no place for songs in the war? After the fight, the heart asks for doubly music! ”- remember these famous lines from the movie“ Only Old Men Go To Battle ”?

Accordion in war


The first word is to a war veteran. “... I didn’t see any musical instruments on the front, except for an accordion. She often played on the halts, then spontaneously organized dances, dances, sang songs. Harmony cheered up, facilitated everyday difficulties of fighters. At the very forefront, the harmonics were not used - the Germans immediately opened fire ... After three days of fighting during the storming of Königsberg and sleepless nights, the soldier slept. Spreading their greatcoats, the soldiers slept in the courtyards, on the sidewalks and even on the pavement. And after a rest from somewhere came several harmonies. All harmonists were very young. The fighters sang and danced. Everybody vividly expressed joy in connection with the capture of the strongest fortress in Europe, ”wrote Pyotr Mikhailovich Shkinder, a reserve colonel, who had gone through the whole war and reached Berlin.
Directive No. XXUMX of the Main Political Directorate of the Red Army said: “The Russian song, accordion, dance are the friends of the fighter. They rally people, make it easier to bear the burden of combat life, raise the fighting ability and shape the mood of the personnel. In each company one must have a singing, harmonists and accordion ".
By the way, in the first months of the war the three-row was obviously not enough - only about seventy thousand. That is why letters were sent to Tula and Shuya with the call: “Give the soldiers a accordion! It's easier to fight with a song! ” There was even the slogan "In every company - accordion!".

In general, it is believed that the accordion is not a Russian instrument, it was invented by the German master tuner Bushman. But only he was born in the early nineteenth century, and the accordion appeared earlier.

The Tula craftsmen - the Shkunaev brothers and weapons Sizov master. True, the right side of the first accordions was tuned only for a major scale - hence the strong connection of the accordion with the ditties. However, let us return to the beginning of World War II.
At that time, the Tula and Shuya factories, which were producing crutches and skis for the needs of the front, began to restructure and expand production in order to manufacture harmonica for our soldiers.



Now the three-row sounded literally everywhere: in the hospital and the rear, in the partisan detachment. Often some interesting music was associated with a musical instrument. история. For example, in Minsk, in the Museum of the Great Patriotic War, the accordion “Hohner” is kept - a trophy of the First Belarusian partisan brigade of the Vitebsk region. In May 1942, the scouts of this detachment noticed two motorboats on the Western Dvina, near the village of Ostrovki, and opened fire on them. The first one was hit right away, and an accordion was found in it (the second boat was also hit, but at the neighboring village). The tool was used by the nazis during their campaign trips around the captured villages of the Vitebsk region. The guerrillas handed over the found accordion to Moscow - with a request to hand it over to the Belarusian Song and Dance Ensemble. A letter was attached under the keys: “Play on it merrily, and let its sounds thunder with a funeral march for Hitler.” The ensemble actually passed this instrument, which has since traveled a lot of roads with new owners. And in the 1944 year, during a partisan parade in Minsk liberated from the fascists, the partisans saw their old trophy.

Until 1954, this accordion performed at concerts of the state ensemble of the choir of the BSSR named after G.Shirma. And then the musicians transferred him to the museum in Minsk.

But the memoirs of Alexander Terent'evich Makushev, a veteran, holder of the Order of the Great Patriotic War, the author of the book “Tell, accordion”: “Turka harmonious balagurs were invariably in every partisan detachment. They showed their agility in battles and sabotage, in romping harmonica playing, skillful stories and jokes. Many harmonists were excellent scouts. Unfortunately, being at the forefront of the struggle, they died from enemy bullets ... ”

In a well-known book Memories and Reflections, Georgiy Konstantinovich Zhukov also remembered the accordion with a kind word: “When preparing for the operation of the steppe front, I had to get acquainted with the commander of the 53 Army, General I.Managarov. And when the work was over and we sat down to dinner, he picked up the accordion and perfectly played a number of very funny things. Fatigue vanished. I looked at him and thought: these commanders are very fond of the soldiers and follow him into the fire and into the water. I thanked Managarov for an excellent game on the bayan, which, by the way, was always jealous ... "



And now another story about accordion. I recognized her when I visited the Lipetsk school No. XXUMX, more precisely, in her Museum of Fighting Glory.

When the war began, Muscovite Misha Stepnov was 13 years old. In the family, he immediately stayed for the eldest: his father went to war, and soon a funeral came to him. Mother, having received such terrible news, was seriously ill, and she sent Misha to look for her (Misha) uncle. So the boy got into the 637 regiment and became his son. He helped the soldiers in the household, and in his spare time he played harmonies for them. Smarty boy fell in love and even sewed him his special form. So, together with the 637 regiment, Misha Stepnov got to Berlin. And there, on the Day of Our Victory, the soldiers literally everywhere organized improvised concerts on the go. Mishka decided to perform at such a concert. He picked up the accordion - and the famous Katyusha poured. The fighters jumped to the boy, began to sing along and clap.

And suddenly, in the midst of this jubilation, an officer jumped out of the crowd.

- Son! He shouted. - Son, Misha! ..

Yes, it really was Mishin's father, who was considered dead! It was not by his face that he recognized his son, but by the romping game. And where they met: in Berlin, thousands of kilometers from their home ... But, if it were not the voice of the accordion, the father could just stand with his back to his son - and the meeting would not take place ...
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  1. Igor39
    Igor39 31 December 2015 07: 20 New
    +9
    A touching story.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 31 December 2015 07: 58 New
    +7
    Harmon found a father ... Thank you! Holiday greetings..!
  3. Proud.
    Proud. 31 December 2015 08: 15 New
    +7
    A good instrument! Songs of Igor Rasteryaev, proof of this. Here is one of my favorite songs. True, it is a little off topic, Spring, but good!
    1. stopkran
      stopkran 31 December 2015 11: 24 New
      +6
      In the topic: I. Rasteryaev. George Ribbon
  4. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 31 December 2015 08: 20 New
    +6
    Thank you very much for the story!
  5. stopkran
    stopkran 31 December 2015 11: 19 New
    +6
    Near Kiev 1944 With trophy accordion A. Elistratov
  6. L. A. A.
    L. A. A. 31 December 2015 12: 55 New
    +6
    Nice photos. The courageous faces of our soldiers are filled with power. Music and songs have always been fighters' assistants.
  7. Cap.Morgan
    Cap.Morgan 31 December 2015 13: 14 New
    +8
    Radar Garmon
  8. sabakina
    sabakina 31 December 2015 19: 48 New
    +5
    Harmony ... my father dreamed of "Tula" all his life ...
  9. vladimirvn
    vladimirvn 1 January 2016 14: 00 New
    +1


    Oh, Russia!
  10. Koshak
    Koshak 2 January 2016 16: 16 New
    +4
    Maybe the younger generation did not read "The Book of the Fighter"

    - Here's the trouble: in the whole column
    There is no harmony overwhelming,
    And the frost - neither become nor sit ...
    He took off his gloves, rubs his palms,
    He hears suddenly:
    - There is harmony.
    Dying granular snow,
    Alternately - dance not dance -
    Near the tank are two tankers
    Feet warm in reserve.
    - Who has the accordion, guys?
    - Yes, she’s here, brother ... -
    Looked around guilty
    On the driver shooter.
    - So play on the track?
    - Yes, play - it is not harmful.
    “What is the matter?” Whose accordion?
    - Whose was that, brother, no ...
    And the driver said already
    Instead of his friend:
    - Our commander was an amateur ...
    We buried him.
    - So ... - With an awkward smile
    The fighter looked around
    Like he’s a mistake
    Reluctantly offended suddenly.
    Explains carefully
    To end the speech:
    - I thought it’s possible to play,
    I thought what to take care of her.
    A shooter:
    - Here in this tower
    He sat in the battle of yesterday ...
    Three - we were friends.
    - Yes, it’s impossible, it’s impossible.
    I know how to understand
    I am the second, brother, war ...
    And I have a wound
    And one concussion.
    And again - judge -
    Maybe tomorrow - right off the bat ...
    “You know what,” said the driver,
    Well, play you, the jester with you.
  11. Koshak
    Koshak 2 January 2016 16: 17 New
    +1
    Only a three-row fighter took
    Immediately obvious - harmonist.
    To start, to order
    Threw his fingers from top to bottom.
    Forgotten rustic
    Suddenly started, eyes closed
    Hand native Smolensk
    Sad memorable motive
    And from that accordion of the old,
    What remained an orphan
    Somehow it suddenly became warmer
    On the front-line road.
    From frosty cars
    The people walked like a fire.
    And who cares
    Who plays, whose harmony.
    Only two of those tankers
    That driver and shooter
    Everyone is looking at the harmonist -
    It’s like something is unknown.
    Something seems to guys
    Dust is spinning in the snow.
    Like seeing you once
    Like they drove somewhere ...
    And, changing fingers quickly,
    He, as if to order,
    Here he told about three tankmen,
    Three comrades story.
    Is it not about them word for word,
    Is this the whole song?
    And looked down sternly
    In leather helmets friends.
    A fighter is calling somewhere
    Far, easy leads.
    - Ah, what are you guys
    Young people still.
    I would not even say
    I’ll save myself.
    I wouldn’t play like that yet, -
    It’s a pity that I can’t get better.
    I forgot for a moment
    I played on the go,
    And let me jokingly
    I’ll translate it all.
  12. Koshak
    Koshak 2 January 2016 16: 18 New
    +1
    Warm up, bump
    Everyone goes to the harmonist.
    Surround.
    - Wait, brothers,
    Give a blow in your arms.
    - The guy froze his fingers, -
    Ambulance is needed.
    - You know, throw these waltzes,
    Give the one you ...
    And again down with the glove
    I looked around well done
    And as if that three-row
    Turned the other end.
    And forgotten - not forgotten
    Yes, no time to remember
    Where and who lies killed
    And who else to lie.
    And to whom the grass is alive
    Tread on the ground later
    To come to the wife, to the house, -
    Where is the wife and where is that house?
    Steam dancers
    Suddenly rushed from the spot.
    Breathed in frosty steam
    A tight circle warmed up.
    - Have fun spinning, ladies!
    Do not step on socks!
    And the driver runs the same
    Fearing to be late.
    Whose breadwinner, whose breadwinner,
    Where did you come to the court?
    He shouted so that they parted:
    - Give me, or I'll die! ..
    And he went, he went to work,
    Stepping and threatening
    Yes, how will something come up
    What can not be expressed.
  13. Koshak
    Koshak 2 January 2016 16: 19 New
    +2
    Like a party in the evening
    The floorboards are bent in a hut
    Jokes, sayings
    He pours himself under his feet.
    Submit piece by piece:
    - Oh, sorry that there is no knock,
    Oh friend
    Kaby knock
    Kaby suddenly -
    Cobbled circle!
    Kaby valenki discard,
    Shoe on the heel
    Print so that immediately
    Heel is a kayuk!
    And the accordion is calling somewhere
    Far, easy to lead ...
    No what all of you guys are
    Awesome people.
    If only for these guys,
    From the spot - into the water and into the fire.
    Everything that can be in the world
    At least something - the harmony is buzzing.
    Speaks cleanly
    The sound carries to the soul.
    And two tankers said
    To the harmonist:
    “You know, friend ...”
    Are we not familiar with you?
    Isn't that you brother
    I remember something from the battle
    Did we deliver to the sanbat?
    All the blood was clothes
    And I asked you to drink and drink ...
    Muffled the accordion:
    - Well then,
    It could even be.
    - We are now standing in the repair.
    Your route is different.
    - That's for sure…
    - A harmony,
    You know what - take it with you.
    Take it, play the hunt
    In this business you are a master
    Merry your infantry.
    “What are you guys doing?”
    “Nothing,” said the driver, “
    It will be so. Nothing.
    Our commander was an amateur,
    This is a memory of him ...
    And from the edge of the remote
    Because of a thousand wheels
    From end to end of column:
    “By car!” - it came.
    And again the bumps, hills,
    Snow and Christmas trees on both sides ...
    Goes further Vasya Terkin, -
    It was, of course, he.
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