Regular US forces were established on 14 on June 1775 of the year, as decided by the Second Continental Congress, to protect the independence, freedom, and territorial integrity of the state. Under the armed forces in the United States understand the totality of independent types of armed forces: the ground forces, air force, naval forces, marine corps (ILC) and the coast guard. The first four types of armed forces are directly subordinate to the Ministry of Defense of the country, and the coast guard in peacetime submits to the Ministry of National Security, also going under the wing of the Ministry of Defense during the war.
The commander-in-chief of the US military, according to the constitution, is the president of the country, who heads the Armed Forces through the civilian secretary of defense, to whom the ministers of the Armed Forces are subordinate. The ministers are responsible for recruiting, equipping, organizing and supplying the armed forces. The top military ranks of the Armed Forces are part of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (OKNSH), whose chairman coordinates the work of all the military authorities of the country.
Operationally, the US military is now consolidated into 9 Joint Command (OK). Five of these commands were created on a geographical basis (North America, South and Central America, Europe, the Middle East and Asia, the Pacific). The commander of this OK is subject to all formations of the types of US armed forces, which are located in his area of responsibility. The four remaining OCs, to which the Combined Strategic Command belongs, the OC strategic redeployment, the OK special operations and the OC, do not have their own forces. The Joint Forces Joint Command is responsible for the organization of joint combat training of all types of armed forces, and the strategic Joint Forces are responsible for the strategic nuclear weapon.
Recruitment of the American armed forces occurs on a voluntary basis, it is a completely contract army. For military service are accepted citizens of the United States or citizens permanently residing in the United States (having a residence permit) and possessing at least a secondary education. The minimum age of candidates for military forces is 18 years (with parental consent, you can go to serve in 17 years). The maximum age for admission to military service is different and in different types of armed forces of their own. For example, in the Air Force and the Coast Guard - 27 years, in the ILC - 28 years, in the Navy - 34 years, in the ground forces - 42 years. Contracts are signed for periods ranging from 4-x to 8-years.
The United States is a multinational country with a large representation of African Americans and Latin Americans, which is reflected in the structure of the armed forces. So, according to September 2010, white Americans in the US Armed Forces accounted for 63%, African Americans for 15%, Latin Americans for 10%, Asians for Alaska, as well as representatives of mixed races for 4% . Another 2% accounted for other / undecided. It is worth noting that in this latter group, many are people without American citizenship, but who have the right to permanently reside in the United States. Many of them go to the army, as this simplifies the procedure for obtaining American citizenship. By gender 4% of US military men are men, women account for 86%.
The population of the United States exceeds 325 million people, which allows you to have very large mobilization resources, which are estimated at more than 110 million people. At the same time every year the draft age reaches more than 4 millions of citizens. Also in the country there are about 850 thousands of reservists of all types of armed forces. In addition, the United States has a National Guard, which represents reserve groups organized by the army and the US Air Force. The number of United States National Guard on 2015 is about 350 thousand people.
An interesting feature is that service in the National Guard is combined with work on the main specialty. Every year (average value) up to 60 thousand people enter the National Guard. All of them are required to undergo combat training in organized group and individual classes (48 programs lasting 4 hours on weekends annually). Also, fighters of the National Guard are sent to two-week camps, connected to command-staff and military exercises along with regular units. Heads of companies and organizations that prevent national guardsmen from carrying out the tasks set by the country can be held criminally liable. In addition to patriotism, numerous incentives are additional incentives for service in the National Guard: housing allowances, treatment fees, purchase of goods and products in military stores, refueling at military stations (2 price is lower), pension supplements, etc.
In the near future, the US military leadership intends to concentrate its resources on 5 core areas: 1) fighting terrorism (against military forces of terrorists) and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, 2) intelligence, 3) preparing for an information war (protecting our own information and communications systems and destruction of similar systems of the enemy), 4) struggle for military superiority in the air (emphasis is placed on the development of unmanned systems), 5) development of military space systems. At the same time, the US military doctrine emphasizes that the Armed Forces of the country should, in their main task, prepare for a war with an unconventional adversary.
The ground forces, or the US Army, is a type of armed forces, the main specificity of which is the conduct of ground military operations. The US Army is the most numerous types of armed forces, it serves more than 540 thousand people. Currently undergoing a process of active reform. The motto of the Army - This We'll Defend (This we will defend).
BMP M2 "Bradley"
The ultimate goal of the ongoing reform of the US Army is the creation of combat formations of a qualitatively new type, equipped with advanced weapons systems, reconnaissance, communications and control. Thus, the reform is going on in two main areas: the supply of advanced weapons and military equipment and the reorganization of the operational staff structure (OSW). The US Army is in the process of transitioning from divisions, as the main military unit of the ground forces, to a “field” (modular) OSW, in which the main element will be a more mobile separate unit - a brigade of ground forces. As part of the reform, the ground forces will include 48 brigades. At the same time, the divisional level of control will be preserved, but will be almost completely of a staff character (as a corps / army level at a given time), retaining the ability to control troops in the event of their deployment to full-fledged combat units of the divisional level. At any given time, new brigades can be transferred to any part of the United States or the world under the control of a divisional command post or operational control bodies of the US Army in a theater of military operations.
At present, the following types of brigades of the Ground Forces are being formed:
Armored, heavy (MBT "Abrams", BMP, SAU on caterpillar tracks) - payroll number of 4743 person.
Brigades on Stryker armored vehicles, medium-sized - payroll 4500 people.
Light brigades on Humvee armored vehicles and with towed artillery are a list of 4413 people.
In addition, combat and logistical support teams will also be part of the ground forces; light (helicopter) and heavy (assault) teams are classified as combat support brigades aviation) army aviation brigades; artillery brigades; intelligence, communications and command brigades. Logistic support teams are MTO brigades - material and technical support. The US Army also distinguishes special operations forces: the 1st Special Operations Regiment of the US Army "Delta" (special forces), Special Forces of the US Army (Green Berets), the 75th Special Purpose Rangers reconnaissance regiment "Rangers" and the 160th Aviation (Airborne) Regiment of Special Operations.
Currently, the US Army is armed with more than 5,5 thousand main combat tanks Abrams, of which 1174 are M1A2 and M1A2SEP modifications, about 4,5 wheeled Striker armored personnel carriers, more than 6 M2 Bradley infantry fighting vehicles of various modifications, and about 500 M3 Bradley infantry fighting vehicles and more than 25 wheeled armored vehicles with enhanced anti-missile defense MRAP different types.
Artillery weapons are represented by 60-mm, 81-mm and 120-mm mortars. There are more than 1,1 thousands of towed artillery guns: 105-mm M119 - 392, 155-mm M198 - 327, 155-mm M-777 - 403, which replace the M198. Self-propelled artillery is represented 950 SAU M109 Paladin. There is also an 857 227-mm MLRS M-270 that can be used to launch tactical missiles and around 340 M142 High Mobility Artillery Rocket System - highly mobile operational-tactical missile and artillery systems that are lightweight, mounted on a wheeled chassis.
As part of the Army has more than 750 attack helicopters AH-64 Apache, more 400 transport CH-47 Chinook, more 600 light multi-purpose helicopters, OH-58 Kiowa, more 120 multipurpose helicopters MH-60 Black Hawk, more 1200 UH-60 Black Hawk, which replaced the famous Bell UH-1 multi-purpose helicopter.
Army defense is represented by approximately 1300 samples of various techniques, including 816 self-propelled complexes: 703 FIM-92A Avenger, 95 M6 Linebacker and 18 THAAD. In addition, there are 480 towed complexes MIM-104 Patriot several modifications. Also in service there are several thousand MANPADS FIM-92 Stinger.
M155 777 mm howitzer
Air Force is a type of US military. By the number of aircraft and the number of personnel are the largest in the world. More than 308 thousand people serve in them and about 180 thousand people of civilian personnel. In service is more than 5,1 thousands of aircraft and 450 intercontinental ballistic missiles. The motto of the USAF is Above All (above all).
Recently, the Air Force has been reformed, and by 2014, their numbers have been reduced by 30 by thousands of servicemen. The reduction is due to the modernization of existing and adoption of new types of aircraft, the improvement of the combat control system and organizational structure of aviation units and units, changes in the Air Force basing system. Currently, the US Air Force is the only one in the world that is armed with the X-Numx generation F-5 “Raptor”, which is also the most expensive fighter in the world.
The administrative structure of the United States Air Force includes the ministry and headquarters of the Air Force, as well as the 11 main command and 27 institutions as commanders, including the 17 directorates, the 7 centers and the 3 central institution. The commanders of the US Air Force are divided into air armies, individual wings and other units. In turn, the wings consist of groups (operational, technical support, logistics and medical), each of which may consist of several squadrons, which in turn consist of several links.
According to some reports, the United States Air Force plans to reduce almost 20% of the number of aircraft wings available. Over the next 5 years, their number may be reduced from 170 to 133. At the same time, it is planned to increase the combat capabilities of the Air Force in the context of reduction by adopting promising aircraft systems, including new low-profile 5 generation fighters, as well as unmanned aerial vehicles of various types, including future hypersonic ones.
The Air Force has more than 136 strategic bombers (B-52¸B-1B and B-2A). The X-NUMX ground attack aircraft A-289 Thunderbolt II and 10 ground support aircraft Lockheed AC-25 Specter (Ganshipa) can be used to support troops on the battlefield. Fighter aviation is represented by the following machines - F-130E Strike Eagle - 15 of them 290 in the National Guard Air Force, F-80 Eagle (F-15C F-15D) - 15 of them 227 in the National Guard Air Force. The most numerous is the multi-purpose fighter F-111 Fighting Falcon - more than 16 aircraft. The F-900 Raptor fighter aircraft gaining 22 (176 in the National Guard Air Force) was built by the Raptor. There is also a X-NUMX F-18A multi-role fighter, which in the future will have to replace all F-27 Fighting Falcon fighter. At 35, the average age of US tactical aircraft was 16 years.
Transport aviation is quite numerous and is represented by the following most numerous vehicles: Lockheed C-130 Hercules military transport aircraft - 203, Boeing C-17 strategic military transport aircraft Globemaster III - 207 and strategic C-5 Galaxy military transport aircraft - around 55 machines . In addition, there are more than 450 aircraft tankers.
The Air Force has 33 Boeing E-3 Sentry AWACS and 14 Boeing 737 AEW & C aircraft, which were created to replace the E-3 Sentry. The main unmanned aerial vehicles of the United States Air Force are the multipurpose MQ-1 Predator and the reconnaissance and strike MQ-9 Reaper. There are 196 and 115 UAVs, respectively.
The US Navy is one of the five main types of the country's armed forces. Like the US Air Force, not a single fleet of the world can compete with it. U.S. Navy Main Command - Pacific Fleet, Force Command fleet USA (formerly Atlantic Fleet), Shipping Command and Naval Forces in Europe. In operational terms, the US Navy is divided into 6 fleets: Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Tenth. The fleet includes more than 280 ships (deployed), more than 430 in total, as well as more than 3,7 different aircraft. The number of personnel is more than 328 thousand people. The US Navy's motto is Non sibi sed patriae (not for themselves, but for the country).
Nimitz type aircraft carrier
The US Navy is the world leader in the number of aircraft carriers deployed - the 10 aircraft carriers of the Nimitz type, another Gerald R. Ford launched in the 2013 year. American aircraft carriers operate exclusively as part of carrier strike groups (AUG), which include numerous escort ships or carrier strike formations (from several aircraft carriers and escort ships). In this case, the strike aircraft carrier is always the core of the group, and its main striking force is carrier-based aviation. The F / A-18 fighter-attack aircraft in various modifications remains the most popular US carrier-based aircraft, with more than 860 of this type of aircraft in service.
The construction of the US Navy is carried out in the framework of aspen programs and documents: “Sea Power 21”, “Thousand Fleet”, “Activity of the Navy” and “Global Presence”. Already by 2020, the US Navy should have 313 deployed warships. As new aircraft are put into service and with the introduction of prospective aircraft carriers into the fleet, it is planned to optimize the composition of the aircraft wings of deck-based aircraft. At the same time, the total number of aircraft of a typical air wing by the year 2020 should grow to 86 units. A ship composition of the surface forces of the fleet with time planned to increase almost 1,5 times by adopting a new class of ships of the coastal sea zone (up to 55 ships).
The backbone of the US surface fleet consists of Ticonderoga URO-type cruisers - the 22 of the ship, as well as Arli Burk’s URO-class destroyers - the 62 of the ship. The ships of the coastal zone are represented by two types of “Freedom” and two types of “Independence” (taken in the fleet from 2008 to 2014 year). The US Navy has 8 universal amphibious assault ships of the “Usosp” type and one of the “America” type, as well as 6 paratrooper-helicopter ships of the “San Antonio” type and one of the “Austin” type, in addition there are 12 paratrooper and transport ships .
The destroyer type "Zamvolt" is sent to sea trials
The submarine fleet is represented by the Ohio 14 SSBNs, the Ohio Type XHUMX SSGNs, the Los Angeles type 4 MPLATRC, the Virginia Type 40 and the Virginia 3 type. Thus, the US submarine fleet consists exclusively of nuclear submarines, there are simply no diesel submarines in it.
A significant event for the US Navy was the launch of a Zamvolt destroyer of the type. These ships with powerful missile weapons are intended primarily for strikes against coastal and ground targets. Destroyers are multipurpose and can effectively deal with enemy aircraft, attack enemy targets on the coast, and provide fire support for troops from the sea. So far, 3 ships of this type have been laid. The first of these, estimated at 4,4 billion dollars by this time, 7 December 2015 of the year went to sea to conduct sea trials.
The US Marine Corps consists of the most combat-ready units, performing the function of rapid reaction forces. As of March 2014, it consisted of 182 thousands of troops, as well as 40 thousands of reservists and more 1100 aircraft. In terms of its strength, the USMC exceeds all the armed forces of modern Germany. The corps includes 4 divisions of the Marine Corps (numbers from 1-th to 4-th, while the 4-I division is a reserve, its units are scattered throughout the US), the four wings are also four, and The fourth group is also a backup. The motto of the United States Marine Corps is Semper Fidelis (Always True, Latin).
Due to the fact that parts of the marines were historically well organized, trained and equipped for combat and peacekeeping operations outside the United States (expeditionary formations), they have been throughout stories existence is considered as a rapid reaction force. Currently, the marines are the most highly mobile units that are designed to conduct amphibious assault, conduct combat operations in the coastal zone in cooperation with ground forces, air force and navy both in the framework of a general war, and during local conflicts using conventional and nuclear weapons.
Amphibious tracked vehicle amphibious AAV-P7 / A1
As a rapid reaction force, the United States International Police possesses quite impressive combat capabilities and has a large number of military equipment and weapon systems. Currently, it includes about 400 main battle tanks M1A1 Abrams and 69 repair and recovery vehicles M88A2. Also in service is the 778 BMP LAV-25 and special machines built on its base. Specialized types of weapons include amphibious-tracked amphibious vehicle AAV-P7 / A1, more than 1300 of such vehicles are in service. Also in KMP there are about 19 600 cars HMMWV in various versions.
Artillery weapons are represented by 60-mm (company), 81-mm (battalion) and 120-mm (regimental) mortars. Towed X-NUMX lightweight M-155 howitzers, 777-mm M155 "Paladin" self-propelled artillery and HIMARS MLRS, which is airborne, and can be transported by C-109 aircraft.
The USMC has a powerful aviation component. It includes 168 fighter-bomber versions F / A-18A / C / CN and 72 versions F / A-18B / D. Also available is the X-NUMX attack aircraft vertical take-off and landing of the AV-160B Harrier II and 8 training aircraft of this type. The EA-15B Prowler 20 aircraft are used for electronic warfare and reconnaissance. The helicopter fleet is represented by the AH-6 Cobra, the 147 heavy transport helicopters CH-1E Super Stallio and 160 by the tiltrotor MV-53B Osprey. The fleet will be updated by supplying the fifth generation Lockheed Martin F-348 Lightning II, an unobtrusive fifth-generation fighter-bomber. In total, the US KMP should receive the 22 of the aircraft in the F-35B modification (the possibility of a shortened take-off and vertical landing) and the 353 F-35С (the ability to fly from an aircraft carrier). Currently, the aircraft is still undergoing a series of tests.
In the Coast Guard (BOHR) more than 42 thousand people serve. According to the 2010 year, the Coast Guard included more than 250 ships, more 1400 boats and boats, and more 200 aircraft based on 24 bases. The organizational structure of US BOCHR provides for the division of the territory of the continental United States, Alaska and the Hawaiian Islands, as well as the waters washing them into two zones - the Atlantic (headquarters is in Portsmouth, Virginia) and the Pacific (headquarters in Alameda, California). The motto of the US Coast Guard is Semper Paratus (Always Ready, Latin).
Who believes that the BOHR never took part in hostilities, he is mistaken. The Coast Guard participated in all US military conflicts, took part in the Normandy landings and battles on the Pacific Islands during the Second World War, patrolling the waters and shelling the coast during the Vietnam War. She took a broad part in the US military operations in Iraq, ensuring the security of the six ports of this country, which were used by the Americans and their allies.
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