Military Review

Kuril issue resolved. In 1945 year

Kuril issue resolved. In 1945 year

Stalemate diplomatic collision

Islands of contention (highlighted in red) on the map. Photo: RIA News

September 2 this year , on the day of the 70th anniversary of the signing of the Act of unconditional surrender and the end of World War II by representatives of the government of militarist Japan, the Russian Foreign Ministry stated a clear statement arising from historical facts and international agreements position on the so-called Kuril issue. Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Igor Morgulov ruled out the possibility of negotiations with Japan over the Kuril Islands in an interview with the Interfax news agency. The following was literally stated: "We are not conducting any dialogue with Tokyo on the" Kuril problem ". This issue was resolved 70 years ago: the South Kuriles passed to our country legally, following the results of World War II. The sovereignty and jurisdiction of Russia over them is beyond doubt. subject to ".

Then this fundamental position of the Russian state was confirmed by Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, stating after talks with his Japanese counterpart that the Kuril affiliation "is not a subject for discussion." At the same time, the leadership of the Russian diplomatic department agreed to continue negotiations on the conclusion of a peace treaty between the two countries.

At the same time, let me remind you that Tokyo has for years declared its consent to conclude a peace treaty with Russia only on condition that "the islands of Iturup, Kunashir, Shikotan and Habomai are returned."

Well, let's understand the created diplomatic collision on its merits.

The war dotted i

All Kuril Islands belonging to the Russian Empire since the end of the 18th century - including the southern ones! - By the decision of the Yalta (Crimea) Conference of Heads of State - participants of the anti-Hitler coalition - I.V. Stalin, F. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill — as a result of the war, were transferred to its former owner of Russia — the Soviet Union. The deprivation of militaristic Japan of these islands also stemmed from the conditions of the Potsdam Declaration, on the basis of which the Japanese government signed the Act of unconditional surrender. The withdrawal of all the Kuril Islands, without exception, up to the island of Hokkaido from the jurisdiction of the state or administrative authority of Japan was also provided for in the Memorandum of Allied Commander General D. MacArthur N 677 / 1 of January 29 of 1946. Then this decision of the allies did not cause the objections of the Japanese government, because it was considered as the realization of the conditions of surrender.

In 1951, the Japanese government signed and then ratified the San Francisco Peace Treaty, in which it "waived all rights, rights and claims to the Kuril Islands and to that part of Sakhalin Island and the adjacent islands, which Japan acquired sovereignty over the Portsmouth Treaty from 5 September 1905 of the year. " This compensated for the territorial losses of Russia (USSR), suffered as a result of the Russian-Japanese war 1904-1905. Moreover, the Japanese government confirmed the refusal of Japan from all the Kuril Islands, including their southern part. And after that, in a joint parliamentary resolution of all parties of the country from 31 in July 1952, the government was given the task of returning Japan only to the Habomai and Shikotan islands, which the Japanese parliamentarians viewed not as the Minor Kuril chain, but as the continuation of Hokkaido.

It was precisely this task that the Japanese Prime Minister Ichiro Hatoyama set before the country's diplomacy, who in 1955 began negotiations with the USSR on the signing of a peace treaty between the two countries.

Compromise Khrushchev

At the same time, Hatoyama explained that the issue of Habomai and Shikotan should not be confused with the question of all the Kuril Islands, which was resolved by the Yalta Agreement. He recognized that since Japan had abandoned the Kuril Islands and South Sakhalin under the San Francisco Treaty, she had no reason to demand the transfer of these territories to her. Knowing about the position of the Japanese prime minister, after long negotiations, Moscow agreed to make a concession to the territories sought by Japan and to sign not a peace treaty, but a joint declaration on ending the state of war and restoring diplomatic relations.

In the Soviet-Japanese joint declaration signed in Moscow on 19 in October 1956, it was stipulated that the USSR and Japan "agreed to continue after the restoration of normal diplomatic relations ... negotiations on concluding a peace treaty." And this in no way meant, as our Japanese opponents and some of their domestic commentators are supporting them, continue the negotiations on territorial delimitation. After all, the 9 article of the Joint Declaration does not provide any double interpretations: "The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, meeting the wishes of Japan and taking into account the interests of the Japanese state, agrees to the transfer of Japan to Habomai Islands and Shikotan Island, however, that the actual transfer of these islands to Japan will be made after the conclusion of a peace treaty between the USSR and Japan. "

The fact that this is the maximum concession to Japan, said the initiator of the compromise on the territorial issue, the then leader of the USSR Nikita Khrushchev. On the eve of the signing of the October 16 Joint Declaration, he told the Plenipotentiary of Japan to the Minister of Fisheries, Agriculture and Forestry Ichiro Kono: "The Japanese side wants to get Habomai and Shikotan without a peace treaty and subsequently decide some other territorial issues that we don’t know does not exist. The Soviet government wants to come to an agreement with Japan as soon as possible, and it does not use the territorial question for bargaining. But I must once again quite definitely and to we categorically declare that we will not accept any claims of Japan on the territorial issue, except for Habomai and Shikotan, and refuse to discuss any proposals in this regard ... We cannot and will not make any further concessions. Habomai and Shikotan could be transferred to Japan under a peace treaty, but with the transfer of these islands, the territorial issue should be considered completely and fully resolved. "

Participants in the signing of a peace treaty between Russia and Japan during a conference in Portsmouth (USA). 1905 g. Photo: RIA News

How did the "northern territories"

Khrushchev rejected the option proposed by the Japanese that the peace treaty negotiations would include a territorial issue. Apparently, it is unknown to those who are trying to argue that, "according to the Joint Declaration, we should continue to discuss the territorial problem with Japan for at least a hundred years."

At the same time, supporters of such a position say that the Soviet Union allegedly conducted such negotiations on the territorial issue for decades. So, to put it mildly, to incompetent people, again, it is not known that the negotiations on concluding a peace treaty envisaged by the Joint Declaration after 1956 by the Japanese government were in fact terminated. With open pressure of the US administration not interested in the final normalization of Japanese-Soviet relations, in violation of the conditions reached in the Joint Declaration, the Japanese government arbitrarily demanded that Japan not only Habomai and Shikotan be returned to Japan, but also the largest and most developed Kuril Islands - Kunashir and Iturup.

The anti-Soviet-minded American and Japanese circles set themselves the goal, putting forward unwarranted conditions that were unacceptable for Moscow and blocking the process of concluding a Japanese-Soviet peace treaty for many years. The situation escalated in 1960, when the Japanese government, instead of a peace treaty with the USSR, against the will of the Japanese people, renegotiated a military alliance with the United States against the USSR and the PRC, confirming the right of the American armed forces to have numerous military bases in Japan.

There was a situation when, in the event of the transfer of the islands of Japan to them, US military facilities aimed at our country could be created. Therefore, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR 27 on January 1960 sent a memorandum to the Japanese government stating that "only on condition of withdrawal of all foreign troops from Japan, the islands of Habomai and Shikotan will be handed over to Japan, as stipulated by the Joint Declaration of the USSR and Japan from October 19 1956 of the year. " In response, the Japanese government began to impose anti-Soviet sentiments in the country, accusing the USSR, in spite of signed international agreements, including Japan itself, in allegedly "illegal seizure of originally Japanese lands." From the state budget and big business donations, a fund was formed to finance a noisy campaign for the return of the northern territories. In the face of the Japanese government’s refusal to comply with the provisions of the Joint Declaration, its unwillingness to negotiate the signing of a peace treaty and using Tokyo’s official, fictitious “territorial problem” to escalate hostility to the USSR, the Soviet government stated that this problem did not exist in Soviet-Japanese relations. allowed by the end of the war.

After that, the USSR Foreign Ministry invariably rejected the attempts of the Japanese side to impose a discussion on the artificially created so-called problem of the northern territories.

As for the peace treaty, the Soviet leadership has never refused to conclude and develop relations with Japan. So, in 1977, the General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, L.I. Brezhnev noted: "In a joint Soviet-Japanese statement of 10 in October 1973, an agreement was fixed to continue negotiations on concluding a peace treaty. The Soviet Union is ready, of course, if the Japanese side does not put up unacceptable conditions, bring this important matter for our countries With the sober approach of the Japanese side to the realities that emerged as a result of the Second World War, this could be done - and done quickly. "

Iturup Island. Bay Olya. Paradise for seagulls. Photo: RIA News

Historical realities are undeniable

It is gratifying that after decades of vague policy, the current Russian government, following the will of the people, has finally dotted i and reaffirmed the inalienability of its sovereign territories - the Kuril Islands - from Russia. At the same time, it believes that the signing of a peace treaty would contribute to drawing a line under the post-war period and the comprehensive development of relations between the two neighboring states.

The conditions of our country to conclude a peace treaty are known to the Japanese government. They were recently recalled by Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, pointing out that progress on this issue is possible only after Japan recognizes the post-war historical realities, including the UN Charter in its entirety. But, as recent events show, Tokyo refuses to recognize these realities, continuing to link the issue of concluding a peace treaty with unreasonable territorial claims.

Well, we lived without a 70 peace treaty for years, we will live still. By the way, we do not have a peace treaty with the main adversary in the war, Germany, and this has not interfered with the development of political, trade, economic, cultural and other relations between the two countries and peoples for decades.

The wealth of the Kuril ridge / infographics RIA Novosti
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  1. apro
    apro 27 December 2015 06: 18
    The issue of the Kuril Islands is closed, and it is only in such positions that one needs to talk with Japan. To provoke and forget the provocative statement of the Khrushchev about the two islands, Japan has always been an aggressor in relations with Russia and has received it in full.
    1. Andrey Yuryevich
      Andrey Yuryevich 27 December 2015 06: 48
      Quote: apro
      The issue of the Kuril Islands is closed, and it is only in such positions that we need to talk with Japan

      on this issue, there’s no need to talk at all, there is no THIS question for us, and that’s the point.
    2. seti
      seti 27 December 2015 10: 03
      Let the Japanese rejoice that Comrade Stalin did not consider Hokkaido a continuation of the Kuril chain. And if it weren’t for the striped nuclear weapons, it is quite possible that we would have had them as compensation for Port Arthur and Dalniy.
      1. ZAV69
        ZAV69 27 December 2015 23: 34
        But didn’t Khrushch accidentally return Port Arthur to China?
  2. Yak-3P
    Yak-3P 27 December 2015 06: 51
    the Japanese in this matter are very similar to woodpeckers on a concrete pillar ...
  3. Lone wolf
    Lone wolf 27 December 2015 06: 52
    As the saying goes - * The eye sees and the tooth is numb *. This is the national trend of any Japanese politician ... Northern territories ....
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 27 December 2015 07: 43
    Well, we lived without a peace treaty for 70 years, we will live again. ..Right
    1. semirek
      semirek 27 December 2015 09: 26
      And why do we even need this agreement in principle? Japan is an occupied country, all decisions are made by the Yankees, the Japanese only voice their demands, and we should not go on about the Americans.
  5. Koshak
    Koshak 27 December 2015 08: 11
    There is no longer the Kemsk Volost and not only the islands, but the question of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk - in vain, perhaps, they achieved its recognition as the internal sea of ​​Russia? ... Let's live without peace treaties ... yes
  6. aszzz888
    aszzz888 27 December 2015 08: 15
    Japanese do not close their mouths on the islands. We got their stupidity! laughing
  7. V.ic
    V.ic 27 December 2015 08: 31
    The foreskin of Erdogan is on their collar, and not the Kuril Islands, because they won’t smoke it!
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 27 December 2015 09: 57
      And where to get it. Abroad in Islam, 100% circumcision.
  8. semirek
    semirek 27 December 2015 09: 21
    An unforgettable resentment and betrayal for the entire Russian people was the treacherous attack of the samurai on Russia in 1904, which led to the loss of Russian lands in the Far East. The defeat of the Japanese in 1945, and the subsequent return of these lands is something other than a tribute to justice. talking about the return of the islands by the Japanese is meaningless. Russia does not sell its land.
    1. fan1945
      fan1945 3 January 2016 19: 12
      Quote: semirek
      An unforgettable resentment and betrayal for the entire Russian people was the treacherous attack of the samurai on Russia in 1904, which led to the loss of Russian lands in the Far East. The defeat of the Japanese in 1945, and the subsequent return of these lands is something other than a tribute to justice. talking about the return of the islands by the Japanese is meaningless. Russia does not sell its land.

      Oops! Where is that native land, which "insulting and treacherous" was taken away by the "treacherous" enemy?

      It seems that the "Uryapatriots" have not grasped the difference between the Southern
      The Kuril Islands, which really belonged to Japan initially, but which were recognized as lost as a result
      WWII and two islands - the "small Kuril ridge", which the USSR
      He considered it possible to RETURN, under certain conditions.
      Although IMHO they can’t be transmitted in any way, because NOW WE
      we will lose a huge fish area (saury, willow, squid, mackerel .....) and bottom resources (real and expected)!
      And a very important control of the shipping channel ...
  9. Kim Klimov
    Kim Klimov 27 December 2015 10: 19
    Japanese land we do not want an inch
    But we won’t give up our own, native Far East!
    (If only the liberals in our government would not cheat)
  10. Bgerl
    Bgerl 27 December 2015 10: 56
    It was necessary to win the war, then the question of the northern territories would not arise. And so, let it be better to think that in the event of a new "conflict" from the Japanese islands, one will stick out from under the water - the top of Fujiyama. They got it with their stupid ... shortsightedness.
  11. Balagan
    Balagan 27 December 2015 11: 41
    The Japs would be glad that the landing party did not have time to land on Hokkaido.
    Or offer them an equivalent exchange - 1 on 1, for example, some island from Habamai in exchange for Hokkaido. And in all seriousness to crush this position. Let them go nuts with their eastern logic bully
  12. silver169
    silver169 27 December 2015 12: 30
    Why constantly exaggerate this non-existent problem. The islands (all four) belong to Russia on completely legal grounds. Based on this, it is necessary to conduct any dialogue with Japan. And they need a peace treaty just like Russia. They don’t want to conclude it, don’t need it, we’ll live and so ... And in general, let the cross-eyed ones answer for Tsushima.
    1. Klos
      Klos 27 December 2015 19: 57
      Citizens, without racist remarks! This sounds vile in combination with the patriotic tone of comments. We will not give up the islands!
  13. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 27 December 2015 13: 18
    Quote: booth
    The Japs would be glad that the landing party did not have time to land on Hokkaido.

    The Japs would be glad that after all their anger and stupidity, the Russian Federation helped them with Fukushima, because after all the advice was American, and they wanted our help. Something is wrong with the blood and genes (I'm not a doctor, I can’t exactly repeat what I read).
  14. fregina1
    fregina1 27 December 2015 15: 21
    As far as I understand, territorial claims are accepted according to the UN documentation, within 100 years from the date of territorial changes ..... i.e. the Japs can raise the Kuril issue right up to 2045 !!! and after all ...... the question automatically closes !!! Nobody owes anything to the Kuril Islands in principle !!! Incidentally, this is precisely why many land lease agreements were concluded for 99 years !!!! So we will wait for the new 45th year! fellow And then a peace treaty! The contract does not ask and you can live without it! And the earth is the earth!
  15. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 27 December 2015 17: 44
    They need these islands to make our inland Sea of ​​Okhotsk international. And legalize your poaching in this sea. And then "Graves of the ancestors, yes-la-yes."
  16. Orionvit
    Orionvit 27 December 2015 22: 15
    Quote: Klos
    Citizens, without racist remarks! This sounds vile in combination with the patriotic tone of comments. We will not give up the islands!

    Where are the racist statements? Yes, the Japanese are a great nation, with an interesting history and culture. But when they start to become impudent and shrink to their imperial ideology, I'm sorry. In such cases, such nations lose all respect. Either confirm your claims by force, or be silent in a tube. Anyone can bark, so Turkey has figured out, and loses not only respect (which was not much), but also real money. By the way, 80% of the Japanese are sure that the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were dropped by the Russians. Let them learn history. As someone said, “If in the west (and not only), someone wants to rewrite history, Russia can re-show” The Kuriles were the territory of Russia and will remain, period. And if anyone wants to poke at Russia, he may lose the rest. There are many examples in history.
    1. Editor
      Editor 27 December 2015 23: 54
      "Re-show" is the answer to "revise", not "rewrite" smile
    2. Klos
      Klos 28 December 2015 07: 32
      Russia has always been a great country in which dozens of peoples live in the world. Of different faiths, of different races. In its unity lies its strength. Teach history. Don't mix patriotism with racism.
  17. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 28 December 2015 00: 17
    We got these stupid Japs! The right of the strong always ruled in the world and the USSR was then strong and should still be glad that Stali did not decide to form a "Japanese Autonomous Socialist Republic" in general within the USSR!
  18. salman
    salman 28 December 2015 22: 43
    No concessions!
  19. kos2cool4u
    kos2cool4u 29 December 2015 20: 54
    By the way, it turns out that Hokkaido is also a Russian island? ... Then why doesn’t it belong to us?
  20. Tuzik
    Tuzik 30 December 2015 18: 07
    the Japs will raise this issue, and work on it, some kind of Medvedev-Parashenko will come to power and sell the smokers ...
  21. kig
    kig 7 January 2016 20: 56
    Dear author, why did you highlight ALL the Kuril Islands in red? Or did you stupidly copy the map from Japanese sources? So even the Japanese do not claim ALL the islands. You would read more and more closely on this subject, at least even Wikipedia.