Military Review

Peter Connolly of the Celtic Horsemen (part of 5)

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In his work “Ancient Greece and Rome in the Wars”, Peter Connoli often refers to ancient authors and, in particular, to Polybius. And in his report on the events that preceded the battle of Telamon, reports that in the army the Gauls had 20 000 cavalry and many more chariots. By the way, this is the last mention of the actions of war chariots in the territory of continental Europe. Although then they appear again, but only in 55 BC. during the Caesar invasion of Britain. Diodorus reports that in these chariots two horses were harnessed, and they could carry a chariotee and a warrior, that is, all similar to the chariots of the ancient Egyptians. In the course of the battle, the warrior first threw darts from her (and, apparently, he had plenty of them there, not two and not three!), Then he went down to the ground and fought on foot. Approximately also looks like Caesar's story about the chariots, which he saw in Britain. Both authors point out one important detail: in both there and in Europe, chariots were used against cavalry. In addition, it is obvious that fighting with the help of chariots against infantry is possible only if they were used as skirmishers instead of the same velites of the Romans. We arrived, threw darts into the enemy and to the rear! Caesar admires the art of the Gallic wheelwalkers. He talks about the warriors who ran through the drawbar and stood on the yoke, and did so during the movement!


Peter Connolly of the Celtic Horsemen (part of 5)

Chariot reenektory from France. What you will not go to at least sometimes, but feel like an ancient Celtic!

As for the archaeological sites, several burials with chariots were found in France. Unfortunately, most of them were dismantled before being placed in the grave, however, despite this, many metal parts remained in them. Among them there are attachments for post-mongers Their length indicates that they were attached directly to the axis. In this position they were found in the graves. The rings, which were located at the level of the horse's chest, were probably fastened to the girth and used to guide these bastards. There are other details in these burials, for example, wheel checks and rings for reins, which were attached to the yoke. In Lake Ten, a very well-preserved yoke and one wheel with an iron rim were found. That is, the strength of the wheels of the Celtic chariots was at the level of our carts. Which, by the way, indicates a high level of technology development. After all, it is necessary to forge such a rim, then put it on the wheel so that it does not fall off it, connect (and very firmly!) Both its ends! All this only seems simple, but in fact requires proven skills and abilities! Found also a horse mask with horns. A very interesting find, but was it only used on horses harnessed in chariots, or were the riders also using them?


Horse Celtic mask with horns. Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh.

More recently, the appearance of the Celtic chariot could be restored only by the images on the coins. Moreover, it is significant that they all have side walls made up of two semicircles. But then, as reported by Connoli in Padua, in the north of Italy, they found a stone tombstone depicting a chariot, two people on it, and in addition a shield laid on its side. Both semicircular side walls on this relief are depicted in such a way that they are visible from the front of the shield, and this can only mean that they were on the sides and played the role of a kind of fencing! Although this form seems a bit strange, the findings of archaeologists confirm this. Although, of course, what prevented them from making a fence of rectangular bars? The distance between the wheels in chariots from French burials is a little more than a meter. This is significantly less than that of the Cyprus chariot (from 1,3 to 1,7 m), on which the driver and the warrior stood side by side. And if so, it turns out that the Celtic warrior was standing on the chariot behind the driver, as can be clearly seen on the Gostilia coin. True, this requires a greater length of the chariot and a longer fence on its sides. It is possible that such a length was needed in order to transport the injured warrior in the chariot, that is, to use it as a vehicle for evacuating the injured and transporting trophies ?! Interestingly, the wheels of the Celtic chariots had seven and ten needles, while the Egyptian usually six!


Brennus burns Delphi in 279 BC. Figure by Angus McBride. The shield is obviously small!

Interestingly, the horsemen of many nations are mentioned along with chariots. But they are almost completely ignored in the epic! Recall Homer's Iliad — both Odysseus and many other Achaeans are shown in it by skillful riders, but ... they all fight there in chariots, then ascend to them, then descend, or cling to them the fallen, and drag them on the ground for mockery. Riders do not do that, well, so nothing is written about them! Horsemen are mentioned in a much more voluminous Mahabharate compared to the Iliad - there are thousands of them! But ... all the main characters fight exclusively on chariots, and of elephants too!


Celt (left) fights with the ancient German (right), approx. 100 BC Figure by Angus McBride.

The reason for such piety, apparently, in the inertia of human consciousness. It all began with chariots, and the memory of them survived the centuries, but the horsemen at the time when these works were created were already commonplace and ... they did not arouse any interest from the authors!


Celtic bit. Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh.

But immediately after the conquest of Gaul by the Romans, the Celtic horsemen began to play an important role in the Roman army. Although it is believed that the real Cavalry, as such, the Celts just did not have, and that before the battle, they got off their horses and fought like foot soldiers. Similarly, for example, the Celts, the Spaniards, and the Romans did at the Battle of Cannes (216 BC). Although, on the other hand, this could have had such a reason as a banal lack of space, because everyone knows how crowded this was in this battle. The remark of Hannibal, recorded by Libya, gives grounds to believe that this was not envisaged as a common practice: when the Carthaginian commander heard that Paul ordered his cavalry to dismount, he said that with the same success her soldiers could be led into battle putting chains on them.


Celts in battle. Figure J. Rava

This statement of his speaks of the futility of the use of dismounted cavalry in battle and also that the people of that time understood this. And yes, in fact: it is difficult to imagine such a large number of cavalry dismounted for battle. And where at the same time they divide their horses? They took us to shelter, as the American dragoons did in fights with the Indians, as it appears to us in westerns ?! In addition, the Celtic cavalry, dating back to the time of the early empire, all the time says that she fought on horseback. So it should be concluded that the real cavalry existed among the Celts, but was armed with the most varied weapons and represented, most likely, Cossack lava, and not the same riding dragoons of the era of Peter the Great.


Celtic war chariot. Reconstruction.

Found a lot of Celtic fishing, most of which have snaffle rings. There is a sculptural image of a rider with a round shield that is clearly not Roman and not Greek, and therefore it is a Celtic equestrian shield. The Celts used the same saddle as the Romans in the era of the empire. This type, with a split front and rear bow, is depicted on the Gundestrupe Cauldron and on the Julius Monument in Saint-Remy, which dates from the end of the 1st century. BC. It depicts a battle between the Celts and the Romans. One of the horses fell and dropped the rider; it must be Celt, because the Roman triumphal monuments of Roman soldiers were never depicted as lost. Consequently, the saddle with bifurcated bows belongs to the Celts, not the Romans. On the Gundestrupe Cauldron one can clearly see the disks with which the Celts decorated the harness of their horses. Several such discs made of silver were found in northern Italy; and the Romans adopted from them and then this custom!


Celtic warriors conspire to attack the Etruscan city. Northern Italy, 375 BC Figure by Angus McBride.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 5 January 2016 09: 05 New
    0
    Thank you, Vyacheslav .. continue the publication .. interesting
    1. kalibr
      6 January 2016 17: 49 New
      0
      Alas, that’s all about the Celts! What will happen next you need to look and think ...
  2. timyr
    timyr 5 January 2016 09: 34 New
    +1
    This is not the Brenn that Rome took. He also burned Delphi.
    1. kalibr
      5 January 2016 10: 08 New
      +3
      Everywhere a man was noted! That was it. But he died anyway!
      1. cth; fyn
        cth; fyn 5 January 2016 20: 45 New
        0
        There is still no such person who would not die in the end, so everyone will be there.
  3. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 5 January 2016 11: 15 New
    11
    As far as one can understand, they seriously fought with chariots only in India. Because what is the use of chariots in battle? "Crash into the enemy system"? Plague. This can only occur to the poet, who has sweetly taken root in the kitchen of the feudal castle, and who saw the battle exclusively in drunken delirium. Horses, you know ...
    A horse is a large and weakly protected object. The rider creates protection for his conic from the sides, waving weapons, already a lot! But all the same, it is worth the rider to slow down, and the foot soldiers deprive him of his horse, he is very vulnerable. Horse armor? At the tournament, show off is suitable. And so - very heavy. Will hand over a conic instantly. And with all the gravity, there are still too many holes and weak spots in it.
    So it’s really possible to fight with a chariot only as described in the Indian epic. The charioteer rules so as not to approach battle. And the archer throws arrows. Here the main advantage of the chariot over the riders and pawns is obvious. Convenience of shooting, carrying capacity and maneuverability. Maneuverable archers are a huge advantage! Of course, in that epos, the heroes do their best to beat each other with maces, swords and spells ... but only gods, demigods, avatars. And the fighters were more easily massaged on a convenient slope, fired at a defense unit or an attacking formation of the enemy and on the go! Little heroism for the singers, a lot of good for the commander.
    But there is a pitfall, a little detail so to speak. Why did the chariots disappear? Expensive. No, if you build crazy carriages as a reconstruction, what prevents you from covering the battlefield with hundreds of such adaptations? It also hinders that this is the nonsense of historians, habitual, ordinary, as always. A chariot cannot have wooden axes. Even at the speed of the cart, such an axis is cut off every now and again, no matter how its tar. Yes, and the wheel suffers, and the cart wheel alone stands like three carts without wheels. Go how you collect the wheel hub! The workshop needs cool, considerable skills, experience ... the manufacturers of cart wheels were once the elite of the craft.
    So the axles need steel. You can iron, but then - into a fist thick, the iron is soft. Or brass wheel assemblies. Or from black bronze ... And all - a huge cost by the standards of the old centuries. So the chariot comes out - the weapon of the kings. Rolled up, shot a couple of times and in the bid - I personally participated in the battle! Enemies laid countless! Well, thick-skinned ... that is, a great singer, drink a little more cut, as I "crashed into the enemy system"!
    But just the Indians had at one time surprisingly advanced metallurgy. Not blacksmithing, namely metallurgy, as they knew how to melt metal. Which allowed the use of chariots relatively massively.
    1. Stilet
      Stilet 5 January 2016 13: 53 New
      +1
      Chariots are good at martial arts, in pursuit or against unorganized troops. As soon as the military system of the Romans from the phalanx changed to a manipulative one, and the tactics of the legions changed from defensive to offensive, the “Gallic freemen” came to an end.
    2. Riv
      Riv 5 January 2016 20: 10 New
      +1
      In fact, in ancient India, a chariot was equal in combat value to an elephant. Obviously, they were used in approximately the same way: at the beginning of the battle, fly into the light infantry, disperse it, and stop horses. Then their infantrymen run up, hand-to-hand combat begins, and of course there is no sense in climbing into it. But standing on the site of the chariot, you can effectively fire at the enemy’s line from the bow.

      If you read the same Mahabharata, then what weapons does the fighter in the chariot carry? A pair of bows, arrows (and with different tips), darts, throwing maces. The set is just for shelling the infantry. The bow - according to the lightly armed, the mace - to the armor, the dart - to plant an elephant, if fate brings it together. Mentor Dron just bow and preferred everything else.
      1. kalibr
        5 January 2016 22: 07 New
        +1
        The Indians made an excellent film in the 267 series of the Mahabharata. This is a fairy tale so a fairy tale, but ... how perfectly conveyed the spirit of the work ?! And what chariots are there - just shine!
        1. Riv
          Riv 7 January 2016 08: 27 New
          0
          And how are they dancing and singing? In proportion?
          1. kalibr
            7 January 2016 23: 05 New
            0
            Look! The series are small and there are no songs and dances ... practically none!
            1. Riv
              Riv 9 January 2016 08: 20 New
              +1
              But this is a fairy tale. Like our "Kashchei the Immortal", in which, by the way, there are almost no songs either. National coloring, show off and pathos. In fact, war is a rather dirty business, and politics is even more dirty.

              According to the law and the concepts of the Pandavas, they are not right around. They are generally children of the gods, and not even the brother of the ruling king. Our fence is a cousin wattle. The main branch of the ruling dynasty is precisely Kaurava, and victory in the great battle was achieved with the help of betrayal and foreign mercenaries. It is as if in Russia during the Time of Troubles on the throne, with the support of the boyars, the tsar of Polish descent would stay. Even the elder brother of the Pandavas opposed them and died.
              1. kalibr
                9 January 2016 12: 47 New
                0
                It is clear that a fairy tale, but a fairy tale can be poorly filmed and good. This one was shot very well. They are imbued with the spirit of the text. This is rarely possible.
  4. Free wind
    Free wind 5 January 2016 15: 08 New
    +1
    It is interesting that the width of the chariot is slightly more than a meter, specialists can handle such carts effortlessly, incredibly manoeuvrable crap, putting the cart on one wheel, you can write acrobatic studies. But about horse attacks, horses were trained to go on an obstacle. From the beginning, threads, straws were hung and the horse passed through them, the horses were very interesting animals, there were cowardly ones, there were brave and curious ones, cowardly for meat or farming, and bold to battle, then the canvas was hung up, the horse passing through it understood that it was not hurt. Well, the noise rumble, respectively, after training, the horsemen went to the enemy without fear, but the result .... most likely death, but a broken defense. How else? How else can one break through the Macedonian phalanx?
    1. Riv
      Riv 5 January 2016 20: 03 New
      +2
      Too complicated. In fact, the horse has a herd instinct: to run towards danger. Bulls, or some kind of antelope there become danger in a circle and they can not be moved. In horses the opposite is true: the herd is trying to trample the predator. So a cowardly horse, or a brave one, doesn’t matter. All the same, she will rush for the leader.
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 6 January 2016 18: 50 New
        +1
        Ha, but it is true! Horses in the herd have a hierarchy.
        Who runs first, who second, and the rest try not to
        lag behind. This instinct "trample the predator" and used by cavalrymen
        of all time.
  5. DesToeR
    DesToeR 5 January 2016 16: 17 New
    -1
    Quote: Mikhail3
    But there is a pitfall, a little detail so to speak. Why did the chariots disappear?

    I agree! From a military point of view, the chariot has no advantages over the rider on a horse: there are two crew members for two horses in a harness, and only one is fighting - the second charioteer. But the Mongol warrior, for example, on the same horse and shooter, and pike, and swordsman. There is also a dubious advantage in the convenience of throwing a dart or archery. And what kind of shooting comfort it is possible to talk about if the chariot had no wheel suspension. In this regard, the natural “gyroscope” in the horse’s brain is even better.
    1. Aljavad
      Aljavad 6 January 2016 22: 56 New
      +1
      if the chariot had no wheel suspension.


      Carefully consider the photo of the second reconstruction. There springs, the same as those of the carriages until the 19th century.
  6. Grey47
    Grey47 5 January 2016 16: 45 New
    +2
    I read somewhere that the main reason for using chariots in antiquity is horses. When a normal riding horse was brought out, chariots also became a thing of the past. Modern landing on horses of that era was impossible from a narrow ridge, so they sat like donkeys closer to the tail, confirmation of the ancient Egyptian images of horsemen.
  7. timyr
    timyr 5 January 2016 19: 04 New
    0
    Quote: kalibr
    Everywhere a man was noted! That was it. But he died anyway!

    But Galatia was not he founded
  8. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 5 January 2016 20: 46 New
    +2
    I went in plus. I’ll read later, but I think it’s interesting for anyone.
    1. kalibr
      5 January 2016 22: 09 New
      0
      Oh, thanks! But still read it. As the saying goes - "a trifle, but nice."
  9. Faust
    Faust 5 January 2016 23: 01 New
    +4
    Academician Gumilev wrote that cavalry in its modern form appeared in the 4th century AD during the time of Atilla's invasion of Rome. The barbarians were wearing trousers and boots with heels. Saddles had stirrups (heels are necessary for them). Probably the pants were used long before that, but without boots and stirrups you won’t especially fight a horse.
    1. Riv
      Riv 7 January 2016 08: 30 New
      0
      Well, Alexander’s getayrs didn’t sit on their horses with their bare ass. Horse sweat is very caustic and irritates the skin. Even a saddle will not save if there are no pants. The Romans short cavalry pants and were called: "marriage".
  10. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 6 January 2016 00: 27 New
    +2
    Dear Vyacheslav, of course your articles are interesting, well illustrated, but because of their journalistic orientation there are some problematic points in them.

    Both authors point out one important detail: in both there and in Europe, chariots were used against cavalry.

    Rather, on the contrary, the terrible defeats of the Roman troops from the Gallic chariots (on the Alia River for example) were precisely the strikes of chariots on infantry formations.

    More recently, the appearance of the Celtic chariot could be restored only by the images on the coins.
    sorry, but this is nonsense. There are many finds of votive models of Celtic chariots and their own in the swamps, where they are thrown as victims to deities.

    Horsemen are mentioned in a much more voluminous Mahabharate compared to the Iliad - there are thousands of them! But ... all the main characters fight exclusively on chariots, and of elephants too!

    What these thousands of chariots and elephants cost against the European army that came to India was shown by Alexander the Great in the Battle of the Hydasp.

    So it should be concluded that the real cavalry among the Celts existed, but was armed with a variety of weapons and was most likely Cossack lava, and not the same dragoons from the era of Peter the Great.

    In general, a small amendment - according to archeology, the Celts had AT LEAST TWO TYPES OF CAVALERY - heavily armed and light - like equestrian velites.

    Quote: Mikhail3
    As far as one can understand, they seriously fought with chariots only in India. Because what is the use of the chariot in battle? "Bump into the enemy line"? Plague. This can only occur to the poet, sweetly rooted in the kitchen of the feudal castle,

    In general, the Assyrian bas-reliefs, the ancient Egyptian frescoes and the army of the Medo-Persian kings and the Seleucids prove the exact opposite.

    Quote: Mikhail3
    The chariot cannot have wooden axes. Even with the speed of a cart, such an axis is cut off every now and then, no matter how hard it is with tar.
    Findings of chariots in the European swamps and in the ancient Egyptian tombs of the pharaohs refute this. All axes are wooden.

    Quote: Free Wind
    But about the horse attacks, the horses were trained to go to the obstacle. ... a horse passing through it understood that it did not hurt. ... How else? How else can pierce the Macedonian phalanx?
    Breaking through the Macedonian phalanx is a very special topic. Most of the world’s infantry armies didn’t have anything close to them and the chariots were enough. And about the training of horses - yes, but this is more related to Late Antiquity, and especially to the Middle Ages, before this was not practiced.
    1. kalibr
      6 January 2016 17: 54 New
      +3
      Dear Sergeyich! Due to the fact that you brought me together and a few more people, it is difficult for me to answer you. But I’ll try. Have you noticed the headline? Peter Connolly ... None of the passages that you brought in and with which you disagree - not mine! This is word for word taken from Connolly. But I did not fundamentally rule it, because it is a work of a historiographical nature. I would write my research in a completely different way!
    2. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 7 January 2016 10: 45 New
      +1
      Quote: Warrior2015
      In general, the Assyrian bas-reliefs, the ancient Egyptian frescoes and the army of the Medo-Persian kings and the Seleucids prove the exact opposite.

      Quote: Mikhail3
      A chariot cannot have wooden axes. Even at the speed of the cart, such an axis is cut off every now and again, no matter how its tar. Findings of chariots in European swamps and in the ancient Egyptian tombs of the pharaohs refute this. All have wooden axles.

      The first quote. Are you joking like that? Or are you a professional historian? It is a pity if so, then they are not able to perceive the arguments ... well, I will hope for the best. Omitting bullying, natural in this situation, I will speak briefly. Who ordered the bas-reliefs? Who paid? What is this habit - to take frenzied propaganda as a reliable source ?! Lord, like children, right. The Tsar needed praise (“they bravely crashed into a system of cowardly enemies”), he ordered it, accepted it and paid for it. But the reality is not changed from this! Do you understand, a fir-tree-stick, that it’s easy to cut a horse into amazement simply with a knife, especially when it slowed down on the line? And he will slow down his love, he will simply stumble if he managed to stop someone! But he is in a harness, he cannot get around an obstacle! A little courage to the infantryman, not hurt by the blow and ...
      Second quote. Pancake. Is it true that every historian lives in a crystal tower, never in his life touching this nasty land and its blue-legged inhabitants? Crib with you. But what ... a complete pharaoh will thrust a fortune into the earth ?! Drown in a swamp, roll into a pyramid ... full atas. Priests will drag and repose jewels and wives (and, I suspect, shrinkage and utruska began long before the pyramid robbers, right at the burial). And a great jewel, which no one will pay attention to at all - metal axes that are almost almost the weight of gold, what are they, like this - in a swamp ?! To the gods? Why the hell are they to the gods ?! To the afterlife? The priests took the gold, buy there). And the axles ... replace with a stick. Gods and the dead will come down ...
  11. Logos
    Logos 6 January 2016 16: 23 New
    +7
    The fact that little attention was paid to the cavalry at that time and that the riders often dismounted before the battle was most likely caused by two reasons: the absence of stirrups, because of which the rider was very unstable in the saddle and had no support for delivering strong blows, and undersized breeds of horses of that time (before the creation of breeds of the type of powerful knightly destruction, selection took at least another thousand years). That's why horses were preferred to be harnessed to chariots, and riders often, especially in the East, were horse archers. Riders without stirrups and on small horses did not have a chance in close combat against heavily armed infantry.
    But when stirrups and stronger horses appeared - then the infantry sunset and the birth of knightly cavalry came. But this already happened in the early Middle Ages, a millennium after the events described in the article
    1. kalibr
      6 January 2016 17: 55 New
      +4
      Yes, it was the stirrups that appeared somewhere in the 4 century somewhere in northern China or Korea and spread from there around the world and created the knightly cavalry!
  12. aspid163
    aspid163 6 January 2016 21: 42 New
    -6
    I just don’t understand what for the Celts shit about Atlantis on this site write about the UFOs about witches with sorcerers, the fun will be just for Chumak and Kashpirov’s occurat. Write about today about the exploits of our grandfathers but not about misunderstandings, less weapons and the specifics of politics are also inappropriately.
    1. Aljavad
      Aljavad 6 January 2016 23: 14 New
      +3
      write about today about the exploits of our grandfathers


      And this is about the weapon of the grandfathers of our grandfathers. And about their exploits.

      And about today, read the news. And in general - read more ...
    2. kalibr
      7 January 2016 08: 26 New
      +2
      It would be nice sometimes to at least put commas. Forcing people to spend time reading puzzles is not to respect them. And if you do not respect others, then no one will respect you either. Younger scoops of cesspool carts are not required here!
  13. Faust
    Faust 7 January 2016 19: 21 New
    0
    Quote: Logos
    and riders often, especially in the East, were horse archers. Riders without stirrups and on small horses did not have a chance in close combat against heavily armed infantry.

    In the east there were also camels. But (as they said at school) the invasion of the Seljuk Turks was unsuccessful due to the fact that the saddles of the camels were uncomfortable.

    Apparently, until 375, the cavalry was on a kind of mobile infantry, and not a combat unit.
    1. kalibr
      7 January 2016 23: 14 New
      0
      Quote: Faust
      Apparently, until 375, the cavalry was on a kind of mobile infantry, and not a combat unit.

      And yes and no ... Depended on time and people. And the camel riders fought with the Assyrians! As for the school ... probably also depends on the school. My granddaughter was also told how the Germans together fell through the ice on Lake Peipsi. But there was a boy who stood up and said that ... he read that this was not so. ON FOOD !!!
  14. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 15 January 2016 23: 19 New
    0
    Quote: Mikhail3
    What kind of habit is it - taking frantic propaganda as a reliable source ?!
    Actually - except for the actual archaeological finds - other sources and netuti ...

    Quote: Mikhail3
    Do you understand, stick-tree, that a horse is easily cut with a knife just for astonishment, especially when it slowed down the formation?

    I would take a look at you trying to CUT WITH YOUR KNIFE OF THE ATTACKING YOU IN GALOPE AT SPEED TO 80 km \ h !!!!!!! Even build a superbly trained European infantry in the 18 century, cavalry broke through, "it was only necessary to disperse the horses well"!

    Quote: Mikhail3
    But what kind of ... full Pharaoh thrusts a state into the earth ?! Drown in a swamp, roll in a pyramid ... full atas.

    Actually, the pharaohs themselves even ordered sarcophagi from CAST GOLD, and the chariot there was made of iron - but what can you do?

    Quote: Mikhail3
    And the great jewel, which no one will pay attention to at all - metal axes, which are almost by weight of gold, are they, like this - into the swamp ?! Gods?
    Sorry, but you absolutely do not understand the mentality of the ancient man ... And iron - it was valued by the weight of gold only in 3-beginning of 2 in millennium BC Starting around 14-12 vv. BC. - it became CHEAP material. Complete analogy with aluminum - until the 19 century, this metal was valued almost by weight of gold, and with the invention of a new production method, it became cheaper than copper.

    Quote: kalibr
    Yes, it was the stirrups that appeared somewhere in the 4 century somewhere in northern China or Korea and spread from there around the world and created the knightly cavalry!
    That is what the Chinese and Koreans considered the Middle Ages supposedly to be great horsemen ... laughing As they say do not make my hoofs laugh! By the way, Andonta in many respects already correctly said that the center for the development of achievements in the field of equestrian combat is Central Asia and even steppes from Hungary to the Caspian.


    Quote: kalibr
    Harold's troops were ... equestrian! After the defeat, it ran on horses, there was a piece of "carpet" where it was visible. But for some reason, Harald was in a hurry. Why? Nobody knows that.
    The horsemen apparently were only khuskarly, and they were more like an analogue of dragoons than cavalry. And why I was in a hurry - Harold took a strictly defensive position on Senlak Hill, since Normans greatly exceeded him in the number of cavalry and in equestrian battle he simply did not shine. That's all so trite ...