Military Review

Kadesh 1274 BC. e .: the main battle of the first world war of mankind

33
Where did the most famous battle of the era of the ancient world take place and when was it? It is not easy to choose, because at that time there were a lot of them, and, nevertheless, the answer seems to be the following: this is the battle of Kadeshe! why? Yes, simply because it is not only ancient texts that tell about this battle, but also gigantic bas-reliefs carved on the walls of temples, on which people have been looking for thousands of years. Well, the outcome of the war, in which it occupied a central place, was perhaps the most ancient peace treaty known to us, the text of which has been preserved to the present day!


In 1317 BC, after the death of his father, Pharaoh Ramses II entered the throne of the Egyptian kingdom, who was then 22-th year. From his first steps he showed himself to be a man of will and purpose. He inherited a power, which was on the way to a new rise, and he saw this and decided to take advantage of it. The successful campaigns of Network I partly restored Egypt’s influence in Asia and strengthened its military strength. And Ramses II considered that the time for the start of new conquests had come. Moreover, he wanted not only to restore the Egyptian state in its former borders, but also to move north further still. But for this it was necessary, first of all, to crush the Hittite state, which at that time became the main center of attraction for all the secret and obvious enemies of Egypt.


Ramses II attacks the Hittites. Figure J. Rava.

And Ramses II began to prepare for war, steadily increasing Egyptian military power. To facilitate the advancement of his land armies along the seashore, Ramses II built on the coastal strip of conquered Phenicia a number of fortified supporting bases. They were located right up to the city of Byblos and were provided with supplies for the troops and were accordingly fortified. In the army actively recruited mercenaries.

Kadesh 1274 BC. e .: the main battle of the first world war of mankind

Bas-relief depicting the pharaoh Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh. Ramesseum, Egypt.

According to Egyptologists, the total number of Egyptian troops who opposed the Hittites, reached 20 000 people - the figure for those times is simply unprecedented. By tradition, the whole army was divided into four large detachments, which were named after the main gods of Egypt - Amon, Ra, Ptah and Seth.


Figures of warriors from the tomb of Nomarch Mesekhti. Middle Kingdom Cairo Museum.

However, the Hittites also did not waste time. Their king Mouvatalli II managed to make a military alliance, which included the kings of Naharina, Arvada, Karhemysh, Kadesh, Ugarit, Aleppo, Asia Minor, and numerous mercenaries whom he recruited among the Mediterranean peoples. The total number of troops of the anti-Egyptian union exceeded 20 000 people. In this case, the main striking force of this army consisted of Hittite war chariots.


Wall bas-relief in the temple in Abu Simbel. Upper Egypt.

Spring 1312 BC The Egyptian army marched from the border town of Charu and then headed north along the beaten track of all the Egyptian conquerors. Reaching the territory of Lebanon, the forces of Ramses II were on the Phoenician coast, where the supply bases were in advance and already on the 29-th day of the march were at the northern ridges of the Lebanese mountains. Below their eyes opened the valley of the river Orontes, and the city of Kadesh was only one day's distance from it.


Order of the “Gold of courage” in the form of three golden flies.

Ramses II crossed the Orontes near the village of Shab-tuna, and, without waiting for the approach of the whole army, he rushed to the city of Kadesh with the detachment of Amon. It is important to note that the units (or armies) of Amon, Ra, Ptah, and Seth moved in such a way that there was a large interval between them. Ramses II with the detachment of Amun was in the forefront, followed by the army of Ra at about two kilometers, then seven kilometers of the army of Ptah, and the army of Seth closed the movement.


Ax Axhotepa. Metropolitan Museum, New York.

The scouts told Pharaoh that the terrain was free from the enemy, so you can move safely. And then there were two Asian nomad defector who assured Pharaoh that the Hittites, frightened by the Egyptians, had retreated from Kadesh far to the north. Thus, Ramses II got the opportunity to take possession of the city on the move, and he decided to act immediately.


Dagger. New Kingdom (near 1550 - 1050 BC. E.).

But, in fact, everything was, alas, not at all the way it seemed to him! As it turned out later, these defectors were specially sent by the Hittites to mislead the Egyptians, and they succeeded. “The word that these nomads said they told falsely to his majesty, for the defeated prince of the country of the Hittites sent them to look for his majesty, and not to give his majesty's troops to prepare for battle ...” - says the ancient story of the battle under Kadesh, this Hittite cunning was completely successful with the Egyptians. Believing deserters, Pharaoh fell into the trap set for him.


Another dagger of the time.

When Ramses II, already triumphant, with a small vanguard approached Kadesh, while Mouvatalli in the meantime managed to relocate his army unnoticed to the eastern coast of Orontes, went to the rear of the Egyptians and began to prepare for an unexpected strike on them from the flank.

So Ramses II and his whole army of Amon found themselves in a death trap. And if they could still count on the approach of the Ra army, then the rest of the armies, far behind the vanguard, would hardly have managed to rescue their sovereign out of trouble.

Well, Ramses II himself was at this time north-west of Kadesh, and did not even suspect that he was standing in the same place where the Hittite troops had recently been stationed, and that his sworn enemy Mouvatalli was closely following his every step. . The truth, as is often the case, opened by chance, when the Egyptian troops had already settled down to rest, disintegrated bulls and horses, and tired warriors stretched to rest on the ground. They caught the enemy scouts, and those, when they began to beat them with sticks, said that Mouvatalli with all his army was literally at the side of the Egyptians, and was about to attack them.


It is possible that the chariot of Pharaoh Ramses II looked exactly like this. In any case, this was presented by the creators of the film “Pharaoh” (1966), perhaps the most reliable historical film on the subject stories Ancient Egypt.

Pharaoh urgently assembled a military council, where it was decided to immediately send messengers for the backward armies, and quickly bring them to where the troops of Pharaoh were. The situation was so serious that the king’s high dignitary himself left with this assignment.

However, time was lost. While the military council decided what to do, 2500 of the Hittite chariots crossed over to the western coast of Orontes and attacked the army of Ra, which at that time was on the march and simply did not have time to prepare for battle.

Most of the Egyptians, they were able to kill. But many still survived and ran in a panic forward to the camp of Ramses II, leaving behind weapon and equipment. The fact that one of his armies destroyed, Pharaoh learned only when its remnants came to Kadesh. Among the fugitives were two sons of Pharaoh, and he was glad that at least they had survived the slaughter.


Reconstruction of the Egyptian war chariot. Museum of the Remer-Pelizaeus. Lower Saxony, Hildesheim. Germany.

However, the Hittite chariots were already rushing along the heels of the runners and it was necessary to immediately occupy the defense! However, what could be done here when the Egyptians in the camp all mixed up? Only the smallest part of the soldiers from the personal guard of the tsar remained combat-ready, while all the others rushed in panic like sheep. Meanwhile, the Hittite chariots, meanwhile, had already broken into the camp of Amon's army, which only intensified the panic that reigned there. It was possible to escape from death only by escaping from the enemy ring.


Pharaoh Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh. Figure J.Rav.

And fortunately for his warriors, and for himself, Ramses II did not lose his head, but jumped onto his battle chariot and, with his bodyguards and sherdan mercenaries, began to make his way south. The attempt failed, as it was there that the enemies turned out to be the most. And then Pharaoh, along with the warriors, turned to the Orontes River, finding the most vulnerable spot with the enemy here.


Sherdan mercenaries in the battle of Kadesh. Figure by Giuseppe Rava.

The Egyptians fought with the courage of despair. The strength of their strike, which the Hittites clearly did not expect, was so great that in one place they managed to throw the Hittite warriors into the river. Of course, this success could not have any special significance. He only slightly delayed the death of the Egyptians, which seemed imminent. However, something happened that has already decided the fate of many battles. The Hittites found rich booty in the Egyptian camp. And they came down from their chariots and ... began to hastily collect trophies, instead of finishing the Egyptians! It is clear that they were afraid that others would be ahead of them later. So the Egyptians got some breathing space, and the Hittist impulse began to fade.


Hittites attack the Egyptians. Figure J. Rava. It should be noted that the Hittite chariots, judging by the images that have come down to us, had three warriors, not two, like the Egyptians. Accordingly, the tactics they had to be different. The Egyptians used chariots as mobile platforms for archers. At first they fired as they rushed forward at the enemy, then made a right turn, and fired at him, rushing past from the left side of the chariot. The Hittites also fought with long spears. And it was not always convenient.

And then Pharaoh came to the aid of a happy accident that dramatically changed the picture of the battle. It so happened that at that time a detachment of Egyptian recruits was moving at no time at a connection with the army of Ramses II from the seashore. They approached the battlefield, saw the difficult situation of Amon's army, and hit the Hittites together, who did not pay attention to anything, but continued to rob the Egyptian camp.


The army of Egyptians is on a breakthrough. A shot from the movie "Pharaoh". That's exactly the way it was then!

Amon's half-defeated army immediately perk up. The fugitives began to return as well, hiding through the bushes and ravines. All this gave Ramses hope that he would be able to hold out until the evening, when, in any case, the army of Ptah would have to come to his aid.

Realizing that victory was slipping from his hands, King Mouvatalli sent 1000 chariots to help his warriors. But now these forces were already not enough to finally break the resistance of the Egyptians.


Egyptian chariots on the go. A shot from the movie "Pharaoh".

Moreover, the accumulation of such a large number of chariots in a relatively small area did not allow them to be used as they should, hindered their mobility, and prevented them from maneuvering. The chariots clung to the wheels with one another and only prevented them from fighting each other. For some reason, Mouvatalli kept his infantry in reserve and did not enter into battle.

The battle went on until the evening, when the long-awaited Ptah army finally approached the Egyptians. Here the Hittites were forced to go on the defensive and, with the onset of night, take cover behind the walls of Kadesh. Well, the outcome of the battle was the mutual exhaustion of forces. Both warring parties suffered serious losses and were severely exhausted. Of course, Kadesha Ramses II never took it, but the Hittites also could not achieve a decisive victory over him.

Returning to Egypt, Pharaoh began to prepare for new battles and campaigns, taking into account the sad experience of the Battle of Kadesh. True, in all official documents this battle was depicted as a great victory for the Egyptians, and was celebrated by court poets and depicted by artists on the walls of temples, he well understood that it was still very, very far from real victory over the Hittites. And indeed it turned out to be so! Only after fifteen years of hard war did he manage to conquer Northern Syria, expel the Hittites from the valley of the Orontes, take the ill-fated Kadesh, and even establish his power over part of Naharina.


Hittites on chariots. Temple of Ramses II in Abydos.

Now Ramses II was wisely bitter and acted very cautiously. Well, the Hittites had to wage war on several fronts at once. From the south, they were attacked by the Egyptians, but from the north they were overwhelmed by the warlike mountain tribes of Kesh-Kesh. Military assistance was also needed ally Hittites - the state of Mitanni, which at that time fought with Assyria. Yes, and in the Hittite state itself was not very calm. Rebellion broke out even in the Hittite troops, who were tormented by continuous battles. Therefore, barely only King Mouvatalli in 1296 BC on the throne replaced Hattushil, as Ramses II from him immediately followed the proposal for peace. And it was immediately accepted, because the forces of Egypt also dried up.

This is how the oldest of the existing international peace treaties was signed. He was recorded in hieroglyphs for the Egyptians and the Babylonian cuneiform for the Hittites. Clay tiles with a part of the contract are currently stored in the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg.


Mummy Ramses II. Cairo, Egyptian Museum.

This document, consisting of 18 paragraphs, is called "a good treaty of peace and fraternity, establishing peace forever." The obligations of both parties under this treaty - not to fight, resolve all disputes peacefully, help each other in case of an attack from the outside, and in the case of revolts of the conquered peoples, and also give out fugitives to each other, sound quite modern.

Well, in order to give the treaty even greater strength, Hattushil subsequently intermarried with Ramses II, who was now called the Great, having given him his daughter.
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  1. Klos
    Klos 30 December 2015 07: 17 New
    +4
    Thousands of years have passed, and people still step on the same rake. Alas, in order to feel the value of the world, people must first fight well
  2. Igor39
    Igor39 30 December 2015 07: 25 New
    +5
    Interesting, thanks for the article. Flies had fun smile
    1. igordok
      igordok 30 December 2015 10: 15 New
      +7
      Scarab, in our dung beetle, in general, they have almost no idol. They have strange amulets.
      1. Alex
        Alex 30 December 2015 15: 18 New
        +5
        Quote: igordok
        Scarab, in our dung beetle, in general, they have almost no idol. They have strange amulets.

        Well, with a scarab more or less clear. When a dung beetle rolls a ball of garbage out of a mink, it looks like a sunrise (the size of the ball is quite large compared to a beetle). And then everything is clear: the ball - the Sun - the god Ra.
      2. Petrol
        Petrol 30 December 2015 15: 41 New
        0
        igordok
        the professional of TNU told me in the smoking room that on the right paw of the sphinx there is an inscription "ce e Genus (this is genus)" something like this
  3. Riv
    Riv 30 December 2015 07: 58 New
    13
    From the point of view of the theory of military art, it was not the battle of Kadesh, which in its essence became an ordinary oncoming battle, but the war itself was of importance. During its course, the Egyptians for the first time in history solved (and decided) military objectives by strategic means. Their troops used similar tactics (which indicates the training of soldiers in peacetime) and had fairly uniform weapons. Parts of the army, acting separately from each other, could solve one operational task. In fact, the organization of the army of Ramses the Second, although it retained the features of a tribal militia, did not differ much in organization from the armies of a much later historical period.

    As a result of this, the Egyptian army could allow itself to have extended communications and operate far from its territory. The war at that time was simple: ran into, slaughtered men, women - into slavery and live in the occupied territory. Then the neighbors will come to their senses, gather an army and kick your brains out. If they can’t, then Egypt has expanded slightly. A new path has now been found: the army has become an instrument of politics.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 30 December 2015 08: 10 New
    +2
    Svetlana, thanks for the drawings .. I liked the article .. But I will not comment .. smile Happy New Year!
  5. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 30 December 2015 10: 05 New
    +5
    It is interesting that the Egyptians, with their competent propaganda work (carved stone images), convinced all of humanity for millennia of their victory in the battle! And only after excavations in Hatuss became clear the truth!
  6. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 30 December 2015 11: 02 New
    +3
    "Where did the most famous battle of the era of the ancient world take place and when was it?" ///

    If you take "BC" (before Christ) - maybe Kadesh.
    Egypt for a very long time was "number 1" in the Ancient World.
  7. qwert
    qwert 30 December 2015 11: 05 New
    +5
    The article is interesting. It turns out that the Egyptians used chariots in the same way as later used carts.
  8. Lanista
    Lanista 30 December 2015 12: 00 New
    +4
    Quote: qwert
    The article is interesting. It turns out that the Egyptians used chariots in the same way as later used carts.

    Actually, a tachanka is essentially a kind of chariot.
    As for the confrontation between the Hittites and the Egyptians, the Egyptians had a resource advantage (more people, developed supply), and the Hittites had a technological (iron) advantage. So that is parity.
    1. sibiryak10
      sibiryak10 30 December 2015 12: 46 New
      0
      At that time, the world was ruled by bronze weapons. Bronze is stronger than iron, but they have not yet learned how to make steel.
      For the Hittites and the Egyptians, the best weapons were bronze.
      1. Riv
        Riv 30 December 2015 13: 21 New
        +6
        One more ... Bronze, you see, is stronger than iron ... Despite the fact that pure iron was not used anywhere and by no one. Critical iron is low carbon steel. Moreover, it is far from a fact that the Hittites had, so to speak, domestic dressing.
        1. Alex
          Alex 30 December 2015 15: 24 New
          +2
          Quote: sibiryak10
          Bronze is stronger than iron
          But more fragile.

          Quote: Riv
          Critical iron is low carbon steel.
          Plus multiple forging.
          Moreover, it is far from a fact that the Hittites had, so to speak, domestic dressing.
          And who could they borrow from him at that time? It seems to be especially special in ancient metallurgists that no one else is listed here. Sumer, Assyria also seem not to stand out as special technological finds.
          1. Riv
            Riv 30 December 2015 18: 10 New
            +9
            You see ... In India, screaming iron was known some fifteen hundred years before the battle described in the article. In fact, it came into use there apparently almost simultaneously with bronze (although the dating of the items is controversial). Caveat # 1: the Hittites had the same thing. Iron products were quite competitive despite corrosion. What is this talking about? Either the raw materials for iron smelting were like shoe polish in a shoe factory, or the import of finished products was developed. They could be brought from India, or from the Caucasus.

            Nuance # 2: why do you think Ramses started this war? The costs would not have paid off with military booty, and there was enough territory for development in him and in the south of Egypt. Wasn’t they fighting for control over the trade routes? Most likely it is, because the Hittites after that suspiciously quickly went down in history, and in Egypt there was a fashion for the pyramids, which in itself was worth a big dough.

            In general, the version is simple: the dynasty of the kings of Kadesh sat in a bread place and fat. A specific kid Ramses came and offered to share, but was sent, but he did not reconcile and divided everything according to concepts. And Egypt began to fatten, and the king Kadesh was extradited in general. But this is a completely different story ... :)
            1. Alex
              Alex 30 December 2015 19: 21 New
              +4
              No.1. The version is not bad and quite working. The metallurgy of India, in general, is also quite ancient. The raw materials for iron smelting - in those days, I think, could be quite common, the demand for element No. 26 only appeared.

              No.2. One of the reasons for many wars, along with many. In any case, Egypt was more fortunate than the Hittites. Then, however, they were pressed, but this, too, is a completely different story ... wink
              1. Riv
                Riv 31 December 2015 05: 49 New
                0
                You contradict yourself. How did this “demand just appear” if the same Hittites used iron weapons with might and main?
                1. Alex
                  Alex 31 December 2015 14: 10 New
                  +3
                  Quote: Riv
                  You contradict yourself. How did this “demand just appear” if the same Hittites used iron weapons with might and main?

                  Who else besides the Hittites in those days had steel weapons? When did iron-steel products in mass become an alternative to bronze? When did steel casting technology become perfect and displace bronze not only from the army, but also from everyday life?

                  Speaking about the emergence of demand, I had in mind the simple historical fact that, despite some obvious advantages of iron-steel weapons over bronze, the technology for their production and processing was only in its infancy and its dominance was far ahead. But the simple fact that the 26 element is much more promising than the 29 was quite obvious, which stimulated the search for new metallurgical technologies. Different nations have varying degrees of success.
                  1. Riv
                    Riv 31 December 2015 15: 07 New
                    0
                    India, Egypt. In a letter to the Hittite king, Pharaoh asked to give him an iron weapon, which means it was well known there. You won’t ask for anything as a present? Crete. It is known that the cyclades traded in iron ore five hundred years before the events described. Obviously there were those who bought it.
                    In general, to arm the army (even 8-10 thousand people) is not for three days of work for artisans. But a carpentry ax is much easier to make than a spear, or even less a sword.
                  2. ando_bor
                    ando_bor 1 January 2016 19: 32 New
                    0
                    Iron was known in the Bronze Age, but it was not technological, or more expensive or worse than bronze, and the mass transition to iron did not come from a good life, but from necessity. As a result of the collapse of the Bronze Age caused by climatic changes, perhaps the most powerful in the history of civilization, the global world disappeared, some civilizations died completely like Hats, Egypt survived but terrible things were happening there too, the Nile stopped spilling, the population fell ten times, people ate each other, but nevertheless, he survived, both culture and writing, and all of this pretty quickly ended the peak of Big Zh somewhere around 200 years.
                    Huge territories were simply depopulated, and in the separate surviving areas during the revival of life, people left without external supplies of bronze began to experiment with iron, there is iron almost everywhere - to develop technologies, and it turned out that in most cases it is not worse but even better than bronze.
                    And the events described are just on the eve of the collapse, either the pinnacle of the development of the Bronze Age, or already the beginning of the problems. By the way, the “executions of Egypt” - with some understanding of artistry, is almost a documentary description of the collapse of the Bronze Age, its beginning.
                    1. Bobik012
                      Bobik012 April 23 2020 17: 56 New
                      0
                      do not read it anymore ... well, do not smoke. Invented story
            2. ando_bor
              ando_bor 1 January 2016 18: 58 New
              +1
              The fashion for the pyramids was long gone by then (600 years), - the war was the more important thing to do, and the pyramids from idleness were built when there was no one to fight.
        2. Bobik012
          Bobik012 April 23 2020 17: 54 New
          0
          As far as I understand in history, it was the Hittites who were among the first to make iron
      2. rinat1962
        rinat1962 2 January 2016 18: 34 New
        0
        Judging by the film and the figures given here, stainless steel was very widely used (for example, the axis of chariots and tire wheels. It is hardly possible to use raw iron there)
        1. Alex
          Alex 3 January 2016 20: 11 New
          +2
          Quote: rinat1962
          Judging by the movie
          Agree: a feature film is not historical evidence. Nowadays, it is easier and cheaper to bungalow an entire props made of iron and aluminum than to cook bronze. Yes, and why? ..

          and the figures given here
          The drawings are great, but the EMNIP is most likely very heavily edited. So it’s also not worth so much to rely on them.
  9. mishastich
    mishastich 30 December 2015 13: 11 New
    +1
    Article plus. I also recommend reading the book (if you are interested) of Boleslav Prus - Pharaoh.
  10. igorra
    igorra 30 December 2015 13: 21 New
    +4
    But Ramses, judging by the mummy, was he red? The Greeks have gods of fair hair, the black ones themselves, Genghis Khan is red, the Chinese have the first emperors in their graves - Caucasians, in the valley of the kings I think the same situation. It seems that scientists do not agree on the whole truth to us, or even worse, they impudently lie.
  11. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 30 December 2015 13: 53 New
    +5
    Dear Svetlana, I liked your article, it was well written and well illustrated. But let me clarify a couple of points:

    According to Egyptologists, the total number of Egyptian troops who opposed the Hittites, reached 20 000 people - the figure for those times is simply unprecedented.
    I would like to justify the numbers. The sources did not preserve numerical data, although, for example, Kadesh is the first BATTLE IN WORLD HISTORY, WHERE THE IMAGE OF BATTLE ORDER HAS BEEN SAVED. There are completely different opinions. In addition, the armies of the kings of Babylon reached probably much greater numbers.

    Further, even the tactics of the Hittite king says that he had far fewer troops at his disposal than Pharaoh’s (ambush action, mainly by chariots, and in fact can cope only with each of the Egyptian detachments alone). We should not assume that the ancient Egyptians were bad propagandists - they, having apparently three or fourfold superiority, almost were defeated, and only pulling up all the forces, they abandoned the Hittites.

    Their king Mouvatalli II managed to make a military alliance, which included the kings of Naharina, Arvada, Karhemysh, Kadesh, Ugarit, Aleppo, Asia Minor, and numerous mercenaries whom he recruited among the Mediterranean peoples. The total number of troops of the anti-Egyptian union exceeded 20 000 people.
    It is fairly well known that the Hittites in general did not use mercenaries. Allies, tributaries, vassals - yes, their militia exhibited, but not mercenaries. But the Egyptians were very actively hiring everyone they could, namely in the period of the New Kingdom, because it was believed that the natural Egyptians were bad warriors (even the Nubian negros were considered the best soldiers, and the Shardanians and the Libyans in general were in the position of ubersoldat).

    Quote: qwert
    It turns out the Egyptians used chariots in the same way as used later cart.
    Nothing to do with tactical use. A community in a shooting bout is just some kind of misunderstood trait. Egyptian chariots were used as a means of direct contact, in contrast to the cart, which generally acted because of the spin of the cavalry when it was unexpectedly opened.

    Quote: igorra
    And Ramses, judging by his mummy, was he red?

    Exactly ! As well as some pharaohs of Dr. Egypt, and especially often in the era of the Old Kingdom. Modern official scientists stupidly light or red hair on the heads of some mummies, as well as images of several wives and daughters of the Pharaohs, who were BLONDES (which people who had no family ties with North-Eastern Europe cannot have).
    1. kalibr
      30 December 2015 18: 51 New
      +2
      Thank! I'll give her everything!
    2. Bobik012
      Bobik012 April 23 2020 18: 04 New
      0
      The Egyptians used (according to sources) two types of troops that the Hittites did not have: archers on chariots and the construction of spearmen in the phalanx (well, or its likeness). It was these two things that saved them (well, and the greed of the enemy, of course).
  12. tasha
    tasha 31 December 2015 01: 19 New
    +1
    After the Battle of Megiddo (1457 BC), the era of the expansion of Egypt began.
  13. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 31 December 2015 16: 40 New
    +2
    Quote: tasha
    After the Battle of Megiddo (1457 BC), the era of the expansion of Egypt began.

    Let me open a simple secret - the essence of the civilization of ancient Egypt was not in expansion, but in peaceful stable development; in maintaining and improving the irrigation system. Egypt was a self-contained system!

    And the expansionism of the ancient Egyptians of the New Kingdom was “infected” by the “Hyksos” (“alien shepherd kings) - in the Egyptian“ chronicles ”it was clearly stated that the Egyptian army began to lead long marches with the aim of persecuting the retreating Hyksos to“ finish off the war ”. den. "
  14. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 31 December 2015 20: 54 New
    0
    Somehow yesterday I missed an article. It's a pity. Everything is just wonderful!
    Happy New Year!
  15. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 5 January 2016 23: 15 New
    0
    Dear Svetlana and Vyacheslav, I will allow myself to think a few more important additions hi :

    First. The caption to one of the pictures is wrong -
    Ax Axhotepa. Metropolitan Museum
    This battle ax belonged to QUEEN Jahhotep, i.e. WOMAN and her name is spelled correctly in Russian, namely Yah-khotep (Yah "god of the Moon") is satisfied / patronized. ") This is one of the eminent women governors of ancient Egypt (we will not talk about her incestual connections that were characteristic of many persons from the dynasties of the Pharaohs), and on its ax the rarest image of the Hyksos warrior, who is being killed by the Egyptian, is preserved.

    Second. It is from her own set of precious weapons that the "flies of courage" shown above \ "gold of praise" occur, although in general the presence of this supposedly "order" is most likely the result of incorrect translation and additionally incorrect interpretation. The pharaohs traditionally rewarded their higher warriors (not simple, nothing was supposed to be simple, only that they themselves would be robbed) with gold in silk and ornaments and a certain number of slaves.

    The third. As an outstanding commander, he was the king of the Hittites in the Battle of Kadesh, while Ramses showed himself as a mediocre commander, but simply as a good warrior who personally participated in the battle (but is there much benefit from the whole army that was put on the brink of defeat?!? ).

    Fourth. I do not in any way relate to the admirers of Fomenko and Nosovsky, nor to the various "alternatives", but there are two facts, A COMPLETELY LITTLE-KNOWLED WIDE PUBLIC, BUT FULLY RECOGNIZED BY THE SCIENTIFIC WORLD: first, a drawing animal, in a drawing, can be drawn in a drawing way. Anubis and not Upuat, but the rarest mythical creature for the Middle East, the closest analogue is the Ancient Slavic Simrugg / Semargl. And secondly, THE LANGUAGE OF ANCIENT HETTES - EXTREMELY EXITING TO EUROPEAN LANGUAGES AND SLAVIC IN ITS BASIS (namely, the Hittites, the tops of their society).