Military Review

Risen "Black Sea." 110 years ago was crushed Novorossiysk Republic

One hundred and ten years ago, December 25 1905, in Novorossiysk, Novorossiysk Republic was crushed by government forces in Novorossiysk - one of the first and most famous attempts to proclaim “revolutionary statehood” during the First Russian Revolution of 1905-1907. Like a number of other “revolutionary republics” that emerged in the turbulent 1905 year in Russia, the Novorossiysk Republic was a “product” of the December armed uprising. Starting in Moscow, in mid-December 1905, an armed uprising spread to many other regions of the Russian Empire. Revolutionary republics emerged in Chechelevka (a suburb of Yekaterinoslav Yekaterinoslav Province), which was in the hands of rebellious workers from 8 to 27 in December 1905; at the railway station Lyubotin (Kharkiv-Nikolaevsky Railway), where railway workers held control for ten days - from 20 to 30 in December of 1905; in the cities of Ostrovets, Ilzha and Chmelyuv, where 27 December, the rebellious workers were able to establish control and were suppressed only in the middle of January 1906. We already wrote about the events in Georgian Guria, where the whole district was under the control of local revolutionaries. But we should not forget about the turbulent events unfolding in the territory of Novorossiysk and its environs.

The revolutionary movement in Novorossiysk

By the beginning of the twentieth century. the territory of the modern Krasnodar Territory, as is known, was divided between two administrative-territorial units - the Kuban Region and the Black Sea Governorate. The Kuban region with its center in Ekaterinodar (now Krasnodar) covered most of the territory of modern Krasnodar Krai and was a region of compact settlement of the Kuban Cossacks. The Black Sea province with its center in Novorossiysk occupied the western part of the Caucasus and stretched along a long and relatively narrow strip along the northeastern coast of the Black Sea. The Black Sea Province was formed on May 23 of 1896 as a result of the conversion of the Black Sea region of the Kuban Region into a separate province. The composition of the Black Sea province included such important settlements as Novorossiysk, Sochi and Tuapse. According to the census conducted in 1897, 42,9% were from the population of the Black Sea province Great Russians, 16,1% - Little Russians, 10,9% - Armenians, 10,4% - Greeks. Then Adyghes followed in descending order - 3,4%, Czechs and Slovaks - 2,2%, Jews - 1,7%, Georgians - 1,7%, Moldovans and Romanians - 1,6%. Let such a significant percentage of Czechs, Slovaks and Romanians with Moldovans not be confused by the modern reader - the fact is that the Black Sea coast, like many other Novorossiysk lands, was populated not only by Russian and Cossack populations, but also by colonists who moved to Russia from Eastern Europe. Back in the middle of the 19th century, Novorossiysk was a very small town with a population that today can be compared to a population of several high-rise buildings - for example, in 1866, when Novorossiysk became the center of the Black Sea district, only 430 lived in it. However, the city developed very intensively. So, in 1882, the first cement plant was built, and in 1888, the first train arrived in Novorossiysk. In 1893, the first three-phase power plant in the world was launched in Novorossiysk. With 1896, the city of Novorossiysk became the center of the Black Sea province.

By the beginning of the twentieth century. here, as in many other industrial and port cities, the revolutionary movement was gradually gaining strength. In Novorossiysk, organizations of social democrats Bolsheviks and Mensheviks, socialist revolutionaries, anarchists operated, in Sochi, apart from the Russian revolutionary organizations, Armenian revolutionaries as well. In Novorossiysk, the first circle of socialist revolutionaries arose in 1900, and in 1902 the Novorossiysk Social Democratic Union was created. According to K.V. Taran, “the announcement of the royal manifesto of the population of the Black Sea province met ambiguously. With the assistance of city councils in Novorossiysk and Sochi, where active supporters of the Union of Liberation prevailed, guard guards are created, which are later reorganized into fighting squads (people's militias), headed by representatives of socialist revolutionaries. At the same time, combat squads consist of supporters of various political and national associations "(Quoted from: Taran K.V. Social and political movement in the Black Sea gubernia during the first Russian revolution (1905-1907) // /political_movement_during_first_russian_revolution.html)).

From 14 to 19 in February 1905 in Novorossiysk, a movers' strike took place, which was of an economic nature. 1 in May 1905 in Novorossiysk held a mass demonstration of the left forces, which was guarded by armed members of the working squad. On Starobazarnaya Square (now - Heroes' Square), masses of workers began to gather, who moved in organized columns along Central Serebryakovskaya Street. Over the demonstration, banners were carried in Russian and Georgian - “Down with autocracy! Long live freedom and 8-hour working day! ”. Aleksey Bereznikov, who at the time was acting as governor of the Black Sea Governorate, called a hundred Cossacks, but the Cossacks did not disperse the demonstrators and chose to remain silent observers of the demonstration. The following day, 2 of May, 1905, was marked by an even more numerous demonstration, and 3 of May, 1905, due to unmet requirements for the administration, the workers of the city’s railway workshops went on strike.

In July, 1905, with the active participation of the Black Sea and Kuban Committees of the RSDLP, a strike of the railway workers of Novorossiysk began. At the initiative of the Social Democrats, the item of a political nature about convening a constituent assembly was included in the list of demands of the strikers, which was previously economic in nature. However, the management of the railway and the administration of the Black Sea province, for obvious reasons, could not fulfill this item requirements. In response to the “inaction” of the authorities, the railway workers blocked the canvas, as a result of which the movement of trains along the line became impossible. 19 July 1905 gathered around 2 thousands of protesters on the railway track, both railway workers and workers from other enterprises. On the persuasion of the administration to release the canvas and let the train pass, people refused. Then the Cossacks tried to disperse the crowd without the use of firearms. weapons, acting only checkers, not taken out of the sheath.

Risen "Black Sea." 110 years ago was crushed Novorossiysk Republic

The beginning of the armed uprising

After the start of the general political strike, the Black Sea Committee of the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party received a message from Moscow and December 8 1905 addressed the working class of Novorossiysk and its environs to call for a strike and support the Moscow workers. The workers of the railway workshops were the first to join the strike, who went on strike on the same day on December 8. Almost immediately, railroad workers joined them, then sailors of merchant steamers, factory proletariat, and even shop sellers and cab drivers. In addition, a port workers 'strike continued in the port of Novorossiysk, which began as early as November 1905. As a sign of solidarity with the workers' performance, the gymnasium students stopped their classes, and the mail and telegraph employees joined the strike. In fact, the whole of Novorossiysk was paralyzed, and the city authorities were completely at a loss. Moreover, in the provinces, unlike the capitals, such events were still seen as a surprise, and local authorities had not yet had time to work out a clear strategy for confronting revolutionaries. However, the Novorossiysk Social Democrats did not confine themselves to one strike - at the same time, December 8 1905, the Black Sea Committee of the RSDLP announced elections to the Council of Workers' Deputies. Over the next two days, 70 deputies were elected to the Council. Mostly they were representatives of the working class, as well as several representatives of the local intelligentsia and small entrepreneurs. December 10 in Novorossiysk an extended meeting of the Black Sea Committee of the RSDLP was held. It was attended not only by party members, but also by representatives of industrial workers of Novorossiysk. The main issue that revolutionaries raised at a city meeting was the question of the beginning of an armed uprising in Novorossiysk and the seizure of power in the city and its environs by the Council of Workers' Deputies. However, representatives of the Menshevik part of the Black Sea Committee of the RSDLP found it necessary to support the transfer of power in Novorossiysk into the hands of the “City Coalition Duma”. But this idea did not receive support from the majority of the working delegates from urban industrial enterprises. The Bolsheviks and Social Revolutionaries advocated the creation of armed detachments of workers and the beginning of an armed uprising of the working class of Novorossiysk.

The workers supported the idea of ​​the Bolsheviks about the transition to an armed uprising and the seizure of power by the Council of Workers' Deputies. It was decided to appeal to the workers of Novorossiysk with a call to move from the strike to the beginning of the armed uprising and arrest the Governor of the Black Sea Governorate, the police chief, the gendarme chief in the night from 11 to 12 in December 1905. 11 December 1905. The first meeting of the Novorossiysk Council of Workers' Deputies was held. At it, delegates supported the decision taken by the Black Sea Committee of the RSDLP to launch an armed uprising in and around the city. An Executive Committee of the Council of Workers' Deputies was formed, which was to take full control of Novorossiysk, and also adopted an appeal to Novorossiysk. The Bolsheviks, the workers of the cement plant, played a leading role in guiding the preparation for the uprising. Dubrovin and driver M.L. Vereisky. In the fighting squads of Novorossiysk, the representatives of the local organization of socialist revolutionaries, more precisely, its radical wing, set the tone. However, the Bolsheviks of the Black Sea Governorate differed little from the Social Revolutionaries - unlike the Central Russian Bolsheviks, local representatives of the Bolshevik organization favored the practice of individual terror, and also did not disdain the expropriation of funds, although this practice was not particularly approved by the leadership of the Bolshevik party.

11 December 1905 The leadership of Novorossiysk received information from their whistleblowers in a revolutionary and working environment that the Black Sea Committee of the RSDLP and the Council of Workers' Deputies planned the start of an armed uprising and the seizure of power. To counter these plans, the city administration and police officers began to discuss plans to arrest the leaders of the Black Sea Committee of the RSDLP, the headquarters of the militia of workers, members of the Executive Committee of the Council of Workers' Deputies.

The authorities were powerless

On the same day, December 11, when the Council of Workers' Deputies held its meeting, the Governor of the Black Sea Governorate gathered for a meeting the commanders of all military units of the Novorossiysk garrison, gendarme officers, and the police chief with whom he discussed the issue of counteracting plans to start an armed uprising. But at the meeting it became clear that the city authorities actually did not have enough forces to withstand the upcoming uprising, especially if it was supported by all the workers in the city. Since Novorossiysk was a small city, its garrison was also not numerous. It consisted of the Cossacks of the 17 of the Plastun Battalion, three hundred of the 2 of the Urup Regiment, the 1 company of the Maikop battalion, a military team, as well as police and gendarmes. Only in Novorossiysk there were only 1500 Cossacks, soldiers, policemen and gendarmes. In addition, there was no confidence in the reliability of the rank and file of the garrison. Among the Cossacks and soldiers were Bolshevik agitators, who persuaded them not to turn their weapons against the "fellow workers", but to direct them against the city authorities. With the beginning of political demonstrations in the city, the police of Novorossiysk actually ceased active activity, and the 17 th Plastun Battalion refused to fulfill the duties of performing police service. Representatives of the Plastun Battalion appeared among the participants of rallies and meetings of Novorossiysk. Then the Cossacks of the 2 Urup Regiment also joined the plasters. That is, the city authorities actually could not hope for the reliability of the garrison. Even the police, traditionally selected from the most trustworthy people, were not ready to enter into an armed confrontation with the workers. In this situation, the governor of the Black Sea province had no choice but to leave Novorossiysk. Governor Vladimir Trofimov went on vacation. December 12 Acting Governor, Vice Governor Alexei Berezniki and a number of high-ranking military officials secretly fled from Novorossiysk. They housed in a car at the freight yard of the railway station. Novorossiysk was left without government bodies, which the local Council of Workers' Deputies immediately took advantage of. After the governor's flight, the fighting squad of the workers, subordinate to the Council, ensured the latter to take all the power in their hands.

So began a short-term история Novorossiysk Republic. Soviet power was established in the city, and without an armed clash with government forces, since the local garrison refused to use weapons against the insurgent workers. The central authorities ceased to exist, with the result that Novorossiysk and its environs turned out to be in fact autonomous from the Russian Empire, a territory where the tsarist government did not control the situation. The Novorossiysk Republic lasted exactly 14 days - from December 11-12 to December 25 1905. All the reins in Novorossiysk these days were in the hands of the Council of Workers' Deputies, which began to perform the functions of the new government in the city. The former power structures ceased to exist, and their representatives either left the city, or did not show any activity and desire to counteract the events. 14 December The Council of Workers' Deputies ordered the closure of all government institutions of Novorossiysk, with the exception of banks (for example, the rebels closed the office of the governor, the court, the head of the Novorossiysk district office). The strike was partially stopped, and an eight-hour working day was introduced at industrial enterprises and working committees were established to monitor the operation of the plants. There was also the release of all political prisoners held in Novorossiysk. The newspaper Izvestia of the Council of Workers' Deputies was proclaimed the official print publication of the Novorossiysk Republic.

Armed people and social measures of the republic

Since any state or political education that is trying to be such needs to be armed, the Council of Workers' Deputies of Novorossiysk decided on the universal armament of the working people of the city and its environs. The slogan “Weapon to get a weapon” was raised. In order to get rifles and revolvers, the workers' squads set about disarming the police, guards and constables. Groups were sent to collect weapons from the peasants of the Novorossiysk district, who managed to collect more than 300 guns and ammunition for them. “The detachments of the fighting squadron, arriving in the village, first of all held rallies, calling for the collection of weapons for the workers of Novorossiysk. For each gun taken issued a receipt combat squad. The poor and middle peasants eagerly met the calls of the revolutionaries, making decisions at rural gatherings to withdraw weapons and transfer them to the fighting squad. Local police are disarming. For example, in Kabardinka, a detachment of cement plants disarmed police officer Zafon Safonov. Similar events took place in Kirillovka, Methodius, Maryina Roshcha, Abrau-Dyurso and other settlements ”(quoted on: Also in Novorossiysk, substantial military assistance from Gagra - 1000 rifles, which were armed by the soldiers of workers fighting squads, arrived. Ten bombs were sent by the Georgian revolutionaries from the Guri Committee of the RSDLP (a peasant uprising also took place in Guria - there the rebels managed to completely seize control of the whole county, helped by mass revolutionary sentiments among the population of the region and the personality of the Kutaisi governor who sympathized with the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party. Finally, The making of cold arms — the peak, the sabers, and the daggers, which the workers' detachments also armed themselves with — was in full swing. By December 20 in Novorossiysk it was possible to to generate more than 3 thousands of armed workers who formed the fighting squads of the Council of Workers' Deputies of the city.

In addition to questions of the defense of the city, the Novorossiysk Soviet of Workers' Deputies proceeded to the organization of material assistance to striking workers in urban enterprises, as well as to the unemployed. For this, a progressive approach tax on the income of entrepreneurs and manufacturers was established. In addition, as mentioned above, an eight-hour working day was introduced, freedom of conscience, speech and assembly were proclaimed. The Soviet of Workers' Deputies demanded that the urban bourgeoisie raise the wages of workers in enterprises, and reinstate laid-off workers in enterprises. The prices of a number of food products were set at a fixed level. These events contributed to the growing popularity of the Council of Workers' Deputies, not only among industrial workers, but also other segments of the population of the city of Novorossiysk. At the same time, in the Council itself, the internal struggle between the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks, the Social Democrats and the Socialist Revolutionaries did not cease. The Menshevik and Social Revolutionary wings of the Council of Workers' Deputies acted from more moderate positions. Thus, under the influence of the Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries, the governor and his officers who were hiding at a train station in one of the cars were not arrested. The funds from the city bank were also not expropriated, which led to their exportation by the supporters of the royal power. It turns out that the peace policy of the socialist revolutionaries and Mensheviks, which contributed to lowering the intensity of the revolutionary struggle and preventing human sacrifices, at the same time contributed to the deterioration of the position of the insurgent Novorossiysk.

After all, it was precisely because of the softness of the policy of the Council of Workers 'Deputies that the governor and his assistants, who worked to mobilize the counter-revolutionary forces of the Novorossiysk district and request help from the central leadership to organize the suppression of the workers' uprising in the city, remained at large. In the end, that's what happened. December 24 A special armed expedition was sent to Novorossiysk. The battleship Rostislav approached the Novorossiysk Bay and stopped at the outer roadstead. December 1905 came battleship "Three saints." At the same time, units of government troops arrived by rail, disembarked from the cars and entered the territory of Novorossiysk. The command of the troops was carried out by the commander of the Kuban Cossack equestrian artillery brigade, V.A. Przewalski. In the current situation and taking into account the impossibility of full-fledged resistance with unequal forces of city defenders and government troops, the Council of Workers' Deputies of Novorossiysk decided "... because of the hopelessness of resistance and in the interests of preserving the revolutionary forces, not to join the battle with the tsarist forces". This decision was also due to the fact that most of the residents of Novorossiysk were not eager to defend Soviet power. During the two weeks of the existence of the Soviet republic, many radical revolutionaries managed to turn the local population against themselves, as they tried to carry out expropriations and unreasonable execution of the local population. Naturally, these measures did not please the residents of the southern city, including those of them who at the beginning of the armed uprising in the city sympathized with the left and democratic forces and welcomed the dismissal of the tsarist administration.

After the government troops entered Novorossiysk, martial law was introduced in the city, and mass arrests began on participants in the labor movement and all politically unreliable citizens. The military court 7 leaders of the Novorossiysk Republic were sentenced to death, which was then replaced by life penal servitude. Another 13 people from among the active participants in the uprising were sentenced by the military court to various terms of hard labor. Seventy years after the events in question, in 1975, one of the oldest streets in the city of Novorossiysk was named after the Novorossiysk Republic. In 2007, the stele "Novorossiysk Republic" was installed. At the top of the stele, the Novorossiysk Republic is a double-headed eagle, and a petrel is decorated with a pedestal.

Rise in Sochi

However, the workers of Sochi and the Sochi district took the baton of Novorossiysk. At the end of November and the beginning of December 1905, the Sochi group of the RSDLP called on the workers of the Sochi district to launch an armed uprising against the tsarist government. Workers and peasants began to dissolve boards and courts and form their own authorities. In mid-December, fighting squads of more than 700 men, made up of workers and peasants from the villages of Sochi District, arrived in Sochi. Despite the attempts of the moderate wing of the Social Democrats to prevent the uprising of an armed uprising, a mass demonstration of workers began in the city. A group of armed workers - warriors from Adler arrived to help the Sochi revolutionaries. On December 28, the head of the Sochi District ordered the subordinate guards to disarm the Adler workers, but the workers opened fire on the guards. During the skirmish that ensued, the commander of the squad of guards was killed and several of his subordinates were injured. At that time, considerable reinforcements from hundreds of police officers headed by the head of the Sochi district arrived to the aid of the guards, but the warriors opened fire on them. The police were forced to retreat to the outskirts of Sochi, where the company of the Kherson regiment was stationed. After that, the Sochi group of the RSDLP appealed to the workers of the city of Sochi to support the armed uprising of the people. Many residents of the city and its environs rushed to the aid of the insurgent workers, ready to take part in the revolutionary action.

- participants in the uprising in Sochi

Two days, 28 and 29 December, barricades were erected on the streets of Sochi. The number of workers in the city guarding the barricades and approaches to Sochi increased. It was only possible to penetrate the territory of Sochi if there was a special pass from the headquarters of the combat detachment and the Sochi group of the RSDLP. In fact, the whole city of Sochi was in the hands of the revolutionaries who overthrew the royal power here. On the outskirts of the city were shooting with groups of policemen. Vigilantes were preparing an armed assault on the Sochi barracks, where the remnants of the Sochi police were strengthened. For this, workers dug trenches and rapidly armed themselves. In the hands of the warriors was the old gun model 1795 year. She had stood abandoned for more than a hundred years until the rebels of the Sochi residents noticed her. Finally, on December 31. 1905 was decided by the headquarters of the Sochi military squad to storm the barracks. From the old cannon the vigilantes opened fire on the barracks. Instead of the nuclei, the gun was loaded with weight weights. About forty shots were fired, which frightened the policemen who were defending the barracks. The police did not expect the rebels to have an artillery gun, so the police defending the barracks hung a white flag on 1 on January 1906. The head of the Sochi district announced the surrender, after which the barracks were occupied by rebellious workers who arrested the district chief and a number of officers, disarmed the garrison and, thus, eliminated the royal power in Sochi. In fact, the administration of the city was in the hands of the Sochi group of the RSDLP and the fighting squad headquarters acting on its instructions. It was in the competence of the headquarters of the fighting squad that the organization of the defense of insurgent Sochi, the maintenance of public order in the city, control over the distribution of food and pricing were located. Naturally, first of all, the arrested were detained, held in the local arrest house, and political affairs were also destroyed in the investigative and detective units.

However, already on January 5 1906, the ships approached Sochi, from which a military landing force armed with artillery landed. Numerous military reinforcements succeeded in completely crushing the resistance of the rebels, after which the power in Sochi was restored, and the participants of the revolutionary demonstration were arrested. As in Novorossiysk, the Sochi residents did not render serious armed resistance to the government forces. One of the reasons for the lack of resistance was the increased distrust of the city’s revolutionary parties. The group of Sochi’s Social Democrats of Georgian origin, which came out with separatist slogans for the disconnection of Sochi and the annexation of the Sochi district to Georgia, which, naturally, according to the separatist Social Democrats, was to gain political independence, contributed to this to no small extent. But the majority of Sochi residents did not like the ideas of the Georgian Social Democrats and, naturally, were not supported. There were other nuances that contributed to the growth of negative attitudes among citizens towards representatives of revolutionary organizations. Whatever it was, but Sochi, following Novorossiysk, could not provide significant resistance to the punitive expedition and the power of the tsarist government was fully established in it. So ended the armed uprisings in two cities of the Black Sea province, which led to the practical elimination of royal power for up to two weeks. The consequences of their suppression were not easy for the revolutionary movement of the Black Sea province and Kuban as a whole.

Consequences of December 1905

It should be noted that the defeat of the armed uprising in Novorossiysk and Sochi led to a significant crisis in the ranks of the local organizations of the Social Democrats and the Socialist Revolutionaries. The leaders of the party organizations were arrested, and many rank-and-file members expressed dissatisfaction with the overly moderate leadership line, which, in their opinion, led to the defeat of the revolutionary uprisings. Therefore, in 1907-1908. in the Novorossiysk and Sochi districts, the activities of the Social Democratic Party and the Social Revolutionaries were not particularly popular, and the anarchists became the most active force in the revolutionary camp. Novorossiysk anarchists in 1907 year formed the Novorossiysk group of anarchists-communists "Anarchy". It consisted of M.Ya. Krasnyuchenko and E. Krasnyuchenko, G. Grigoriev, P. Gryanik and other militants and propagandists. The Novorossiysk anarchist communist group had its own printing press and a device for making bombs, and maintained contacts with organizations of revolutionary communist anarchists of the Transcaucasus and the North Caucasus. However, the Black Sea anarchists were significantly different from their counterparts in the western provinces of the Russian Empire. Moreover, this difference was obviously in a negative direction - here, in the North Caucasus, anarchists, like representatives of other revolutionary parties, were actively drawn into criminal activity, primarily in expropriation. In turn, the policy of armed expropriations, which meant the trivial robbery of more or less well-off citizens, anarchists and maximalist Socialist Revolutionary repulsed the inhabitants of the city and its environs. The latter increasingly perceived revolutionary groups rather as criminal gangs, since their members focused on self-reliance, and to meet their financial needs did not shun outright crime. The criminalization of the revolutionary movement of Novorossiysk was one of the direct results of the defeat of the Novorossiysk Republic. Radically minded young people have lost faith in the possibility of real transformation of social reality in a more or less constructive way. Terrorist acts and expropriations began to be viewed as more effective methods of struggle than strikes and strikes, especially since they brought real financial dividends, and also contributed to the creation of a romantic halo around "avenging revolutionaries."

Anarchist Terror 1907-1908

Here are the reports from Novorossiysk 1907 of the year, when the city saw a real rampant of “revolutionary terror”, which had nothing to do with the events of the establishment of the Novorossiysk Republic. 19 April 1907. Three men attacked the shop of the merchant Prokofy Kotlyarov. The expropriators stole a thousand rubles and escaped, and two days later a letter was thrown to the store, in which anarchists took responsibility for the attack. However, the police worked quite quickly - on May 3, on May 1907, a peasant Nikita Gerasimov was arrested, from whom a revolver and a threatening letter were confiscated. Assistant bailiff Kazimir Burzhimovsky managed to find out that Kotlyarov had attacked the merchant's shop along with Leyba Braybardt, nicknamed “Chizhik” and Dmitry Lysenko, nicknamed “Rostovsky”. But 23 June 1907, two anarchists wounded the policeman Kolomiytsev. 31 October the same policeman was killed. Shot and assistant bailiff Ushakov. Later, when examining his papers, the police found a threatening letter signed by the Revolutionary Party. 1 August 1907. Unidentified people killed the senior watchman Kravchenko and his assistant Balitsky right at the Novorossiysk station. After a short time, leaflets appeared on the city’s streets saying: “Comrades, workers! According to the verdict of the Novorossiysk group of communist anarchists ... executed was the senior guard Kravchenko and his faithful watchman Balitsky. " As reported by the anarchists, the guards killed as a sign of retaliation for their activities against the striking workers of the railway station. 15 October 1907. Anarchists broke into the distiller’s apartment at the Ivan Chernov refinery and demanded to give money. The owner entered into the fight against criminals, during which he was slightly injured. The gunmen came running to the sounds of the shots, they began to pursue the criminals.

One of the local residents pointed out to the police the house where the anarchists hiding from the scene of the crime hid. During the detention they were injured, and that evening a local resident, who “surrendered” anarchists, was killed in front of her family by comrades of arrested anarchists who broke into her house. Nevertheless, the police succeeded in identifying the identity of the shooters, among which the most noteworthy persons were fifteen-year-old Leiba Breibardt, nicknamed “Siskin” and a 40-year-old peasant from the Tambov province Tatiana Vlasova, known by the nickname “Mommy”. They were the leaders of the local Anarchy group. By the way, Tatyana Vlasova was distinguished by a penchant for demonstrative actions. So, after the murder of the policeman Kolomiytsev, she ordered to buy a dozen bagels and throw them to the dogs so that they could remember the victim. But, despite the detention of a number of anarchists, the group continued to operate. So, in the evening of November 21, 1907 was shot by an assistant bailiff Kazimir Burzhimovskiy. Then the merchant Chernomordik was killed. Activization of anarchists in Novorossiysk so alerted the local authorities that the governor in the Caucasus, Count Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov, took personal control of the fight against the revolutionary underground. 25 January 1908 destroyed two safe houses used by Novorossiysk revolutionaries - one of them belonged to the Socialist Revolutionary Party, and the second to that same Anarchy group. Police found firearms, ammunition and forged documents in the anarchist apartment. However, even after the discovery of safe houses, terrorist acts and expropriations on the territory of Novorossiysk continued. Moreover, the Novorossiysk anarchists had ideological heirs in neighboring Anapa. But, as it turned out, there, under the guise of anarchists, the usual criminal punks acted. In Novorossiysk itself, the 12 of September 1908 of the year was dealt a blow to the local anarchist group. On this day, the Novorossiysk police managed to liquidate the anarchist safe flat on Novobazarnaya Street, during a search in which a revolver, a hectograph, an anarchist organization's press and savings books with the financial means of the anarchist underground were confiscated. In February, 1911, in Novorossiysk, a field session of the military court was held, which tried 28 members of the Anarchy Novorossiysk anarchist communist group.
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 25 December 2015 07: 26
    A very interesting article about the unfamiliar events of those years.

    As always, a revolution raises from the bottom of society all rot and evil spirits that rob and kill ordinary people ... a vague and sad time of discord.
  2. sergeyzzz
    sergeyzzz 25 December 2015 07: 32
    I did not understand why this article on VO? Is it such a hidden hint that it's time for the barricades !? Personally, I won’t go, although the government, of course, sometimes needs to be reminded that we also need to think about people, and not just brazenly steal money from our pockets by means of unsecured emissions in very large amounts. In all ATMs, money is issued that literally stick together from the still dry paint ..
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 25 December 2015 08: 03
    Romanians - 1,6%... In our area there is a village For the Motherland! ... The unofficial name is "Romanian village" .. even the drivers announced a stop like that ... The population of the city of Temryuk actively participated in the revolutionary struggle during the revolution of 1905–1907. In 1905, an artel of port movers went on strike under the leadership of Andrei Shvidky and Kasyan Andriyanenko, opposing the grain merchants. More than a thousand people took part in the strikes, the main demands of the strikers were: the organization of two-shift loading, the establishment of an 8-hour working day and fair pay. For a short time, they managed to force the grain trading agencies of Vafiadi, Khoja-Duki and Louis Dreyfus to satisfy the demands of the loaders. Since November, workers of the Temryuk office joined the All-Russian strike of postal and telegraph workers. Their three-week strike ended with the arrests of its participants. Fishermen who demanded free fishing protested, there were protests against the mobilization of those liable for military service in the Russo-Japanese War, a detachment of several dozen people was sent to help the Novorossiysk Republic ... Thank you Ilya ...
  4. moskowit
    moskowit 25 December 2015 10: 39
    With the prescription of years of study at school, I can be confused. Even with a high level of secondary education in the USSR, the history textbook described the events of the "Bloody Resurrection" and the December Uprising in Moscow. True, if my memory serves me correctly, the Revolution was dated 1905-07, and peasant performances were also described. And the revolutionary situation in Odessa was known from the great film and book by Kataev "The lonely sail is whitening." there were also the battleship Potemkin and Lieutenant Schmidt. Also about the first Soviets in Ivanovo-Voznesensk.
    I read it with interest. Thank you for the article...
  5. Aleksander
    Aleksander 25 December 2015 11: 38
    most residents of Novorossiysk not eager to defend Soviet power. During the two weeks of the existence of the Soviet republic, many radical revolutionaries managed to set up the local population against themselves, as they tried to conduct expropriation and causeless executions local population. ..received revolutionary groups rather as criminal gangs. executed Senior Protection Kravchenko

    Naturally, who of normal people will support bandits, terrorists, separatists? These crimes are being pulled to the highest degree, and not only here, but throughout the world.
    The military court of 7 of the leaders of the Novorossiysk Republic was sentenced to death, which then replaced with hard labor for life. 13 people from among the active participants in the workers' uprising were sentenced by the military court to various terms of hard labor.

    Court decisions needed perform, and not talk with bandits, terrorists and separatists. This slobbery led to the tragedy of the 1917 October Revolution, when the same pardoned, but unrepentant bandits again led the massacre.
    Thanks to the author for a vivid portrait of the "fighters" for the people's happiness ...
    In 1893, it was in Novorossiysk that it was launched first in the world three-phase power plant.

    Such was it - "bast" Russia.
    1. a housewife
      a housewife 25 December 2015 12: 53
      Yes, as always - people fought for their rights, wanted a better life. And to them, closer to the feeder, all rubbish is attached. After all, neither the Cossacks began to use weapons, nor any one of the authorities gave an order to arrest. And after all, the population almost completely supported it. NO- it is necessary to do robberies! But Novorossiysk has been developing rapidly since its inception - industry, trade, gymnasiums and schools were formed, and not only for Russians, a theater and a library were built. Well, few people know, but the first cinema in Russia was opened in Novorossiysk! And the power station, the first in the world, works, everything is in the same place! Perhaps, if the revolutionaries had done the right thing, it would have been possible to achieve much from the local authorities without tragedy, politically.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  6. a housewife
    a housewife 25 December 2015 13: 15
    Stele on the street of the Novorossiysk Republic of 1905.
    1. a housewife
      a housewife 25 December 2015 15: 27
      Is there something wrong with the stele?
  7. Lionnvrsk
    Lionnvrsk 25 December 2015 20: 53
    And today, few of the townspeople (especially youth) know about these events!
  8. Grishka cat
    Grishka cat 25 December 2015 22: 45
    Here Polonsky gives: either Cambodia or Novorossiysk! Versatile personality! Respect!