Online stumbled upon a wonderful analysis of the situation with the so-called "black box", shot down by the Turks Su-24made respected guardia_rojo. I can not lead. True, with some comments.
It’s just that some people have no idea how military equipment is developed and manufactured. In VT it is impossible in principle to “stick” something (an additional element, for example, a relay, a chip, a connector ...) without consequences, without going through the full chain of all the tests put - at the enterprise, related departments and organizations, LI, MVI or HI .
Some "especially gifted" suggest that for "rollback" / "cut" - everything is possible. This, to our happiness, is not always the case. All those who wish, as a rule, shine the "tribunal" - the consideration of the case of forgery, fraud by the board of the military tribunal, since the matter concerns the defense capability and state security of the country. Just like that, with a forgery, “kickback”, “budget cutting” - it’s impossible without consequences, too many people are busy, the case looks too much “textbook” and too many instances need to be passed. And any discrepancy between TK and TU, identified in the course of operation - will immediately reveal with the most dire consequences for the participants.
And what could have happened then that “even schoolchildren and sofa experts” point to the incompetence of the performers of the manufacturers of BUR (onboard recording devices)?
In this case, the magnetic carrier of the protected information was replaced with a solid-state one. So, there was a complete cycle of all the tests. Solid-state in reliability, in principle, higher than the "tape recorder" with a bunch of moving parts. Then what?
We look at the characteristics of Western recorders, for example, Honeywell allows for resistance to shock loads - 3600 g, our - just 1000 g
Most likely, this is the whole truth ... That is, if the registrar were to produce using the western element base (and single-board), perhaps, other results would have been obtained ...
On the other hand, the information collection system is not of critical importance for conducting a battle or performing a military mission aviation, therefore, we have, let us say so, a "secondary attitude" to them.
So, below I offer the analysis of guardia_rojo
The huge flask in which the solution was boiled News Runet, suddenly began to boil and foam from adding one gram of my note to it. The laws of social networks have shown themselves in all their fullness and beauty. Here and the angry exclamations of the cheers-patriots in the image of Vysotsky’s song “The elephant said without dismantling: It’s clear that there is a flood ...”, and the joyfully malevolent hissing of the foreign smerdyakovs “the crap again,” and the venomous glee of the Svidomo blogosphere ...
All this brew froze angrily, boiled with satisfaction, blew smoke, poured with fancy colors and, finally, the reaction passed into the final stage - precipitation. Blow off the foam, add the unnecessary, dry, and see if we got the crystals of truth in the process of this reaction. Especially because, as they say, "He called himself a cargo - get into the body." And it imposes on me some responsibilities for scoring.
In vain, evil tongues assert that one cannot find the truth in a dispute. The hard work of reading almost 2500 comments (and they still do not stop coming) gives the right to argue that the collective reason in the discussion is not so useless. Next, I will describe what emerged in the process of discussion, give the necessary explanations and clarifications on the technical and even political sides of this case. For a clearer explanation of the reasoning, I created the 3-D chip models and the PCB assembly.
Thanks to those comrades who led a meaningful discussion, suggested ideas and provided interesting data. I really appreciate their participation. Do not be offended if I do not call everyone by name.
1. Immediately dismiss idle speculation regarding the process of opening. Everything went fine, without any complaints. Who worked in the field of military production, he knows about the compound in the thread of screws with a countersunk head, because of which sometimes they have to be drilled, and that it is pointless to use a screwdriver with the slot. So the reasoning about manual labor, lightly tapping on screwdrivers and drilling - leave for your kitchen.
There are people whose fantasies can even envy Francois Rabelais. They, without a doubt, assert that the recorder's body was previously opened, the contents were taken out, and what we saw was inserted. These generally have no idea about the maintenance of working and operational documentation, by which you can check not only the date and place of manufacture, but also much more obscure stuff. And, in the presence of a supervisory board of third-party specialists, it’s impossible to perform such a fly from the word at all.
2. You can also partially remove the charges from the designers in that part, which concerns the use of plastic cases of memory chips. As comrades suggest, now really in black boxes of foreign planes (for example, Boeing) you can see similar executions of microcircuits.
This in itself does not please, but at least it does not give grounds to categorically blame our designers for allegedly choosing a household set.
3.Also there are absolutely no complaints about the design of the recorder body. They are well made, with a sufficient margin of resistance to external influences. This is obvious even to those who have not dealt with this technique.
4. Now about the unpleasant. And yet, how did you get so embarrassed? To begin with, I'll take the liberty to describe in general terms the process of designing this product.
I know in my practice of working with former defense enterprises that large factories were simply sawn by their heads into small firms that were located there, in the same premises with the same employees. Since the documentation sets were also assigned by these firms, this often made it possible to continue to produce products without lengthy approvals, a number of tests and other hemorrhoids, assumed in cases of development from scratch. To some, such acquired isolation and mobility made it possible to simply survive in the difficult conditions of bestial capitalism, someone just became this very "beast of capitalism" and took the opportunity to saw, pull away and fill their pockets. For the sake of fairness, it must be said that the main blow to the military commissar, of course, was inflicted by Yeltsin’s market reforms.
With the inevitability of a tsunami, formal separation further led to the degradation of the production base, to the loss of connections and specialists. In such a situation, one often had to deal with the fact that idle test benches, thermal chambers, etc., were often disassembled by the staff themselves in order to profit. Rare orders were tested as follows: “Well, we once tested this unit, the documentation has not changed, the technology has not changed ... well, okay”. Something was even gathering dust in warehouses from the Soviet era. Of course, not all enterprises produced products in this way. This is mainly about the fragments of the military, small private traders, who, even with all their desire, are not able to fork out for expensive testing equipment.
So, the following picture seems to me: the urgent modernization of avionics could not help but touch the flight recorders. In order not to reinvent the wheel, the manufacturer acted quite rationally: he made the iron according to a proven scheme and tried to attach a FLASH memory unit (or NAND, call it convenient for anyone).
Naturally, in their place I, first of all, would have looked at similar products of Western firms, since such chips would still have to be taken from them. And I would find out what exactly the "bourgeois" put in their black boxes. Further, I would find on the sites of reputable manufacturers the memory of the required volume, controllers and piping like DC / DC converters and signal levels, all this in HiRel performance, and would begin the development process.
But the quit came out in that, based on the specified container size, it was impossible to place all the chips on one board. And here, as the wits say, “the dog has rummaged”.
For example, in Boeing, the memory block is made by one board, which greatly simplified its location inside the container,
and our two-board construction required dances with tambourines. And if the Boeing board was enough just to enclose the shell of the damping compound, then we had to put the mounting rack. And, as a matter of fact, it turned out not a sandwich “damper-plate-damper”, but a fragile structure, fastened with racks.
5. If the vector of application of force were not directed perpendicular to the boards, then nothing of the kind would have happened. But what happened happened.
The use of such cases as TSOP-48, albeit in the HiRel version, should have caused the developer to desire with additional measures to maximize the stability of the structure to overloads. What, unfortunately, was not done.
What could be done? Pour the damping compound. Although this will inevitably cause problems when picking out chips from there in the event of an operation like this.
But it could also be strengthened by mechanical means: make a printed circuit board with a thickness of 2,5-3,0 mm, the belt at the mounting holes should not be as narrow as it was made, but wider - 3-4 mm. Since we see that thin belts simply broke. And install additional rack mounting in the center of the boards. Like this:
6. However, even with the destruction of the body of the chip, there is hope for data acquisition. If the crystals are not damaged, secondary welding of the leads is possible. That will give the ability to read the contents of memory. For clarity, what it is about, for example, a snapshot of the NEC memory chip, which shows the places where the leads are welded to the crystal.
7. Of course, there is a possibility that nothing will be restored. And even with such an annoying result, publicity is justified. So that no one has the right to accuse Russia of concealing flight data.
8. Now about the grin of marketability. The fact that the semiconductor equipment for military and space applications must be of the case - metal-ceramic, before it was obvious to any specialist. This “whim” is caused not only by mechanical strength, tightness, good heat dissipation, but also another important property of ceramics - its coefficient of thermal expansion is low and close to a silicon crystal. Due to this, when the temperature fluctuates from –60 to + 125 degrees Celsius, no mechanical stresses arise between the crystal and the substrate, and there are no tears from the crystal, as was observed during plastic packaging.
But time passes, and the market requires a reduction in value. If in the last century, Intel released such memory chips without sparing ceramics and gilding,
now the market is pushing such products into the realm of the cosmic sphere only. And in the avionics in the course went plastic shells. As you can see, sometimes this leads to unpredictable consequences. Although, here are the products of the company HiRel International Rectifier
it is still produced only in cermet and often with gilding. So the debate about whether cheap plastic will force out expensive gold-plated metal-ceramic remains open.
9. It is necessary to respond briefly to other technical questions. For example, on applications like "the microcircuits were destroyed by a high current pulse, and therefore their bodies were smashed." Must disappoint. First, there are obvious mechanical deformations of printed circuit boards and even interboard jumpers. Secondly, such "tricks" never do without traces of soot, burning of the tracks of printed circuit boards and characteristic damage to the plastic of the microcircuit cases. Nothing like this, we also do not observe. Here is what the PCB boards look like that were exposed to large currents (thanks to comrade iAlexEf for the photos found):
Claims that the boards were pulled out before this autopsy, hit with a hammer and stuck in back, do not stand up to scrutiny. For the same reason that I described in p. 1
Attempts to explain damage to a PP by a rocket explosion at first sight are legitimate. But when inspecting the PP container from the inside, it is immediately clear that no fragment could damage the boards. Also, due to the fact that the air-to-air rocket explodes a few meters from the side of the aircraft, the PC could not be damaged by its blast wave. The recorder is clearly "unsuccessfully" landed. He landed another side - PP and chips would remain intact.
In addition, I will say to those who are sure that the registrar board damaged a certain fragment from the rocket. In this case, the inner box with a hole would be immediately shown to all the cameras, all comments would be made, and we wouldn’t have to guess what was inside the carelessly discarded empty case.
10. And for dessert, a little social science. Market grimaces are whimsical in form and destructive in content. Especially in the performance of the domestic bourgeois class. There is a misconception that there are “good” businessmen and “bad” ones. My relatives, there are no separate “businessmen”, there is a capitalist class. And no matter how “good” the capitalist may be in words, in fact he will always defend the interests of his class, even if this class consists entirely of Chubais and Serdyukovs. This is an OBJECTIVE law. Hear? Objective!
I mean, regardless of the personality of the businessman, his character, virtues and occupation, he is forced to act in the interests of his class. There are no "good" entrepreneurs who make good products. Well, that is, there are entrepreneurs more or less honest. But no matter how honest an entrepreneur is, he objectively defends the interests of Chubais, however much he wants. He supports a system in which he does not want to go into power, does not want to fight not for life, but for death with representatives of his own class, just standing above him. He wants radicals like Bandera and Prosvirnin to do it for him, and he will only support them with donations and on the Internet, and will continue to “honestly” do his business.
No, guys, you either remove the cross, or wear shorts and do not disgrace with your Russian capitalism. Or - collectivism, or - individualism and imminent catastrophe. As in the West - will not. Never! The local bourgeois are no match for you. And the Motherland for them is not an empty sound, and the Hail on the Hill is worth something, and they are ready to gnaw the throat of their own, too presumptuous “fat cats”. You can't do it! You are looking for self-justification and someone who would do the dirty and hard work of clearing the ruling class from the destructive bourgeois for you. Well, those who will do it will get power for you. As it happened in Ukraine and in Libya. The Ukrainian bourgeois class, stupidly and eagerly wanting to demolish Yanukovych, in fact was the destroyer of his own country. And now these Ukrainian electronics engineers are sitting, interrupting from water to bread. Or they have long been dragged to Russia, to a place where you can still do something and live like a human being. But you, Russian engineers, will have nowhere to "wind"! Think about it at the moment when another attack of straydovism will be upon you!