Military Review

Nuclear era. Part 2

22



A total of 1054 nuclear explosions have been conducted in the USA. In addition to New Mexico, Marshall Islands and the landfill in Nevada, tests were conducted in Colorado, Mississippi and Alaska.

Special mention deserve underground nuclear tests conducted in the period from 1965 to 1971. on the island of Amchitka, the Aleutian Islands archipelago. The purpose of these nuclear tests was to study the characteristics of seismic waves caused by a nuclear explosion, and the ability to distinguish them from natural earthquakes, as well as to study the processes occurring in the earth's crust with a powerful nuclear explosion at great depths.

Drilling a well deeper than 1870 meters for the most powerful underground test in stories US began in August 1967. It was decided to use a thermonuclear charge, called Tinnyka, with a power of 5 Mt, originally created for the Spartan anti-missile missile.

Nuclear era. Part 2

Loading a thermo-nuclear charge "tin" in the well


An explosion of 6 on November 1971 of the year recorded an earthquake magnitude Xnumx on the Richter scale on Amchitka Island, causing land shifts across the island of 6,8 km² across the island, raising the ground to an altitude of about 308,6 meters, and major landslides on the coastline.

In total, more than 1945 nuclear warheads have been assembled in the United States since 66000 and more than 100 types and modifications of nuclear weapons have been created. The main carriers of atomic bombs until the end of 50's were strategic bombers, later the emphasis was placed on ballistic missiles deployed in silo launchers in the United States and on submarine rocket carriers.

After accumulating significant nuclear stockpiles weapons and miniaturization of warheads, American strategists began to consider it not only as a means of destroying major strategic and administrative-industrial goals, but also as a weapon on the battlefield.

In 50-ies, the doctrine of “limited nuclear war” appeared, according to which the use of nuclear charges was to be limited to a local territory outside the United States and not lead to an exchange of nuclear strikes between superpowers.

For the first time, the possibility of using nuclear weapons during the conflict, in which American forces were involved, was considered during the Korean War. Later, some American politicians and generals quite seriously called for a nuclear strike on North Vietnam.

In the 50-60s in the United States there was a saturation with nuclear weapons of all military branches. Nuclear warheads were equipped with anti-aircraft and aviation interceptor fighter missiles, torpedoes and depth charges. At the same time, nuclear artillery shells for 280 mm, 203 mm and 155 mm guns entered the arsenal of American units in Europe. The most lightweight were the "nuclear" recoilless guns "Devi Crocket": 120 mm M28 and 155 mm M29. In 1962, they entered service with the American infantry and parachute airborne divisions. For parts of the “special operations” portable nuclear mines were created in the form of satchels.


120 mm recoilless "nuclear" gun M28


The American tactical and operational-tactical missile systems were widely adopted by the American troops deployed in Europe: Onest John, Little John, Corporal, Sergeant, Lacrosse, Lance. With their help, it was possible to inflict nuclear strikes on troop concentrations and defense assemblies in the immediate vicinity of the contact line.

The development and creation of new types of tactical warheads continued until the second half of the 80-x. It was then announced the production of 2000 "neutron" projectiles for 203-mm and 155-mm howitzers and 800 "neutron" warheads for Lance missiles.

Attempts by the United States to achieve overwhelming military superiority over the USSR almost led to a global nuclear catastrophe. In 1960, the number of nuclear weapons available to Americans was several times higher than the Soviet nuclear potential. At that time, about 6000 nuclear combat units were deployed in the United States, in the USSR, around 300 were on strategic carriers. The United States also had a great advantage in the number of carriers. At that time, the US Air Force consisted of 1300 long-range bombers capable of delivering 3000 nuclear bombs to the Soviet Union. In addition to the bombers, combat duty in the US was carried by the 180 ICBM Titan and Atlas, as well as the 144 Polaris missiles on the George Washington SSB and Eten Allen.

In 1961, it became known about the launch of the deployment of American PGM-19 Jupiter medium-range ballistic missiles in Turkey and Italy with the 2400 km launch range. Prior to this, about 60 PGM-17 Thor missiles were deployed in the UK. This significantly worsened the position of the USSR and made a sudden disarming strike on the command posts and bases of the Soviet strategic forces real.


Preparing to launch MRSM PGM-19 Jupiter


In response, the Soviet leadership decided to place the BRSRM-12 and P-14 in Cuba. Both types of missiles carried thermonuclear monoblock combat units with a power of 1 Mt. The medium-range P-14 ballistic missiles had a launch range of up to 4000 km and could reach Washington from Cuba. The deployment of Soviet missiles in Cuba almost led to the beginning of a nuclear war, these events became known as the "Caribbean crisis." As a result of bilateral negotiations, Soviet missiles were withdrawn from Cuba, and American missiles from Turkey. After the “Caribbean Crisis” was resolved, a direct telephone line was established between the governments of the USSR and the USA, and both parties came to the understanding that they should refrain from rash steps in the field of nuclear weapons.

At the end of the 60-x in the US armed forces there were about 32000 nuclear charges, in the future their number began to gradually decline. This was partly due to a number of incidents involving the loss of nuclear bombs.

In February, the 1958 of the year in the air over the coast of the US state of Georgia faced the B-47 bomber and the F-86 fighter. After the collision, the fighter lost its wing, but its pilot managed to successfully eject. The fuel tanks were punched on the bomber, and one of the engines failed. In order to reach the airfield, the crew of the B-47 had to crash the Mark 15 thermo-nuclear bomb, which had fallen into the Bay of Wax, south of the resort town of Tybee Island. This bomb has not been found yet.

The most famous incident in the 1966 year in Spain. Then, as a result of the collision of the American strategic bomber B-52G and the KC-135 tanker aircraft, four B28RI thermonuclear bombs were dropped in an emergency. Both planes burned and fell apart in the air, and three bombs fell on land near the village of Palomares. One of them did not receive much damage and remained airtight. Two more collapsed and contaminated terrain with radioactive and toxic plutonium. The fourth hydrogen bomb fell into the sea off the coast, and its search took three months. The power of this lost at sea bomb in 1000 times the power of the one that destroyed Hiroshima.


The hydrogen bomb B28RI, raised from the bottom of the Mediterranean, on the deck of an American ship


Another similar incident occurred in January 1968, near the Tula Air Force Base in Greenland. As a result of the fire aboard the B-52G bomber, the crew was forced to leave it, and the unguided aircraft with four B28RI thermonuclear bombs crashed, hitting the ice of the North Star Bay 11 km from the runway base. As a result of the strongest blow and explosion of the fuel tanks, the bombs collapsed, and their filling caused radiation contamination of ice and sea water. In total, about 7,5 kg of plutonium was dispersed. An exploding bomber struck the ice of the bay, and the damaged bombs went to the bottom. The wreckage of the aircraft scattered on the area for several kilometers. Decontamination of the area took place in the most difficult conditions of extremely low temperatures and penetrating wind. It took eight months to collect most of the debris and radiation-contaminated ice. The search for bombs was not completely successful. With the help of the Star III manned deep-sea apparatus, three uranium shells, four tritium reservoirs, small fragments and parachutes were found and raised.

After the B-52G catastrophe in Greenland, combat duty in the air was stopped by American strategic bombers with nuclear weapons on board, and the final priority was given to strategic submarine rocket carriers patrolling in the ocean. As of 1980, 32 was aware of nuclear accidents and disasters.

At the end of 60-x in the United States began a gradual decrease in the number of nuclear charges. As of 1990, the Americans had about 22000 warheads on carriers and storage bases. Over the past 25 years, thanks to the START-I, START-II, START-III treaties concluded with Russia, the number of warheads as of 1 in March of 2014 was reduced to 1585 units. These warheads are deployed on 778 intercontinental ballistic missiles, submarine ballistic missiles and long-range bombers. In the US, there are still about 150 undeveloped media. According to the START-3 agreement, by February 2018, the number of deployed nuclear warheads should not exceed 1550 units, and the number of strategic carriers - 800 units, of which “operational deployed” should be no more than 700 carriers.

The basis of the American nuclear triad is ballistic missiles (SLBMs) ​​deployed on submarines (SSBNs). Currently, the US Navy has XHUMX-type SSBNs of the Ohio with 14 SLBM Trident 336 (D 2). As a rule, 5 of 12 SSBNs are in the ranks and carry 14 SLBMs. Usually 288-8 boats are on duty every day in the ocean.


Google Earth Satellite Image: Ohio type SSBNs at Bangor


American SSBNs are based on sites located on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts. On the Pacific coast, this is Bangor, Washington; on the Atlantic coast, this is Kings Bay, Georgia.

At the naval bases there is a developed infrastructure for the maintenance and repair of boats. Here are located missile arsenals and protected storage for nuclear warheads.


UGM-133A Trident 2 (D5) SLBM Head Model


The UGM-133A Trident 2 (D5) SLBM with a maximum launch range of 11 300 km carries a split head with 475 and 100 individual guidance units in kilotons. The Trident-2 SLBM has a high accuracy (KVO with 120 astrocorrection meters) and is capable of effectively hitting small, highly protected targets and delivering disarming blows to ballistic missile launchers and command centers. The nuclear warheads deployed on the Trident-2 make up more than 50% of the warheads available in US strategic nuclear forces.

In the ground-based part of the American nuclear triad, the rather old LGM-30 “Minuteman-3” ICBMs with a launch range of up to 13000 km are still in operation. They first took up combat duty in the 1970 year, the most "fresh" ICBM of this type was transferred to the Air Force in the 1978 year. Since then, the rockets have been repeatedly upgraded. Between 1998 and 2009 All rockets have gone through a solid fuel replacement program. But many American experts still have doubts about their high reliability. Part of the test launches of missiles taken from combat duty, was recognized as unsuccessful.


Google Earth Satellite Image: The Minuteman-3 ICBM Launch Complex in Wyoming


Currently, service is less than 450 "Minuteman-3". Their main part is equipped with Mk 21 monoblock warheads, with a thermo-nuclear warhead W87 with a power 300 kt with KVO about 180 meters. The disadvantage of the “Minuteman-3” ICBM is that they lack the means to break through missile defense, however, it is assumed that they will remain in service until the 2030 year.

In the aviation component of US strategic nuclear forces there are more than 90 bomber B-52H and B-2A. B-1В supersonic bombers are formally withdrawn from the composition of nuclear forces, it is believed that they are aimed at strikes only by non-nuclear means of destruction.

The production of the B-52 bombers was completed back in the distant 1962 year. Despite this, it is still regarded as one of the main carriers of nuclear bombs and air-based cruise missiles. In the past, the B-52 fleet was repeatedly upgraded. Currently, work is also underway to improve the combat characteristics of these honored machines, equipping them with modern EW communications and reconnaissance equipment. The number of armed B-52Hs is gradually decreasing, but it is planned that at least 40 bombers will be operated until 2040.


Satellite image of Google Earth: B-52H bombers at Malstrom airbase


In 1993, the B-2A bomber, made using stealth technology, entered into service. In view of the end of the Cold War and the excessive cost of living, the entire 20 stealth bombers were built. Currently 18 machines are being used, aircraft 2 is lost in flight accidents.


Google Earth Satellite Image: B-2A bomber at Whiteman Air Base


On an ongoing basis, B-2As are located at Whiteman Air Base (Missouri). From time to time for training purposes, bombers are transferred to other airfields. Andersen airbase on the island of Guam is used as an intermediate airfield for flights over the Pacific Ocean.

When concluding the START-3 treaty, the American side insisted that when counting nuclear warheads, one nuclear charge is counted with one heavy bomber. Although it is known that, for example, the B-52H bomber is capable of carrying 20 cruise missiles.

In addition to strategic nuclear weapons, the United States military also has tactical nuclear weapons. Official data on it has never been published, but according to expert estimates, the US has about 500 tactical charges. Some of them are located in warehouses in the United States separately from carriers. This number includes about 100 warheads for sea-based cruise missiles.


Google Earth Satellite Image: Kings Bay Nuclear Weapon Base


The remaining nuclear charges are, apparently, free-falling B61 bombs of various modifications. It is believed that about 200 such bombs are stored at US air bases in Europe. The distinction between tactical and strategic nuclear weapons in this case is rather arbitrary, since tactical aircraft of the United States and its allies in Europe are capable of striking thermonuclear bombs on strategic targets in Russia.

Despite the fact that nuclear tests in the United States ceased in the 1992 year, while strategic and tactical arsenals were reduced, the improvement of existing and the creation of new types of nuclear weapons continues. Recently it became known that in 2018, it is planned to complete a test cycle and adopt a new B61-12 thermonuclear bomb. This aerial bomb will be equipped with a combined inertial and satellite navigation system and executive aerodynamic control surfaces, by which the accuracy of a bomb hit will increase several times. This, as well as the regulated power of the explosion, should reduce the possible collateral damage to its troops.


Test reset prototype B61-12


In perspective, the B61-12 bomb should replace all early B61 variants, except for the anti-bunker B61-11, with strategic and tactical carriers and become safer and more flexible in use.

In the United States, the Department of Energy is responsible for the development and manufacture of nuclear weapons. It includes 17 laboratories and research centers that deal with, among other things, nuclear safety issues, the development and improvement of nuclear weapons. Directly working with nuclear materials and assembling nuclear warheads is carried out by private companies under the supervision and guidance of experts from the Ministry of Energy. Production of weapons-grade plutonium and new warheads in the United States was discontinued in 1991, but production lines and production facilities have been retained and, if necessary, can be re-used. In addition, the United States has a very significant return potential, already accumulated stocks of nuclear materials allow them to be used to assemble new nuclear charges. Recently, voices about the need to resume nuclear tests at the Nevada test site have been louder and louder among American nuclear specialists and high-ranking military officials. If it does happen, it will mark the beginning of a new round of nuclear arms race and will provoke other nuclear states to respond.

Based on:
http://war20.ru/article/6
http://sites.ieee.org/gold/tag/atom-bomb/
http://www.nevadasurveyor.com/cannikin
http://virtualglobetrotting.com
http://www.ucsusa.org/nuclear-weapons/us-nuclear-weapons-policy/us-nuclear-weapons-facilities.html
Author:
Articles from this series:
Nuclear era. Part 1
22 comments
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  1. Razvedka_Boem
    Razvedka_Boem 29 December 2015 07: 22
    +3
    The human mind is simply inexhaustible in the means of creating that which kills it.
  2. igordok
    igordok 29 December 2015 09: 20
    +9
    All nuclear explosions.

  3. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 29 December 2015 09: 39
    +1
    Perfect tools to destroy LIFE ON THE EARTH. It is good that the strip-eared understand the inevitability of retaliation, and do not try to brandish a nuclear club.
  4. zekaze1980
    zekaze1980 29 December 2015 09: 58
    +3
    Interesting article, thanks to the author. I have not heard about incidents of bombers with nuclear bombs. Have there been such cases in the USSR?
    1. Bongo
      29 December 2015 10: 16
      10
      Quote: zekaze1980
      Interesting article, thanks to the author. I have not heard about incidents of bombers with nuclear bombs. Have there been such cases in the USSR?

      Most likely there were, but on a smaller scale. Unlike the United States, our long-range aviation was not constantly on alert with nuclear bombs on board. A couple of dozen nuclear warheads have sunk along with our boats. In the USSR, as well as in Russia, all information related to nuclear weapons has always been classified as OV ("Of Special Importance"). If we shared with the Americans as part of the START treaties on strategic nuclear weapons, then everything that tactical nuclear weapons is still behind seven locks.
      1. zekaze1980
        zekaze1980 29 December 2015 19: 58
        +4
        Bongo
        Thanks for the information.
    2. Rus2012
      Rus2012 29 December 2015 10: 41
      +5
      Quote: zekaze1980
      I have not heard about incidents of bombers with nuclear bombs. Have there been such cases in the USSR?

      There were no cases of a crash of planes with nuclear weapons on board in the USSR, and could not be, in principle, for NEVER Soviet aircraft with nuclear bombs / missiles did not fly into the air, except for a few cases (no more than a dozen) tests of nuclear munitions at the ranges!
      This is the main difference between the Soviet Doctrine on the use of nuclear weapons: "Raised into the air - apply!"

      There were only a few cases of actual suspension of nuclear bombs ("tackle" of cruise missiles with special equipment) to regular military bombers during the "threatened period." There were only a few of them, one of them was the famous "Caribbean Crisis".

      Everything else is fake and the fabrications of those who are not involved ...
      1. Ajjh
        Ajjh 29 December 2015 13: 06
        +3
        Unfortunately, the councils had a passion to keep everything secret, and it will be very difficult to refute your words. But it looks strange, the Yankees flew with war bombs, but there are no tips ...
        PS
        thanks for the article! waiting for the continuation! I am glad that nevertheless VO does not forget about its origins!
        1. Rus2012
          Rus2012 29 December 2015 14: 47
          +3
          Quote: Ajjh
          Unfortunately, the councils had a passion to keep everything secret, and it will be very difficult to refute your words. But it looks strange, the Yankees flew with war bombs, but there are no tips ...


          Firstly, no matter how stealthy there was, nevertheless, all accidents and disasters associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear technologies of the USSR - at least "over the hill", were promptly learned: starting from the destruction of nuclear submarines, including those with rackets with nuclear warheads, accidents at the nuclear power plant.
          And there was no information about the crash of aircraft with nuclear bombs. Although our planes, including strategic aviation, were also falling. And our sworn partners also knew about this.
          Don't you find it reminiscent of the famous parable of a black cat in a dark room? To look with Inna, what is not and cannot be mentioned?
          Secondly, how can you hide what happened. For example, nuclear aircraft crash 3,14ndos?
          Third, the strategic aviation of the USSR was always in the "shadow" of the Strategic Missile Forces. She should. act after the ICBM. And among the 3,14ndos, strategic aviation dominated their doctrine for a long time.
          There is no and there was no symmetry.
        2. nemets
          nemets 29 December 2015 19: 14
          +1
          in the ussr there were three cases of accidents on nuclear powered submarines, and then the reactors suffered, not the br, and the quality of our nuclear power plant was higher and protected from the "fool"
      2. zekaze1980
        zekaze1980 29 December 2015 19: 59
        +2
        Rus2012
        thanks for the info
  5. Ajjh
    Ajjh 29 December 2015 15: 13
    -5
    Secondly, how can you hide what happened.
    Yes, how nefig! Those pi%? №№ about Chernobyl how many were silent? and if it weren’t for the reaction of Europe and the USA, then they would have lived in the infected territories, and no one would have known anything! So do not. You can secret anything.
    And about the crash of aircraft with nuclear bombs - there is no information and was not
    We look above. how many more such secrets still exist?
    We will wait for the continuation of the cycle.
    1. nemets
      nemets 29 December 2015 19: 18
      +4
      only the Europeans were not told about Chernobyl, all nearby settlements were evacuated right after the accident. If you don't know the story, you better keep quiet, but that is the impression that you are a "victim" of the Unified State Exam or just *** t (sorry)
      1. Vadim237
        Vadim237 30 December 2015 16: 35
        0
        In Chernobyl, people began to be evacuated 2 to 3 days after the accident.
  6. Alex
    Alex 29 December 2015 17: 26
    +6
    The most famous incident was in the 1966 year in Spain. Then, as a result of the collision of the American strategic bomber B-52G and the tanker KC-135, four thermonuclear bombs B28RI were accidentally dropped. Both planes burned and fell apart in the air, and three bombs fell to the ground near the village of Palomares. One of them did not receive much damage and remained airtight. Two more collapsed and infected the area with radioactive and toxic plutonium. The fourth hydrogen bomb fell into the sea off the coast, and its search took three months. The power of this bomb lost at sea was 1000 times the power of the one that destroyed Hiroshima.
    In 1967, based on this incident, the film "The Day the Fish Surfaced" was filmed. Filmed quite dynamically, even with a grain of humor, especially the misadventures of the two surviving pilots.
  7. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 29 December 2015 18: 51
    +4
    I watched this film online. It made a strong impression on me, I knew about previous events. But those who watched for a long time ---- also about the jokes in the film. Then they did not know about real events. Thank you for reminding me.
    1. padded jacket
      padded jacket 29 December 2015 20: 02
      +6
      Just "creepy" smile that only people did not come up with what would destroy their own kind.
      As a musical pause.
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 30 December 2015 05: 06
        0
        I would like to let my relatives' children listen. They would scream this song and grimace. I'm afraid their parents will expose me for a long time.
  8. 5234
    5234 30 December 2015 01: 00
    -4
    There were cases of plane crashes, and the loss of apples in the USSR.
    Of course, no one will give exact data, neither here, nor anywhere else ....
    Oh, something, but they knew how to secret in the country.
    If not laziness, and there is a command of the language of the bourgeois, then you can find information in foreign sources.
    People claiming that the strategic aviation of the USSR did not fly with the yab, at least, are not competent) ...
  9. Old26
    Old26 30 December 2015 08: 44
    +3
    Quote: Rus2012
    Quote: Ajjh
    Unfortunately, the councils had a passion to keep everything secret, and it will be very difficult to refute your words. But it looks strange, the Yankees flew with war bombs, but there are no tips ...


    Firstly, no matter how stealthy there was, nevertheless, all accidents and disasters associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear technologies of the USSR - at least "over the hill", were promptly learned: starting from the destruction of nuclear submarines, including those with rackets with nuclear warheads, accidents at the nuclear power plant.
    And there was no information about the crash of aircraft with nuclear bombs. Although our planes, including strategic aviation, were also falling. And our sworn partners also knew about this.
    Don't you find it reminiscent of the famous parable of a black cat in a dark room? To look with Inna, what is not and cannot be mentioned?
    Secondly, how can you hide what happened. For example, nuclear aircraft crash 3,14ndos?
    Third, the strategic aviation of the USSR was always in the "shadow" of the Strategic Missile Forces. She should. act after the ICBM. And among the 3,14ndos, strategic aviation dominated their doctrine for a long time.
    There is no and there was no symmetry.

    At least one such case has always been mentioned by Western voices. About the death of our bomber with 2 ammunition in the Sea of ​​Okhotsk. I don’t know how reliable this infa is. you're right. Information on nuclear weapons has always been classified as "OV"

    Quote: nemets
    in the ussr there were three cases of accidents on nuclear powered submarines, and then the reactors suffered, not the br, and the quality of our nuclear power plant was higher and protected from the "fool"

    Do not confuse nuclear accidents (with nuclear reactors) and situations with nuclear weapons. Offhand, at least three cases are known when nuclear weapons ended up at the bottom. This is the sinking of the Project 629 submarine, the sinking of a missile carrier in the North Atlantic in the 80s and the sinking of Komsomolets. As a result, 19 SLBMs and several tactical ammunition (torpedo missiles) were found at the bottom.
  10. NIKNN
    NIKNN 5 January 2016 11: 09
    +5
    Thank you, Sergey! You dig out interesting details. good
    Kings Bay nuclear weapons storage base

    I hope we have it for priority purposes. wink
    1. Bongo
      5 January 2016 16: 50
      +2
      Quote: NIKNN
      Thank you, Sergey! You dig out interesting details.

      Nikolay, I have about 1500 such pictures in my "personal collection".
      Quote: NIKNN
      I hope we have it for priority purposes

      Certainly! yes
  11. CTABEP
    CTABEP 5 January 2016 16: 07
    +1
    Hmm, the question is for the author - for some reason, in the articles I constantly find references to the number of tactical nuclear munitions in the USA in the 500 region, of which there are about 100 warheads for SLCMs, the rest are free-falling bombs - but are neutron shells for 155 / 203mm howitzers all were destroyed, or nobody can really count their number, so are they not mentioned?
    1. Bongo
      5 January 2016 16: 24
      +4
      Quote: CTABEP
      Hmm, the question is for the author - for some reason, in the articles I constantly find references to the number of tactical nuclear munitions in the USA in the 500 region, of which there are about 100 warheads for SLCMs, the rest are free-falling bombs - but are neutron shells for 155 / 203mm howitzers all were destroyed, or nobody can really count their number, so are they not mentioned?

      Officially, these charges are removed from service and disassembled. How really ... request At least in Europe they are definitely not.
      1. CTABEP
        CTABEP 5 January 2016 16: 32
        +2
        Thanks for the info. It is strange, of course, that such effective ammunition was removed from service and disassembled, but apparently there were reasons (or is it really just a "duck", and they are quietly somewhere in the storage facilities waiting in the wings, and hopefully they will never wait).
  12. Bongo
    5 January 2016 17: 01
    +4
    Quote: CTABEP
    Thanks for the info. It is strange, of course, that such effective ammunition was removed from service and disassembled, but apparently there were reasons (or is it really just a "duck", and they are quietly somewhere in the storage facilities waiting in the wings, and hopefully they will never wait).

    Michael, neutron charges were primarily intended to counter our tank armies in Europe. Now, as it is not a sad past multiple superiority in the field of conventional weapons, we do not have, therefore, neutron charges from Europe and removed. In addition, the life of compact charges is much shorter than, say, nuclear bombs. The thing is that we don’t have any nuclear weapons treaties with the Americans request Although the United States has repeatedly insisted on concluding a treaty to reduce nuclear weapons. It was possible to agree only on marine carriers. Currently, warheads for naval missiles, depth charges and torpedoes are stored on shore.
    Some time ago I had a publication: "Tactical Nuclear Weapons in Europe" - there this topic is touched upon. hi
    http://topwar.ru/83603-takticheskoe-yadernoe-oruzhie-v-evrope.html