Military Review

Nabat on Don

15



Don is rapidly growing smaller, which represents a significant threat to national security, since even non-specialists can see how the river leaves every year, its withered banks are covered in death. But the Don today is cut into several parts, and not every region is concerned about the fate of the river. For many years, no one has bothered to carry out more or less cleansing work that has not been done for more than a dozen years.

A powerful blow to the water system of the river was struck in the 50's.

27 July 1952 was signed a resolution on the launch of the Volga-Don ship canal. Lenin. He connected two great rivers and five seas: the Azov, Black, Baltic, White and Caspian, changing the lives of people in the whole region and the Don River, which today turns from a navigable stream into a stream: shoals, islands and sandbars fill the wounds of a serpentine body of a once-deep river.

Remembering this construction of the century, they criticized Stalin and emphasize that the prisoners were driving her, and that she was all on human bones. Helpful imagination quickly draws terrible details. It is often said by people who either did not witness the events or spent very little time on the construction site. I met a man whose 40 years of life were given to the Tsimlyansky hydroelectric complex. There are two entries in his employment record - accepted and fired. This is Yevgeny Alekseevich Sagin, a resident of the Romanovskaya village of the Rostov Region.

“Terrible stories about construction, to put it mildly, do not correspond to reality,” he shares his opinion. - The only person you can trust in this issue is the historian Vera Nikitichna Boldyreva, who has collected extensive, truthful material. It is not clear to me why Stalin is accused of the appearance of the man-made Tsimlyansky Sea, the shipping canal, the hydroelectric power station. As if he gave the order and construction began immediately. Not! Back in 1944, the first expedition arrived in the Don, consisting of scientists from the "Hydroproject" city of Leningrad. At the end of the war, the second expedition worked. And it was scientists who gave advice on construction, which began in the 1949 year. And the idea of ​​connecting the Volga and the Don came to mind at all not to Stalin, but to Peter I. By his order, they began to erect a dam, now known to us as the Petrovsky Gateway.

Yevgeny Sagin, a vocational school graduate, arrived at the construction site of the century in 1948. He was instructed to make a breakdown of the fence under the woodworking plant, together with subordinates - prisoners who were much older than him and did not feel much sympathy for the "boss". Sagin was confused, did not know how to lead and what to say. And suddenly he had a thought that among them there should be builders.

"Comrades, are there builders among you?" - asked the young man. "What are you to comrades - citizens," - corrected the convoy. But the beginning of a good relationship has already been laid. Eugene admitted that he had no experience. Former builder Pavel Ivanovich Yakubovsky took the "chief" under guardianship, and the work began to boil. Subsequently, PI Yakubovsky became the chief engineer of the construction trust, and then the deputy head of the regional department "Agropromstroy".

- In "Volgodonskstroy" worked more than 120 thousands of prisoners. Very many of them remained at the construction site after the end of the sentence. They lived and worked with us, and there was no separation into former “cons” and there were no free ones, - Yevgeny Alekseevich recalls. - There were different people among the prisoners. Some tried to escape, but it always ended in failure. The fugitives were punished by the punishment cell. At first, prisoners from among the thieves tried to establish their own rules. They selected the arriving workers' parcels. And complaints to the leadership did not change the situation. And then the workers decided to restore order. And bringing order in Russia, as it was customized, is carried out with the help of fists, after which other measures of influence are used. In the book about "Volgodonskstroy" it is written that there was a revolt, and no one went to work 10 days. This is a great exaggeration. Only two days did not work. Head of construction Vasily Arsentevich Barabanov entered the zone alone, without protection. I do not know what he told the prisoners, but the next day both the "convicts" and the freemen set to work. The "convicts", who were especially zealously setting their own rules, were loaded into the wagons and taken away in an direction unknown to me. The rest began to pay wages, opened stores.

Even prisoners of war penetrated the grandeur of the planned construction. It was the Germans who suggested getting to the villages and farms, where they bought food, by boat, and they themselves did it, which greatly simplified the solution of the problem with the delivery of food.

Mass heroism, but not hard labor

- The work of people working in construction can be called mass heroism. And nothing else. And those who think that it was a hard labor and nothing else are wrong, says Evgeny Alekseevich Sagin. - A holiday is not an abundance of food on the table, but a state of mind. We could have fun with roasted fish and boiled potatoes on the table. Having crossed the Don to the stanitsa of Kumshatskaya, they arranged such dances that the roof shook. In the local club was organized a powerful initiative, to which some modern professionals far. Before the army, I was engaged in acrobatics, and many acrobatic etudes have not been repeated so far. In 1951, I and another guy were sent to a youth festival in Berlin, and our performances were no worse than the others.



Sometimes I want to compare the builders of these objects with aliens. We differ from modern people in their way of thinking and attitude to their land. Arriving from all over the country, we decided for ourselves: here our Motherland, and everything connected with it, is sacred for us.

How to block the channel of the Don

Evgeny Sagin from those who scored the first pegs on the construction of Volgodonsk, was an eyewitness to the overlap of the channel of the river Don.

- In 1948, the construction of the Tsimlyansk hydroelectric complex was in full swing, quite large volumes of work were done. Already poured the canvas for the device of the railway, so that the power train gave energy to the whole construction. A large number of barracks were built in which the prisoners lived. Nearby were the barracks for conscripts and civilian soldiers. Many caught up with equipment, both earthmoving and lifting: she worked at full power. There was a bakery, a bathhouse, water intake and a filtration station were built. Everything was aimed at the main task - dam washing and construction of hydropower plants.

Even today, the Tsimlyanskaya HPP has foundations for the capacities of a large concrete plant, without which the construction of the Tsimlyanskaya HPP would be impossible. It was a modern, technically equipped factory for the production of ready-mixed concrete brand 700, it was completely mechanized. At the same time, the concrete was loaded into special tanks of two trains. In order to prepare the concrete mix, the machines delivered materials uninterruptedly to the plant: crushed stone, sand, then they were fed to the mixers in fractions. Laboratory technicians monitored the quality of the produced concrete. A special selection of exported concrete was made, time was put on each square, who took out and who made it. Housing construction was going fast.

22 September 1951 in the afternoon, one hundred MAZ-205 vehicles prepared for the storming of the Don River. Behind the wheel were the best drivers of construction. Among them was Pavel Andreevich Zubkov, who was awarded the Order of Lenin.

To bridge the channel of the Don a special bridge was built. At 17 hours, the time is not quite accurate, a test drive was made to the bridge of vehicles with empty bodies. Headed the column Pavel Andreevich. When the cars descended to load the rubble stone, the head of the third construction area reported on readiness. In 18 hours 30 minutes on the radio was given the command to all heads of departments to prepare for closing the channel of the Don.

Humming cars - Don overlap began. Three divers, Lesin, Nazarenko and Veselovsky (all three of the Romanovskaya village), were to follow the process of overlapping in water. The first to sink into the water was Veselovsky. Came out of the water and says: "The enemy is strong." The strong current carried the diver, but left the situation in this way: Veselovsky took the rail in one hand to make it heavier, while the other worked. After a short time, the divers changed each other.

35 hours - this was the estimated time to overlap. Finished work about two hours earlier. Thousands of workers and guests witnessed this great historical moment.

Nabat on DonWhen building materials were mined, unexploded shells were found in the ground. The memory of the past war is alive. And I remembered that during the war years the Don was a dividing line between the warring parties and in the area where the Tsimlyanskoe reservoir is now located, local underground fighters were active. The sabotage actions carried out by the underground workers, although they did not have serious consequences for the invaders, nevertheless made a feasible contribution to the common struggle against the occupiers.

In memory of Romanov underground workers

On the eve of the New Year holidays, events that happened many years ago are not forgotten. In early January, a traditional rally will be held, dedicated to the next anniversary of the liberation of the Volgodonsk region from the Nazi invaders.

From the book of A. Kalinin "Ivan Smolyakov":

"... Far after midnight, Alexander Nikiforovna Smolyakova was awakened by a cautious knock on the shutter.

- Who? - anxiously asked Alexandra Nikiforovna.

- It's me, Mom, open.

- Vania? - Pushing the bolt, she retreated from the threshold. - You? How did you come here? Get out now! In the village the Germans. - Alexandra Nikiforovna quickly closed the door, passing him into the hut.

- I know, mom. Hush. That's why the Germans came. Eat me, starved for these days.

She gathered him on the table and, stopping near the stove, folding her arms under her apron, watched him eat potatoes, bite off bread, and move it hard with taut jaws. She tried to ask him, but waited for him to speak first. What did he say? Or maybe she only heard this? He knows that the Germans in the village, and therefore came here? To them, to the Germans? Her son ?!

And he silently ate dinner, drained the milk to the bottom and only then raised his eyes from the table.

- Yes, Mom, therefore, came that the Germans. - And, seeing that she did not understand, he stood up, put his hand on her shoulder - tall, big. - How could I leave you and everything? - He put his hand around him, pushing the hat walls away with this gesture. - How could I leave, mom?

She understood and, seized by a sudden fear for him, the most beloved of all her eight children, whispered fiercely:

- What are you, son, go, where are you in the partisans? You're sick, every passer-by recognizes you here, every little boy can point with a finger. Go, Vanya, it’s night now, maybe you’ll hide, maybe they’ll catch up with you.

- Mom, mom, I will not go anywhere, we will not talk about it anymore.

To save him, she said:

“You’re not the only one who will perish, and you’ll draw after me.” Have you thought about this, Vanya?

- Do not slander yourself, mom, you're not at all like that.

Then, defeated, she cried, leaning against him. He gently wiped the tears on his cheeks with his hands. So they sat silently on the bench for a long time. Then, crying out, in a low voice, she began to tell him the stanitsa news:

- In the movie, the slaughterhouse was opened, the sheep for the officers were slaughtered. The commandant arrived, his neck was like a bull. Ataman set Arkov, you should know him.

- Is that what seeds sold?

- He is.

“They always pick them up,” Ivan said thoughtfully.

He recalled that Arkov’s daughter was a Komsomol member. "I wonder how she feels with such a dad now?"

“Ten thousand were promised for the head of each partisan,” Alexandra Nikiforovna continued, suppressing a sigh.

“Cheap they appreciated our heads,” Ivan smiled.

They sat up to the roosters, until streams of light began to seep through the slit of the shutters. Alexandra Nikiforovna was worried.

- Razvidnilos, Vanya, where should I bury you?

Poor little head ...

- Bed me, mom, on the stove, I want to sleep. Neighbors in this room do not let, do not carry the message, and can blab. And not at all a poor little head, see how much the Germans give for it.

He slept until the evening. Alexandra Nikiforovna locked the door and went to the neighbor. In the evening, Ivan came to his old friend Vasily Kozhanov. Together they all night long talked in the upper room. Kozhanova's wife from the next room heard scraps of their conversation.

“To act, Vasya, it is necessary to act, so that from the first day they have smelled our hand,” said Smolyakov.

- one? - Kozhanov asked.

- Why one? Are few people? Only gukni - the whole area will rise. Or have we been throwing seeds for nothing all these years?

And Smolyakov in a low voice began to list names.

- Tyukhov Valentine - this is your time. Petka Yasin, closing his eyes, will go. Still Victor Kuznetsov, Mozharova Klava ... Do you know Mozharova?

On the same night, Smolyakov and Kozhanov visited the apartments of the Romanov Komsomol members. Smolyakov spoke with Yasin and Kuznetsov, Kozhanov - with Tyukhov. Ivan was not mistaken: no one said "no." And only everyone asked the same question:

- BUT weapon?

- It will, - smiled slyly Smolyakov. He knew the place where the automatons were buried. - For the first time, enough, and then we must arm ourselves.

In the morning, in the village, white sheets were handed over from hand to hand. This was the first leaflet that the guerrillas wrote: "Comrades, do not forget that you are masters of your land, and do not allow a good-natured German to stand on your soul. Remember that bread is your bread, cattle is your cattle and you yourself free people. Beat the invaders! "

Someone scattered leaflets at the bazaar, at the church porch, and they taped the walls of the police. The police were scraping them with scaffolds. In the evening, raids began in the village. They came to Smolyakov, but Ivan was not at home. From Kozhanovs soldiers also left with nothing. “He is with his brother, on the farm,” Kozhanov’s wife told the soldier. The soldier turned the house upside down, scattered flour on the floor, spun a children's toy revolver for a long time and then put it in his pocket, took a handkerchief from the headboard and left. When he left the yard, a man spoke to him. He went next to the soldier, letting him light up, asking trustingly about something. The soldier confidently responded to a random companion. And when they crossed the street, a terrible blow knocked the soldier down. Something fell on him, crushed him to the ground, and the soldier remained lying in the middle of the street. At the other end of the village, at midnight, a shot cracked shortly, and a policeman, a traitor who sold himself to the Germans for money and vodka, fell off a cliff head downwards ... "

The names of the Romanov underground fighters are immortalized not only on memorial plates. Their names are the streets, schools, and in the recent past, the names of the underground workers were assigned to pioneer detachments and squads. In 1974, in the city of Volgodonsk, the first Greco-Roman wrestling tournament named after Ivan Smolyakov took place, and in 1977, it already became All-Union. Held to this day.
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  1. Riv
    Riv 28 December 2015 07: 11 New
    +5
    And my grandfather, an artilleryman, did not like the former partisans. He called them quiet. They had a case: scouts from behind the front line returned in the evening and reported that Tigers were stationed ten kilometers away. Well, since "Tigers", then the Germans are preparing something serious. The infantry, fully recruited from the partisans in eastern Belarus, drapanulated the same night and left two batteries without cover.
    In the morning, the division commander is informed: the infantry has abandoned the trenches, there is no cover. He called the division, ordered the trainmen and carriers to distribute all the cartridges that were, drove them into the trenches. Until nightfall, everyone sat at the disguised guns and clicked their teeth. "Tiger" their shell took from a kilometer, no more. But lucky. At night, three ISs and a company of machine gunners approached in cars.
    At the "partisans" then two company commanders were shot and the entire battalion was disbanded. Grandfather, when he drank, swore at them very much. In general, he loved to talk about the war and how he was lucky.
  2. Kibalchish
    Kibalchish 28 December 2015 07: 17 New
    +1
    On my blog this year I posted a photo of the shallow Don. We even stopped shipping.
    1. Nikolay K
      Nikolay K 28 December 2015 10: 19 New
      10
      The article seems to be about a shallow Don, and the author mixed in there about the fact that Stalin was not to blame for the partisans and the heroes of the construction of the canal. For the author’s information, it is the construction of the canal that is the main reason for the plumage and anesthetization of the Don. Just the channel led to siltation of the river. Under the natural conditions of the flood, large water washes away all garbage, trees and everything that interferes with the river, it cleans itself annually. The dam does not allow the Don to develop; in the spring, water is accumulated in the Tsimlyansk reservoir. For the same reason there is no fish. Many species traditionally spawn in the small grooves and sleeves of the Don Delta, going there from the sea. These grooves were filled with water during the spill of the river, and now they are dry. Because of the reservoir, a lot of water simply stopped reaching the sea, evaporates or goes into the ground, plus the use of water for irrigation. The same situation occurs with the Volga and any other rivers blocked by the ladies with reservoirs.
      1. OlegLex
        OlegLex 28 December 2015 13: 44 New
        +1
        I was also embarrassed that the title of the article and its text do not correspond to each other in any way, what the author wanted to say is not clear. the fact that Don is creeping is yes, the fact that we ourselves are to blame for this is also yes, but how to solve this? and what is needed for this decision? it’s not at all clear what was written to.
        I got the impression that the author did not hesitate after the first paragraph slapped an article about something completely different and kindly threw us this masterpiece, they say hawai bloggers.
      2. Sweles
        Sweles 28 December 2015 14: 58 New
        -1
        Yes, the presentation of information in the style of "what I see, then I sing", and if we talk about how the Don is shallow, then this is very alarming, but the point is not in the reservoirs, the Volga, Ob, Yenisei are shallow. Ob is disassembled for watering in China - the Uigurs and it will only get worse ...
        1. michell
          michell 28 December 2015 17: 12 New
          +3
          Quote: Sveles
          Ob sorted for watering in China-Uigurs


          Another victim of the exam ...
          The Ob originates in the Altai Territory (Biysk, village of Odintsovka) by the confluence of the Biya and Katun rivers. Biya originates in Lake Teletskoye (village Turochak, Altai Republic), Katun - in the Altai Mountains, in the Republic of Altai, from many small mountain rivers.
          At least bother to look at the map before posting this ... wassat
          1. Sweles
            Sweles 28 December 2015 19: 26 New
            -3
            Quote: michell
            Quote: Sveles
            Ob sorted for watering in China-Uigurs


            Another victim of the exam ...
            The Ob originates in the Altai Territory (Biysk, village of Odintsovka) by the confluence of the Biya and Katun rivers. Biya originates in Lake Teletskoye (village Turochak, Altai Republic), Katun - in the Altai Mountains, in the Republic of Altai, from many small mountain rivers.
            At least bother to look at the map before posting this ... wassat


            about IRTISH heard a wise guy?
          2. The comment was deleted.
          3. DedaSascha
            DedaSascha 28 December 2015 21: 47 New
            0
            Do not scold him. Maybe they have not yet completed this section at school.
          4. Nagaibak
            Nagaibak 7 November 2016 17: 58 New
            0
            micheIl "At least bothered to look at the map before posting this."
            Yes, this is normal for them.))) And why should they look at the map?))) They have an unconventional history rapidly interspersed with unconventional geography.))))
    2. mihasik
      mihasik 28 December 2015 21: 37 New
      +1
      Quote: Kibalchish
      On my blog this year I posted a photo of the shallow Don. We even stopped shipping.

      Shipping is constantly stopped, but the main reason is not in the shallow Don, but in the fact that the "Verkhovka" blows all the water into the Taganrog Bay, and the "Nizovka", on the contrary, is catching up so that the villages are drowned against Azov! Water simply has nowhere to go. Tell me where there will be more water? In a bath or a basin? It's the same with Don!
      Don didn’t get shallow, but they dirtied him! Eriki, canals and Don himself have not been cleaned since Soviet times! (previously this was done regularly). But now everything is private with us, and for example, no private owner wants to pay for cleaning Eric! All live one day. In general, capitalism is his mother !!! Have you been to the Dead Donets for a long time, especially Liventsovka and Karataevo? Previously, there was a depth of 3 meters! Now everything is silly, people walk on that shore! In addition, sludge in ponds overlaps springs. which also leads to a lack of water. In general, one aggravates the other!
  3. Russian Uzbek
    Russian Uzbek 28 December 2015 07: 25 New
    +2
    "low water" is usually cyclical ... as well as "high water"! one period replaces another - if you look at the statistics, it will be seen - the current low water has already happened in the past
    1. Evgeniy667b
      Evgeniy667b 28 December 2015 08: 33 New
      +8
      There are natural rhythms of wateriness. All artificial measures will not bring positive results. One can only contribute to the retention of water by natural means, for example by planting forests in the water protection zone. The most noticeable is the 11-year-old rhythm, and there are also age-old ones.
      1. Nikolay K
        Nikolay K 28 December 2015 15: 01 New
        0
        The last spill of the Don happened, it seems in the 1993 year, and that’s because the flood volume was not calculated and then the water was dumped from the reservoir. I remember the Sea of ​​Azov, especially the Taganrog Bay, was considered the most fish in the world. Stellate sturgeon and beluga were sold, naturally not officially, at the price of pork. Bream, pike perch was just heaps. Now try to find it.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 28 December 2015 07: 48 New
    +4
    For many years, no one has bothered to carry out a little cleaning work that has not been carried out for more than a dozen years. ... The same trouble is with us .. In the "totalitarian" time .. across the Kuban, from our city Meteora went to Kerch .. now the mouth of the Kuban chicken will move .. There were several flooding .. I remember at meetings with veterans at school .. Veterans talked about the difficulties they faced during the liberation of the Taman Peninsula, many small rivers, swampy areas .. Where are these small rivers now .. they are not there .. Before they were even cleaned ..
  5. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 28 December 2015 08: 02 New
    +1
    Thank you for the article.
    Probably the same as on other topics --- the farther from the center, the less attention to problems.
  6. fa2998
    fa2998 28 December 2015 08: 37 New
    +3
    Quote: parusnik
    For many years, no one has bothered to carry out a little cleaning work that has not been carried out for more than a dozen years.

    Don is replenished at the expense of small rivers and streams. For decades, the riverbeds have not been cleaned, springs have been soiled. Of course, low water is cyclical, but not only is there no water coming from heaven, we have also put in new production requiring water. We essentially remained without a city reservoir on the Kundryuchye river .Local small rivers have stopped, and the oil plant is still taking a lot. The Small Nesvetay River has turned into a reed-mud ditch, and everything flowed into the Don. hi
    1. Black Colonel
      Black Colonel 28 December 2015 11: 12 New
      0
      Speech about Novoshakhtinsk? If there were to replace the water supply in the city, it would be finally good. And so more than half of the water leaves the earth.
  7. Free wind
    Free wind 28 December 2015 08: 44 New
    0
    It will be even smaller likely. And the Volga-Don Canal Don feeds.
    1. Free Cossack
      Free Cossack 28 December 2015 11: 07 New
      0
      The Volga-Don Canal consists entirely of water of the river. Don, since it is higher than the river. Volga. In the Volgograd region, Don became very shallow, in some places its width does not exceed four meters. There is nothing to talk about any shipping, the two boats hardly diverge. Yes, and the Volga is very shallow.
  8. Black Colonel
    Black Colonel 28 December 2015 11: 09 New
    0
    Seversky Donets is also shallow - drove recently, already horrified. I remember from my pioneering childhood (I spent three times in camps in those parts), as pleasure boats went there.
    It is not better with water and in ponds in the southeast of the Rostov region - some are shallow, others have completely disappeared. In some farms, the water is only imported, and the underground water is salty to the point of horror. If it goes on and on, it ceases to be, Don land to be the breadbasket of Russia. Imagine even scary.
  9. mihasik
    mihasik 28 December 2015 13: 09 New
    +1
    Remembering this construction of the century, they criticize Stalin and emphasize that her prisoners were leading, and that all of it was on human bones.

    I will not say about the Volga-Don Shipping Canal. Lenin, while working in the merchant fleet in the 90s, he himself saw bones and skulls in the locks of the Belomor-Onega Canal. In those days, the walls of the locks were timbered and washed out the remains of people from the base by constant locking. A sight only for archaeologists with strong nerves. I think little has changed since then. For skeptics: you can make a voyage along the White Sea-Onega Canal and see for yourself!
    1. Evrepid
      Evrepid 29 December 2015 14: 21 New
      0
      And as a child I saw coffins floating on the Don washed from cemeteries. After that, he stopped swimming in the Don.
  10. fa2998
    fa2998 28 December 2015 16: 01 New
    0
    Quote: Black Colonel
    Speech about Novoshakhtinsk? If there were to replace the water supply in the city, it would be finally good. And so more than half of the water leaves the earth.

    Well, why are you so, we have a secret operation of "Vodokanal" to save Mal. Lightless, all streams from gusts eventually fall into the river. If without this recharge, it would have completely dried up. Well, I think Novoshakhty people are paying for this, where else is the water + kanalyuga per meter \ cube for 140 rubles. laughing hi
  11. blind
    blind 28 December 2015 16: 42 New
    +1
    rivers go shallow all over the country and even in Europe it is not good
  12. Evrepid
    Evrepid 29 December 2015 14: 18 New
    0
    Somehow in a bunch ... Horses ... People ...

    Where is the story about when the tsimlu was built. the inhabitants of the districts around her were glad that now their fish were heaps, and there wasn’t any lower.
    The fish of the state farms and collective farms rose ... And the fishermen using lower tsimly began to put fishing rods in the sheds and stopped going fishing. Nowhere to fish to spawn! Flush in winter ... Spawn fish in hibernation :)
    Flooded meadows are gone. Mowing 4 times a year became 1 barely ...

    I used to catch fish during my childhood spills, and now? Who can boast that he caught fish with his hands in the Don?
  13. 1616913
    1616913 29 December 2015 22: 58 New
    0
    The Urals were killed by reservoirs, all the same there are no spills, and all the fish was lobbed by electric fishing rods, the last time I saw a dragonfly in the Urals was 20 years ago.