In the modern information society, issues of information protection, ensuring special communication between government structures and the head of state play a crucial role in the overall system of national security. Accordingly, since the development of communication systems, the need has arisen for the existence of a special structure that could effectively ensure both the protection of transmitted information and the interception of information of the adversary (or probable adversary). The history of Russian government communications is rooted in the Soviet era. Formed in 1991, the Federal Agency for Government Communications and Information became the successor to the Government Communications Committee under the President of the RSFSR, which, in turn, arose after the dissolution of the USSR State Security Committee (USSR KGB) and included the departments and departments of the KGB responsible for government communication, encryption and decryption, conducting electronic intelligence.
From the Special Department to the Head Office
Back in May, the 1921 by the Decree of the Small Council of People's Commissars created a special department of the Cheka (All-Russian Extraordinary Commission) - the country's cryptographic service. He was headed by Gleb Boky (1879-1937) - a famous Bolshevik with pre-revolutionary experience, a member of the October armed uprising in Petrograd and a member of the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee. Despite the fact that the subdivision headed by Gleb Boky was part of the structure of the Cheka, it was actually autonomous and directly subordinated to the Central Committee of the RCP (B). The autonomy of the Special Department was explained by the overwhelmingly important and secret tasks that he performed. Naturally, the Soviet leaders approached very carefully and to the selection of the personnel of the Special Department. By the way, in its work, the department relied on the studied experience of the special services of the Russian Empire, as well as foreign special services. Specialists for the new department were trained in special semi-annual courses, but, nevertheless, at the beginning of their existence, the department experienced a significant shortage of qualified personnel. In 1925, Mr. Gleb Boky was able to take the post of deputy chairman of the OGPU. Under his leadership, an effective activity in cryptography and radio intelligence was organized, and in 1927, a radio direction-finding station was created, from which the naval radio intelligence of the Soviet Union originated. In 1929, the OGPU government communications department was established, and in 1930, the first high-frequency communications lines, Moscow-Leningrad and Moscow-Kharkov, began operating. In the next 1931, in accordance with the Order of the OGPU No. 308 / 183 from 10 in June 1931, the 5 branch of the Operational Department of the OGPU was created, whose competence included the operation of long-distance government telephone communications. The thirties became the time of laying the foundations of the national system of government communications.
In fact, it was during this period that the foundation was laid for the most powerful system of government communications, encryption and decryption that existed in the Soviet Union and then inherited by post-Soviet Russia. It was in 1930-e years began the construction of the main air lines of communication to meet the needs of long-distance government high-frequency communications. In 1935, the technical communications department of the Office of the Moscow Kremlin’s commandant was formed, and in the next 1936, the communications department of the NKVD USSR General Directorate of Protection (GUO) of the NKVD of the USSR and the communications department of the Economic Directorate were established. The main task of the government communications in 1930-ies. protection of information from direct listening has become - with the help of speech masking devices. The first domestic automatic long-distance telephone exchange (AMTS) was developed and manufactured for high-frequency communications.
The years of the Great Patriotic War became a serious test for the structures responsible for encryption and decryption, for ensuring the protection of information. The government communications divisions were given serious tasks to ensure the communication of the government, the command of the fronts, and the formations of the Red Army. In February 1943, to support the tasks of maintaining and protecting high-frequency communications, government communications troops were created. Pavel Fedorovich Uglovsky (1959-1902) was the first commander of the army, who remained at his post for sixteen years until August 1975. In the past, the telegraph operator of the railway station, Pavel Uglovsky, was called up for service in the ranks of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army in 1924, and, as a person with a telegraph operator and work experience, was sent to the communications troops. In 1925, Mr. Uglovsky graduated from military pigeon breeding courses and became the head of an experimental military pigeon station as part of the border district of the Belorussian SSU. Then Pavel Fedorovich continued his education, having completed courses at the Kiev Military Communication School and academic courses to improve the technical staff at the Leningrad Military Electrotechnical Academy. He served as head of the technical department of the Moscow Frontier Communication School of the NKVD of the USSR, and in 1937 he headed the department of the communication department and then the communication department of the Main Directorate of Border Troops of the NKVD of the USSR In January, 1943, Mr. Uglovsky, was put in charge of the troops of the governmental communications of the USSR. In 1944, he was given the military rank of lieutenant-general of the communications troops. Under the command of General Uglovsky, the government communications troops marched their military way with honor during the Great Patriotic War. As rightly noted by Marshal of the Soviet Union K.K. Rokossovsky, ““ the use of government communications during the war years revolutionized the management of troops ”(quoted on: http://www.fso.gov.ru/struktura/p2_1_2.html).
In the postwar years, the development of government communications troops and government communications, encryption and decryption of the USSR has reached a new level. Technical means were improved, the new equipment of communication and protection of information was started, innovative techniques of the organization of service were developed. Government communications have become autonomous from the public communications network. After the creation of the USSR State Security Committee in its composition, specialized departments responsible for information security were created. These included the Eighth Main Directorate of the KGB of the USSR, which was responsible for encryption, decryption and government communications, and (from 1973) the Sixteenth Directorate, which was responsible for conducting electronic intelligence, decryption and radio interception. The composition of the troops of the KGB of the USSR were the troops of government communications, subordinate to the Eighth Main Directorate of the KGB of the USSR, and parts of radio intelligence and radio interception, subordinate to the Sixteenth Directorate of the KGB of the USSR. Naturally, the new level of development of government communications and information protection demanded improvement of the training system for the personnel of government communications forces and troops. To this end, in Bagrationovka of the Kaliningrad region 27 September 1965, on the basis of the military camp 95 of the border detachment and the first building of the Higher Border Command School, the Military Technical School of the KGB of the USSR was established with a three-year training period. The school began to issue officers for the troops of government communications of the KGB of the USSR. September 1 1966. In school began the learning process. October 1 The 1972 School was relocated to Oryol and transformed into the Oryol Higher Military Command School of Communications (OVVKUS), which began training officers with higher education for government communications troops. Before 1993, the school trained officers on a four-year program.
The history of the Soviet special connection during the Cold War is the story of a desperate and virtually unknown to society confrontation in the field of information intelligence and information protection. The intelligence services of the opponents of the Soviet Union and the KGB of the USSR acted with varying success, and the acts of traitors and defectors remained a serious problem for the Soviet Union. Thus, the well-known successes of the Soviet intelligence in studying the secrets of Western intelligence services were put at risk in October 1979. During a business trip to Poland, 33-year-old Major Viktor Sheimov, who served in the security department of the 8 cipher communication, headquarters established contact with American intelligence officers. Returning to the Soviet Union, Major Sheimov several times met with representatives of the CIA station, who gave information about his work. Then Shaymov, with his wife Olga and young daughter, managed to secretly leave the Soviet Union and go to the United States, using the help of American intelligence services. Thanks to information received from Sheimov, American electronic intelligence in Germany was able to organize an operation on 1981 in April to organize the audition of the cars of the Soviet military attache and his assistants who worked in Germany. In the chassis of cars that were produced at the Opel plant, equipment was installed that could not be found without destroying the cars. The result of the operation conducted by the Americans was the identification of several Soviet agents and the interpretation of the Soviet military intelligence codes. Another unpleasant story was the betrayal of Lieutenant Viktor Makarov, who served in the 16 Office of the KGB of the USSR. In May 1985, the lieutenant, on his own initiative, offered his services to the UK intelligence service MI-6 and relayed information about the decrypted Canadian, Greek and German communications related to NATO activities in Europe.
On the other hand, among the well-known victories of the Soviet special services in the field of listening can be tapping the wiretapping of the French Embassy in Moscow at the beginning of the 1980s. In January, 1983, the French embassy in Moscow, announced the discovery of a foreign electronic device that could transmit the received telegraph information to an external power grid. Also at the beginning of the 1980's. the KGB of the USSR and the MGB of the GDR had cracked the NATO code, after which they were able to read the correspondence messages of the command of the Bundeswehr and the Western allies of the Federal Republic of Germany.
After the events of August 1991, transformational changes took place in the country's state security system. State Security Committee ceased to exist. November 26 1991 President of the RSFSR Boris Yeltsin issued decree number 233 “On the transformation of the RSFSR State Security Committee into the Federal Security Agency of the RSFSR”. However, in the area of government communications management, large-scale transformations began somewhat earlier. Almost immediately after the August events of 1991, the Government Communications Committee was created under the President of the USSR, whose chairman was 25 September 1991 was appointed Lieutenant-General Alexander Vladimirovich Starovoitov (R. 1940), who previously held the position of Deputy Head of the Government Communications Forces technical equipment of the State Security Committee. Alexander Starovoytov was one of the most competent specialists, with extensive experience in scientific, technical and management activities both in specialized scientific and technical organizations and in the State Security Committee. After graduating from the Penza Polytechnic Institute, Alexander Starovoytov worked at the Kalugapribor plant, where he went from an engineer to a deputy shop manager. Then it was transferred to Penza - to the enterprise “mailbox 30 / 10” of the USSR Ministry of Radio Industry. After the Penza Electrotechnical Research Institute of the USSR Communications Industry Ministry was established on the basis of the enterprise, Alexander Starovoytov became an employee of this institute and worked there for twenty years - until 1986 of the year. From December 1982, he served as First Deputy General Director of the Penza Production Association Kristall for Science - Director of the Penza Scientific Research Electrotechnical Institute, and in February 1983 headed the Penza Production Association Kristall of the USSR Ministry of Industry. As a prominent specialist in his field, Alexander Starovoytov, who was listed as a lieutenant colonel of the existing reserve of the KGB of the USSR, was called up for military service and in May 1986 was appointed deputy head of the Directorate of the Government Communications for technical equipment, conferring the rank of "Major General" . In May, 1988, Major General Alexander Starovoytov, was given the next military rank of “Lieutenant General”.
December 24 1991 Decree of the President of the RSFSR No. 313 of December 24 1991 “On the establishment of the Federal Government Communications Agency under the President of the RSFSR” created the Federal Government Communications and Information Agency under the President of the RSFSR. The new special service included the organs of the Government Communications Committee under the President of the RSFSR, which included the structures of the former 8 State Directorate of the KGB of the USSR, the State Information and Computing Center under the State Commission for Emergency Situations, and the former 16 of the KGB of the USSR - General Directorate of Radio Electronic Intelligence means of communication. Lieutenant General Alexander Starovoytov was appointed Director General of the Federal Agency for Government Communications and Information. Vladimir Viktorovich Makarov was appointed First Deputy General Director of FAPSI - Head of the Department for Work with Personnel. Major-General Anatoly Ivanovich Kuranov was appointed Deputy Director General of FAPSI.
The most secret intelligence service
Under the leadership of Alexander Starovoytov, the Federal Agency of Government Communications and Information began to be transformed into a powerful special service, which throughout the 1990-s was constantly developed and improved, remaining almost the most secret of the Russian power structures. 19 February 1993 was signed by the Law of the Russian Federation “On Federal Government Communications and Information”, adopted by the country's Supreme Council and laid the foundation for the regulatory support of the government communications of the Russian Federation. In 1994, the Information Resource Administration of the Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation, which in the structure of FAPSI existed under the name of the “Main Directorate of Information Resources”, was included for some time in the structure of FAPSI. Then it was again returned to the Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation - this time under the name “Informatization and Documentation Administration of the Presidential Administration”. 3 April 1995, in accordance with the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 334 “On measures to comply with the law in the development, production, sale and operation of encryption tools, as well as the provision of information encryption services”, the Federal Center for Protection economic information. At the same time, it should be noted that the functions of providing presidential relations with 1992 were singled out from the competence of FAPSI in accordance with the decrees of the President of the Russian Federation dated September 28 and October 29 from October 1992. Technical means of presidential communications and personnel involved in their service were transferred from the Federal Agency for Governmental Communications and Information to the Main Directorate of Security of the Russian Federation. As part of the GUO of the Russian Federation, the Office of Presidential Communications was established, headed by the Deputy Head of the Main Directorate for the Protection of the Russian Federation, Yu.P. Korneyev. After the transformation of the Main Directorate of Protection into the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, the Office of Presidential Communications remained part of the new special service. As for the FAPSI bodies, they made a huge contribution to ensuring the national security of the Russian Federation in the 1990s. FAPSI military personnel participated in counterterrorism operations in the North Caucasus, performed many other important state tasks, including information support for the election of the President of the Russian Federation in 1996. For effective activity as the Director General of FAPSI, by decree of the President of the Russian Federation B. N. Yeltsin, February 23 1998, Colonel-General Alexander Starovoytov, was given the military rank of army general.
In 1990-s. Significant changes have also occurred in the training of officers of the Federal Agency for Government Communications and Information. First of all, it should be noted that by order of the Director General of FAPSI Alexander Starovoytov, 23 April 1992, the Oryol Higher Military Command School of Communications. M. I. Kalinina transformed into the Military Institute of Government Communications (VIPS). Major-General V.A. Martynov was appointed the head of the institute. From the first days of its existence in an updated form, the educational institution has become one of the most prestigious military universities in Russia. 6 March 1994 of the year The Military Institute of Governmental Communications was the first Russian military higher educational institution to receive a license to conduct educational activities in established specialties. In 1998, the Voronezh Military Technical School was established in Voronezh in order to organize the training of military specialists for federal government communications and information. It was created to cover the needs of the Federal Agency for Government Communications and Information for technical specialists with high-quality secondary vocational education who are able to work with communication and communication systems. In the Voronezh Military Technical School, the training period was calculated for 2,5, and after graduation from the school, the military rank of "ensign" was conferred. The educational institution conducted training of specialists with secondary vocational education in the specialties of “communication networks and switching systems”, “multichannel telecommunication systems”, “radio communication, broadcasting and television”.
FAPSI at the end of 1990's
7 December 1998, the first director of FAPSI, Army General Alexander Starovoitov, was dismissed from his post with the wording “in connection with his transfer to another job”. In 1999, Alexander Starovoytov was fired from military service to the reserve. Further, the “founding father” of FAPSI held various senior positions in Russian scientific and technical institutions, up to the present time it actively combines scientific and practical work and scientific and pedagogical activity. At the post of director of FAPSI, Starovoytov was replaced by Colonel-General Vladislav Petrovich Sherstyuk (river 1940). A native of the Krasnodar Territory, Vladislav Sherstyuk was educated at the Physics Department of the Moscow State University. MV Lomonosov, then entered the military service in the organs of the State Security Committee at the Council of Ministers of the USSR. He served in the 8-th Main Directorate of the KGB of the USSR (encryption, decryption and government communications). In 1992, after the creation of FAPSI, he continued his service at the General Directorate of Electronic Intelligence of Communications, and in 1995 he was appointed Head of the General Directorate of Electronic Intelligence of FAPSI. From 1998, he also served as the Deputy General Director of FAPSI. However, General Vladislav Sherstyuk did not stay long at the head of the special services. He was appointed to the post of 7 on December 1998 of the year, and already 31 of May of 1999 of the year, just six months after his appointment, was transferred to the post of First Deputy Secretary of the RF Security Council. He held this position until May 004, and then, for six years, was Assistant Secretary of the RF Security Council. Like Alexander Starovoytov, Vladislav Sherstyuk is not only a prominent statesman and military leader, but also a scientist. He is a corresponding member of the Academy of Cryptography of the Russian Federation and a full member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences (RANS).
By the end of 1990's The structure of FAPSI was as follows. The Federal Agency consisted of five main departments. The main administrative department of FAPSI (GAU FAPSI) included the headquarters of FAPSI and was engaged in the organization of management and other staff functions. The Main Directorate of Government Communications of FAPSI (GUPS FAPSI) was formed on the basis of subdivisions of the Office of Government Communications of the KGB of the USSR and performed tasks to ensure the safety of presidential communications subscribers and government communications, and government long-distance communications. The Main Directorate for Security of Communications of the Federal Agency for Government Communication (FAPSI) was established on the basis of the 8 General Directorate of the KGB of the USSR (encryption and decryption) and continued its activities. The Main Directorate of Electronic Intelligence of FAPSI Communications (GURRSS FAPSI) was established on the basis of the 16-th Directorate of the KGB of the USSR, engaged in the organization of electronic intelligence, radio interception and continued its functions. The Main Directorate of Information Resources of FAPSI (GUIDI FAPSI) was responsible for information and information technology support of the state authorities and administration of the Russian Federation, ranging from the Security Council of the Russian Federation and the Federal Security Service to regional authorities and administrations. GUIRR’s competence included working with open sources of information, including the media. The task of GUIDR was to provide the authorities and management with “reliable and independent information from other sources”. Naturally, it was on the basis of the GUID that their information bases and structures of the presidential administration were built. Also, in addition to the head offices, the FAPSI included the Cryptographic Service, which was responsible for encrypting and processing intelligence information, then sent to other special services and authorities, and its own Security Service, providing security for FAPSI officers, special services, and fighting corruption and espionage.
The Federal Agency for Government Communications and Information took an active part in the counter-terrorist operations of federal forces in the territories of the republics of the North Caucasus, primarily in the Chechen Republic. An important role was played by the division of electronic intelligence FAPSI, as well as units of government communications. A number of FAPSI military personnel died during hostilities on the territory of Chechnya - while performing their official duties. At the same time, a number of sources draw attention to the insufficient level of information security organization, primarily communications, during the first Chechen campaign, which led to numerous tragic situations and impressive human losses among federal forces. Representatives of the militants repeatedly demonstrated to journalists how they intercepted negotiations between Russian servicemen and policemen, this topic was constantly raised in the media, but none of the high-ranking officials had given a clear explanation.
After leaving the post of Colonel-General Vladislav Sherstyuk, Colonel-General Vladimir Georgievich Matyukhin (born XXNX) was appointed General Director of the Federal Agency for Government Communications and Information, the new, third, and last director general of the Federal Agency for Governmental Communications and Information. He, like his predecessor, was a veteran of state security agencies and began serving in the KGB of the USSR as early as the end of the 1945s. In 1960, Mr. Vladimir Matyukhin graduated from the Moscow Energy Institute and in 1968, he began his service in the 1969 General Directorate of the KGB of the USSR (encryption, decryption, government communication). In parallel with his service in the KGB, the young officer raised his educational level - in 8, he graduated from the Faculty of Mathematics and Mechanics of Moscow State University. MV Lomonosov, and in 1973 g. - graduate school at the Higher School of the KGB of the USSR. As part of FAPSI, Vladimir Matyukhin in 1991 headed the Research and Development Center of the Main Directorate of Communication Security of FAPSI, and in 1993 he became the Deputy General Director of FAPSI. 31 May 1999. He was appointed to the position of Director General of the Federal Agency for Government Communications and Information. As the Director General of FAPSI, Vladimir Matyukhin was included in the Operational Headquarters for Counter-Terrorism Action Management in the North Caucasus Region, and also served on the Security Council of the Russian Federation and the Government Commission on Military-Industrial Issues. Under the leadership of Vladimir Matyukhin, significant changes took place in the system of higher professional education of government communications and information. So, at the end of March 2000, in accordance with the order of the President of the Russian Federation of 30 in March 2000 of the year No. 94-rp and the resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation of 12 of April 2000 of the year No. 336, to improve the quality of training, retraining and advanced training of personnel in the field of government communication , special communications, electronic intelligence, communications and information protection, the Military Institute of Government Communications was transformed into the Academy of the Federal Agency for Government Communications and Information under the President of the Russian Federation ( Goes name - Academy FAGCI). This educational institution continued to train highly qualified personnel for government communications in specialties related to information security.
At the beginning of the 2000's The changed political and economic situation in the country made the leaders of the Russian state think about the further improvement of the country's national security system. As is known, after the collapse of the USSR and the liquidation of the KGB of the USSR, the former sole and omnipotent intelligence service of the Soviet Union, there were several intelligence services in post-Soviet Russia that emerged on the basis of the KGB - 1) Federal Security Service responsible for counterintelligence, economic security and protection of the constitutional order; 2) Foreign Intelligence Service, responsible for foreign intelligence; 3) The Federal Security Service, which was responsible for the protection of top state officials and strategic government facilities; 4) Federal Agency for Government Communications and Information, responsible for government communications and information security, electronic intelligence; 5) The Federal Border Guard Service, which was responsible for protecting state borders and was the successor of the Border Troops of the KGB of the USSR. Now, in accordance with the changed situation, it was decided to significantly change the structure of Russian special services. In particular, the course was taken to consolidate and strengthen the Federal Security Service and the Federal Security Service. As a result of the reform that had begun, it was decided to abolish the Federal Border Service and reassign its structures, bodies and troops to the Federal Security Service, which included the FSB Border Guard Service. It was also decided to liquidate the Federal Agency for Government Communications and Information, one of the most closed and effective special services of the Russian Federation. According to some experts, one of the reasons for the decision to include the units of this special service in other security agencies was a series of scandals from the second half of 1990's, connected with the activities of some high-ranking employees of the organization. In addition, the need for a unified structure capable of collecting and analyzing information, or ensuring the safety of the highest persons of the state — not only physical, but also informational, became obvious. These tasks explained the future division of FAPSI between the FSB and the FSO.
11 March 2003 President Vladimir Putin of the Russian Federation signed a decree abolishing the Federal Agency for Governmental Communications and Information. The functions of FAPSI were distributed between the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, the Foreign Intelligence Service of the Russian Federation and the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation. The Director General of FAPSI, Colonel General Vladimir Matyukhin was transferred to the post of Chairman of the State Committee of the Russian Federation for the State Defense Order under the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation - First Deputy Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation. At the same time, 11 March 2003, Vladimir Matyukhin was given the military rank of army general. A significant part of the staff and property of FAPSI was transferred to the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, which included the Special Communication and Information Service, the head of which received the rank of Deputy Director of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation. Colonel-General Yuri Pavlovich Kornev (1948-2010) headed the Special Communication and Information Service of the FSO, who formerly, from 1991 to 2003, headed the Office of Presidential Communications of FAPSI (from 1992 - GUO, then FSO), and in 2003 -2010 - Service special communication and information FSO. After the untimely death of Yuri Pavlovich Kornev in 2010, in 2011, the Special Communication and Information Service was headed by Alexey Mironov.
FAPSI military educational institutions were also subordinated to the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation. The Academy of the Federal Agency for Government Communications and Information under the President of the Russian Federation, in accordance with the decree of the Government of the Russian Federation dated 25 in October 2003, was renamed the Academy of the Special Communication and Information Service under the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (abbreviated as the Academy of Special Communications). Voronezh Military Technical School FAPSI was renamed Voronezh Military Technical School FSO RF. 15 November 2004 was decided to rename the Academy of the Special Communication and Information Service under the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation to the Academy of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (abbreviated to the FSO Academy of the Russian Federation). In 2008, the Voronezh Military Technical School of the Federal Guard Service was merged with the FSO Academy as a branch. At present, the educational institution continues to train qualified specialists in the following specialties: multichannel telecommunication systems; radio communications, broadcasting and television; communication networks and switching systems; information security of telecommunication systems; automated information processing and management systems; jurisprudence (legal support of national security). The branch, established on the basis of the Voronezh Military Technical School, trains specialists with secondary vocational education, the training period is 2 of the year and 9 months, and after graduation from the institution graduates are given the military rank of "ensign". For the Federal Security Service, the transfer to its structure of educational institutions of FAPSI became a special event, since before that the FSO did not have its own military educational institutions. The traditions of the special communication service are preserved - now in the Federal Guard Service of the Russian Federation. But for many people who served in the agencies and troops of FAPSI in 1991-2003, the founding day of FAPSI still matters, because very much is connected with this service, which existed throughout the first and so difficult decade of the post-Soviet Russian statehood. youth, professional development and improvement, difficult everyday life of the service and even heroic feats.