The problem of updating the park of the barrel artillery of the Ground Forces, the creation of modern systems was raised in the article “Where are our guns?”. We continue the conversation on the example of the artillery of the Airborne Forces. What are the possibilities to increase its combat effectiveness, to create new ammunition? How perfect are the existing means of automating fire control systems?
According to the results of 2015, the airborne units must receive more than 20 self-propelled artillery guns (SAO) "NONA-1М", 30 modernized reconnaissance and fire control machines "Rheostat-1". They are equipped with advanced communication and control tools, a new hardware and software complex that performs not only automated determination of the coordinates of the targets being hit, but also laser illumination of targets at a distance of up to nine thousand meters for the use of Kitol-2 guided missiles.
Fight for every kilo
The modernized "NONA" has at its disposal a powerful on-board computer, allowing it to operate in an autonomous mode, regardless of the location of the artillery reconnaissance machines. All self-propelled guns are equipped with modules of ACS "Andromeda-D".
By 2016, the weapons will go deep modernized self-propelled anti-tank gun (SPTP) "Sprut" SDM. She has a different engine, advanced modular control. It will be the only anti-tank gun in the world that shoots afloat.
“Still, the basis of the airborne artillery system is 120-mm CAO 2,” says Dmitry Semizorov, General Director of TsNIITOCHMASH. - Many of them need major repairs. It is planned to replace the 120-mm CAO 2C36, developed in the framework of the ROC "Zauralets". He has increased ammunition capacity increased to 65 shots. The maximum range of high-explosive fragmentation projectile - 13 kilometers. The question of its increase to 30 kilometers of high-precision guided projectile is being considered. There are also such advantages as the autonomy of combat use, the possibility of self-reconnaissance of targets, protection against high-precision weapons, full automation of guidance. "
Testing and prototyping of the CAO 2C36 completed. Such regimes as the anti-fire maneuver and fire raid have been worked out. Shooting was conducted by regular ammunition.
To implement the additional capabilities of the CAO, proposals were developed to increase the survivability of the trunk. Preliminary studies are also being conducted on the creation of a guided munition of a new type with a maximum range of 30 kilometers and the implementation of the principle of “fired-forgotten”.
There are other reserves to increase the rate of "Zauraltsa". For example, work continues on improving the vertical and horizontal block layouts, which will work semi-automatically, and when installing a stabilization system, firing is possible.
But all these innovations can lead to an increase in mass, which is highly undesirable for the transport of BTA. Therefore, the struggle is literally for every kilogram of weight. There are already 18 tons in Zauralets, there is still a mass reserve.
According to the new "Testament"
A special conversation about the means of ACS. Today, the 120-mm 2-9 guns are used for reconnaissance and fire control using Rheostat-1 mobile points, modified with the placement of a laser rangefinder and 1-35 shot synchronization tools. But when solving combat missions with single guns or small units, it is desirable to provide reconnaissance and fire control with portable means of SLA.
Taking into account the specifics of performing these tasks, the airborne units of the airborne forces can be equipped with the portable Malachite automated fire control system developed by the initiative of OJSC KBP in 2004 for export. Among its advantages are mobility of use, detection and identification of targets at any time of the day, laser target illumination, topogeodesic preparation of KNP and KP, automated calculation of firing installations. The introduction of the complex will increase the effectiveness of fire control, reduce the time to perform combat missions.
As for the means of the automated control system of the artillery division, then, as the deputy general director of Rubin OJSC, Kirill Lavrinenko, said, special software is being developed with the aim of increasing the effectiveness of the artillery of the Airborne Forces. The main directions of modernization:
elimination of contradictions between fire capabilities, reconnaissance assets and the ability of officials to use a complex of control;
automation of the management process and the work of officials in the preparation of military operations and in the course of them;
the use of artillery with various promising reconnaissance equipment.
On the Innovation Day of the Ministry of Defense last October, the standard liquid crystal tablet of the division commander at the Andromed ACS was shown, which constantly displayed the situation on the battlefield. Management was conducted from the console of the main official. Screen forms were minimized in size, and the information was readable and did not require interpretation. Everything that is on the command map was interactive, a number of tasks could be performed on any element. The official was offered optimal solutions based on the latest intelligence. That is, in real time, taking into account the movement of their own and enemy troops.
However, such tablets in the troops yet. As there is no high-performance machine control and effective means of intelligence. One of the enterprises, OJSC Rubin, has worked on the image of a control machine based on BMD-4М. “We hope it will meet the requirements of the gunners of the Airborne Forces. From 2016, we plan to start work in this direction, ”the representative of OJSC Rubin assured.
Already now the enterprise has a ready-made solution: a similar vehicle based on BMP-3 has been developed within the framework of the Testament development work. The software that the airborne gunners need is installed on it. True, it is unclear whether she will be able to interact with aviation and at what level is its integration into other systems feasible.
At the level of a graphical diagram, a battalion commander, for example, must see which targets can be destroyed by aviation, and which by their fire weapons. The question is in the laboriousness of filling such an interface with data. In any case, already at this stage, an in-depth analysis of the problems of interspecific interaction is necessary. The gunners say that the "Reostat" has already been upgraded, and the "Sagittarius" is linked to the advanced aircraft manufacturer. A year ago, even relevant exercises were conducted, where innovations were tested in practice.
Work on the "Zauraltsy" is serious. Taking into account all the requirements, it will be finalized not earlier than in a year. And he will enter the Airborne Forces (together with the control vehicle) only by 2019. This is in the most favorable scenario, although there may be quite a few obstacles on the way.
Another problem is the lack of simulators for new equipment. Significantly behind the requirements of the time and the very methods of training the gunners of the Airborne Forces.
Ideally, an integrated simulator is needed to prepare the artillery battery as a whole, which will allow the entire personnel of the unit to be involved in the training. However, it is not known what stage such a development is at. There is information about the complete lack of funds for it. So while the airborne artillery gunners have to train personnel on a standard combat equipment, spending an invaluable lifespan.
Even more difficult is the situation with new ammunition. Constructors today need to think about how to control the projectile in flight and receive information from it (“hit - did not hit”).
Currently, the Airborne Forces are armed with 120-mm ammunition for the CJSC 2C9 "NONA". The 2K28 control complex was developed and adopted for them in the 2002. It consists of a shot with a guided projectile, a laser target-finder-rangefinder 1-22. Its main advantage is the high probability of a direct hit at the target by the first shot without zeroing in the range of distances from 1,5 to 9 kilometers. And how will other ammunition, for example, the same "Kitol-2", behave in battle?
According to experts, the projectile is not bad, belongs to the class of precision weapons. But there are shortcomings. It does not, for example, provide for work on targets behind cover.
“The main disadvantage of the Kitolov-2 complex is the lack of opportunities for firing at mortar trajectories and targets located behind high shelters on the reverse slopes,” notes Alexander Shitin, head of the KBP division.
Recall: mortar firing is possible at angles of no more than 60 degrees. There are restrictions for Kitolov and the height of the lower cloud limit (400 – 1200 m). He makes quite high demands on the meteo-ballistic preparation of the calculation, which is not always acceptable for the Airborne Forces units.
In addition, the range of the Kitolov-2 product is currently considered to be insufficient for carrying out fire missions.
Shitin says that OJSC KBP is ready to introduce an 120-mm Grani mine, which has been developed for export deliveries. The design features allow it to be used for all 120-mm airborne artillery systems. KBP is ready to begin the development of 120-mm unified mine "Edge-1", which in its performance characteristics has no analogues abroad. This is primarily about homing heads. Perhaps the use of laser semi-active GOS and perspective autonomous, which is being developed in the PCU. The introduction of the “Gran” complex as a whole will increase the controllability of projectiles by at least 40 – 50 percent, and combat use - by two times. But these are prospects.
There are problems with the 110-m shot. According to Nikolai Sereda, director of science at NPO Bazalt, high accuracy is achieved when shooting at a distance of 13 kilometers from Zauraltsa-D. The downside is that after using the 110 shot, the barrel's resource drops sharply - three to four times. This means that each gun will require more thorough additional control and maintenance. For the troops, these are redundant problems. In connection with this, NPO Basalt is planning to modernize the 110-shot, which should reach the 20 – 21 kilometer and have a new, more gentle charge. Practices are. To speed up the loading process, it will be modular, rigidly fastened with a projectile and, possibly, used with obturating belts.
According to the statement by Vladimir Vishnevsky, General Designer of NTC Ametekh, it was possible to create the first automated reconnaissance and firing artillery complex for a whole class of mines. “Airborne troops must have only precision weapons,” Vishnevsky is sure. - Therefore, we are already thinking about ammunition, which will work with a unitary cartridge, laser target designation and the possibility for passive additional exploration of the target. Upgrading the 152-mm projectile will allow it to fly 40 kilometers. ”
"Bravely-M1" - the most powerful mortar in the world. The leadership of Syria, they say, is very requested for its supply. And if we went for it four years ago, perhaps there would not be today's problems with the ISIL terrorist group that we have banned.
It seems that the active hostilities of our VKS against the militants in Syria, the irregular consumption of ammunition and cruise missiles will push the leadership of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation to take optimal decisions.
There is a need for a qualitative leap in the combat use of artillery through the creation of an automated control system based on the introduction of new information technologies that provide real-time deep reconnaissance of enemy targets and their highly efficient fire destruction, information and functionally integrated automated control systems of the airborne forces artillery.
In this regard, gunners recommend to the Military Scientific Committee of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation to include in the plan of priority comprehensive scientific research work on:
-implementation of the maneuvering and firing form of actions of the artillery formations of the airborne forces;
-the substantiation of methods and techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of the RPF as a whole and the performance of fire missions in the changing conditions of warfare using existing and prospective high-precision ammunition, as well as on new physical principles;
-development of means and methods of preparing fire and fire control in the course of performing fire missions using various types of ammunition;
-development, modernization and operation of complexes and models of artillery equipment and means of support.