Austria gradually tended to peace with Turkey. In December, 1738 was signed a peace agreement between France and Austria - the war for the Polish inheritance received its official end. France recognized Augustus III as king, and Stanislav Leschinsky was given possession of Lorraine, which after his death was to be ceded to the French crown. The Duke of Lorraine, Franz Stefan, the son-in-law of the Austrian emperor Charles VI, in return for his hereditary possession, received Parma, Piacenza and in the future (after the death of the last duke) - Tuscany. Naples and Sicily, Charles VI gave way to the Spanish prince Carlos. Unable to put Leshchinsky on the Polish throne, France was preparing for a new stage of the struggle for influence in Europe. And one of its first tasks was the destruction of the union of Russia and Austria.
1 March 1739 Propulsion A.P. Volynsky, prince A.M. Cherkassky, A.I. Osterman, B.K.Minih submitted to the Empress a plan for a future military campaign. “When drawing up a plan for a future campaign, one should pay special attention to the demand of the Austrian court and the whole course of our relations with it. The affairs of this court are now in such a weak state that it cannot provide proper resistance to the Turks, which makes it more and more difficult to conclude peace ... Therefore, we think that it’s necessary to go directly through Poland to Hotin and to act, looking according to enemy movements: for it is dangerous for one corps to go through Poland, and the strong army will be afraid of the Poles and keep from the confederation; with another army, for sabotage, to act against the Crimea and Kuban ". It was believed that the loss of Hotin, becoming a heavy loss for Porta, would ease the position of Austria.
We also saw a serious threat in Sweden, in which the anti-Russian party prevailed again. If Russia remains alone against the Ottoman Empire, the dignitaries argued, it is highly likely that “France ... instead of preventing Sweden from moving closer to Porto, will help it in that, and both the Swedes and the Poles will initiate against us the old malice for Polish affairs ... ”.
Anna Ivanovna agreed with the project, and Minich immediately went to Little Russia to prepare for the march. Shortly before the Crimean Tatars made another foray, but were repulsed. At this time, F. Orlik tried to lure the Cossacks to the side of Porta. However, the vast majority of the Cossacks belonged to his agitation with complete indifference. On the Dnieper, the disastrous times of Doroshenko were not forgotten, and the Cossacks did not want to be under the authority of the Sultan.
To march on Khotyn, Munich planned to gather an army of thousands of people in 90 and give her 227 field guns. However, he managed to concentrate in the Kiev area only 60 thousand people, 174 siege and field guns. Not counting on a permanent supply base, the commander decided to carry all the supplies in one wagon train, giving him a strong cover.
The Russian army crossed the Dnieper near Kiev (main forces) and near the town of Tripoli (Rumyantsev column). On May 25, the troops approached the city of Vasilkov, which was located on the border with Poland, and for two days they waited for the wagons and lagged units to catch up. 28 May, the Russian army crossed the border and headed for the Dniester. 3 June in the camp on the river Kamenka Munnich received a rescript of the sovereign, demanding "a speedy march and all sorts of haste with the work of the enemy sensual actions." However, the “hurry” was greatly hampered by large transports, like the previous campaigns.
The army was divided into four divisions, which went on different roads, but kept in constant contact with each other. 27 June Russian troops crossed the Bug in two places: at Konstantinov and Mezhibozh. Taking advantage of the fact that the Turks had pulled all the forces towards Khotin, Minikh sent Cossack detachments to Soroki and Mogilyov on the Dniester. Both towns were captured and burned, and the Cossacks returned to the army with great loot.
While the Russian troops were moving forward, the Turks managed to gather serious forces from Hotin. To introduce the Ottomans in error, the commander divided the army into two parts. The first, under the command of A.I. Rumyantsev, was to demonstratively move toward Khotin, and the second, led by Minikh himself, was to make a detour and reach the city from the south. 18 July, a month later than previously planned, the army reached the Dniester, and the next day forced it, in full view of the enemy. Forcing the river, Russian troops for a short respite camped in front of the village of Sinkovtsy. July 22 Russians were attacked by large forces of the enemy, but successfully repelled the onslaught. According to Minikh, "our people have given an inexpressible hunt for battle." 39 soldiers and officers died in battle, were injured - 112.
Battle of Stavuchans
From Sinkovits, the Russian army went to Chernivtsi and further to the Khotyn mountains. To accomplish the task, the troops had to go through the so-called "Perekop Uzin" - a defile in the southern part of the Hotinsky Mountains. On the march, the Russian regiments were repeatedly subjected to attacks by Tatar cavalry, but repelled all attacks. Before entering the “Uzyna”, Field Marshal Munnich left the entire wagon train, leaving 20-thousand to protect it. case.
Then the Russian army forced the defile and 9 August reached the plain. Here, Russian troops lined up in three squares. Turks and Tatars did not hinder the movement of Russians through the Khotyn Mountains. The Turkish command planned to encircle the Russians and destroy them with superior forces, on favorable terms. Following the infantry and cavalry, the "Uzins" went through the wagon train. On August 16, Minich’s army approached the village of Stavuchany, which was located approximately 13 versts south-west of Hotin. By this time, under the leadership of the field marshal there were about 58 thousands of people and 150 guns.
The Russians were opposed by a powerful enemy army. In Stavuchany located 80-thousand. army of Turks and Tatars under the command of serasker Veli-pasha. Turkish commander distributed his forces as follows. Around 20, thousands of soldiers (mostly infantry) occupied a fortified camp at the heights between the villages of Nedovoevtsy and Stavuchany, blocking the road to Hotin. The camp was surrounded by a triple retractor with numerous batteries, which stood near the 70 guns. The detachments of the Turkish cavalry under the command of Kolchak-Pasha and Genj-Ali-Pasha (10 thousand people) were to attack the flanks of the Russian army, and the 50-thousandth army of Tatars led by Islam-Girey was instructed to withdraw to the rear of the Russian army. As a result, the Turkish commander planned to cover the Russian army from the flanks and rear, and destroy or force to capitulate in the face of superior forces.
Munnich planned with a demonstrative attack on the right flank to divert the attention of the enemy, and deliver the main blow to the left, less fortified flank and break through to Hotin. August 17 (28) August 9-th. detachment under the command of G. Biron with 50 guns launched a demonstrative attack. Having crossed the Shulanets River, the Russian troops headed towards the main forces of the Ottomans, and then turned back, and began to cross the river again. Ottomans regarded the retreat of the detachment of Biron as the flight of the entire Russian army. Veli Pasha even sent news of the defeat of the “despicable gayaurs” to Khotyn and transferred a significant part of the forces from the left flank to the right, in order to build on success and “destroy” the Russian army.
Meanwhile, Munnich moved forward the main forces that forced Shulanets across 27 bridges. Following the main forces, the detachment of Biron again moved to the left bank of the river. Since the crossing took a lot of time (around 4 hours), the Turks managed to draw strength to the camp again and dig up additional trenches. By 5 hours of the evening the Russians had lined up in battle order and moved to the left wing of the Turkish army. Attempts by the Turkish gunners who occupied the dominant heights to stop the Russian troops with fire were not successful. Turkish gunners did not shine with accuracy. Then the Turkish commander threw the cavalry of Gench Ali Pasha into the offensive. Russian infantry stopped, put out a slingshot and repelled the onslaught of enemy cavalry. This failure finally undermined the morale of the Ottomans. Turkish troops in disorder retreated to Bender, to the Prut River and beyond the Danube.
Russian soldiers captured the camp. Russian trophies became the entire enemy train and a lot of artillery. About 1 thousand Turkish soldiers were killed in the battle. The losses of the Russian army were insignificant and amounted to 13 killed and 53 injured. Count Minich explained such small losses by “the courage of the Russian soldiers and how much artillery and trench fire they were trained for.”
Minich wrote to Anna Ioannovna: “The Almighty Lord, who by his grace our leader was, supremely defended his right hand that we have less than 100 people through the enemy's continuous fire and in such a strong battle; all the rank and file received Victoria to midnight, rejoiced and shouted "Viva, great sovereign!". And the aforementioned Victoria gives us hope for a great success (that is, success), when the army is completely in good condition and has extraordinary courage. ”
18 August, the Russian army approached Hotin. The Turkish garrison fled to Bender. The next day, the city was occupied without a single shot. From Khotin, the troops of Minich headed for the Prut River. 28-29 August Russian forced the river and entered the borders of Moldova. The local population enthusiastically greeted the Russians, seeing in them liberators from the Ottoman yoke. On September 1, the Russian avant-garde occupied Iasi, where the commander received an official deputation of Moldovans who asked to take the country under the “high hand” of Empress Anna Ioannovna.
In one of his reports to St. Petersburg, Minich wrote: “Even the local Moldavian land was very prejudicial and not worse than Livonia, and the people of this land, seeing their liberation from barbarous hands, accepted the highest protection with tearful joy, therefore it is very necessary to keep this land in your hands Majesties; I will strengthen it so from all sides that the enemy will not be able to survive us out of it; next spring, we can easily capture Benders, drive the enemy out of the country between the Dniester and the Danube and take Wallachia. ” However, these far-reaching plans still remained on paper. The dreams of Minikh could be realized only in the times of Catherine the Great, Potemkin, Rumyantsev, Suvorov and Ushakov.
Stavuchanskaya Battle Plan
The end of the war. Belgrade world
Russia summed up an ally - Austria. If the Russian army in the course of the 1739 campaign was successfully advancing and achieved great success, then for the Austrians this year was black. 40-thousand The Austrian army under the leadership of Count Georg von Wallis suffered a heavy defeat at the village of Grotsky in the battle with the 80-thousand. Turkish army. In this battle, the Austrians, who sought to regain Orsov, most grossly underestimated the enemy. After an unsuccessful maneuver in the mountain defile, they were thrown back with heavy losses and took refuge in Belgrade. The Turkish army laid siege to Belgrade. Although the capital of Serbia was considered a very strong fortress, but the Austrians completely lost heart.
Vienna decided to ask for peace. General Naperg was sent to the Turkish camp near Belgrade, whom Emperor Charles VI ordered to start negotiations on a separate peace immediately. Arriving at the Ottoman camp, Neuperg immediately showed that Austria was ready to make some territorial concessions. The Turkish side demanded that Belgrade be handed over to them. The Austrian envoy agreed to this, but with the condition that the fortifications of the city would be razed. However, the Ottomans were already proud of the victory and, seeing the weakness of the Austrians, declared their intention to get Belgrade with all its defensive system.
Such behavior of the Ottomans alarmed the French, who wanted to preserve peace with Austria and destroy the union of Russians and Austrians. Villeneuve immediately went to the camp near Belgrade. He had time: the Turks were already preparing for the assault on Belgrade. The French envoy proposed a compromise solution: let the Austrians destroy the fortifications that they themselves had built, and leave the old Turkish walls intact. So decided. In addition to Belgrade, the Port received back everything that it lost in Serbia, Bosnia and Wallachia under the terms of the Pozarevka Treaty. The border between Serbia and Turkey again laid along the Danube, Sava and the mountainous province of Temesvár. In fact, Austria has lost what she received following the war 1716-1718.
When the representative of the Russian Empire under the Austrian army, Colonel Brown, asked Neiperg if there were any articles in the treaty reflecting the interests of St. Petersburg, he rather sharply replied that Austria had already done too much, joining the Russians for the war. "The usual subterfuge of the Ministry of the Austrian court," - noted on this occasion Minich.
For Russia, this world was a shock. Minich called the treaty "shameful and very reprehensible." With undisguised bitterness, he wrote to Anna Ioannovna: “God judges the Roman Caesar’s court for such an unintentional and evil misconduct and shame that all Christian arms will follow, and I am now in such sadness that I cannot understand how a close ally could act in this way. ” Field Marshal urged the Empress to continue the war. Minich spoke with confidence about the upcoming victories and that the “local” nations are ready to support the army.
However, in Petersburg they thought otherwise. The war was very expensive to the empire. Huge human losses (first of all from diseases, exhaustion and desertion), the expenditure of funds were already seriously disturbing the Russian government. Little Russia was subjected to especially severe ruin. Thousands of people were sent to construction work, many died. Tens of thousands of horses were requisitioned from the residents, food was constantly seized. Desertion from the field army was constantly growing. Most fled to Poland. One day, almost an entire infantry regiment fled to Poland: a 1394 man. New campaigns in the steppe seemed to the exhausted soldiers a sure death, and they preferred to risk their lives by setting out on the run, rather than go to war.
In Russia itself, the war led to an increase in social problems. The country suffered from epidemics, vagrancy, and crime caused by desertion and widespread poverty. To combat the robbers, it was necessary to single out entire military teams. Official papers of the time are replete with reports of "thieves of men" who perpetrated "great ruin and death killings." So it was not far to the great distemper. In particular, in early January 1738 in the village of Yaroslavl, near Kiev, a certain man announced who declared himself prince Alexei Petrovich (the son of Peter I). The impostor called for the soldiers to “stand up” for him, and said: “... I know your need, joy will be soon: I will make peace with the Turks, and in May I will send you all the shelves and Cossacks to Poland and burn all the lands with fire and sword hack. For the soldiers, this agitation caused a most appreciative response. They even defended the "prince" when the authorities sent the Cossacks to seize him. Later, he was still caught and impaled. Some soldiers were beheaded, others were quartered.
Rebelled suburbs. Back in 1735, a major Bashkir uprising broke out, caused by mistakes and abuses by local authorities. Punitive expeditions brought down the fire of the uprising, but in 1737, the Bashkirs continued to fight, albeit on a smaller scale. In 1738, they turned for help to the Kyrgyz khan Abul-Khair. He agreed to help and destroyed in the outskirts of Orenburg those Bashkirs who were loyal to the Russian government. Kyrgyz Khan promised to take Orenburg.
Anxious news came from Sweden, where she lived hope to take revenge for the previous defeat. Throughout the war 1735-1739's. in the Swedish elite two parties fought fiercely. One who advocated a war with the Russian empire was called the “party of hats”, the other, more peaceful, was called the “party hats”. Swedish social lions were actively involved in the confrontation. Countess Delagardi and Lieven were in favor of the war party, and Countess Bonde was a supporter of the peace party. Almost every ball ended in duels between young noblemen from among the admirers of these politicized beauties. Even snuffboxes and needle cases in the form of hats and hubcaps became fashionable.
In June, 1738, the Russian resident in Sweden, M. P. Bestuzhev-Ryumin, was forced to inform Osterman about the undoubted success of the “military” party. Stockholm decided to send Porte, on account of the debts of King Charles XII, the 72-gun ship of the line (albeit it sank along the way) and the 30 of thousands of muskets. A Swedish agent, Major Sinclair, went to the Ottoman Empire, during which there were dispatches to the Grand Vizier with a proposal to begin negotiations on a military alliance. The situation for Russia was extremely dangerous. In his message, Bestuzhev recommended to “annul” Sinclair, and “then to start a rumor that he was attacked by the Haidamaks or someone else.”
So did. In June 1739, two Russian officers, Captain Kutler and Colonel Levitsky, intercepted Sinclair in Silesia, on the way back from Turkey, killed him and took all the papers. This murder caused an apparent outburst of resentment in Sweden. The 10-thousand-strong Swedish corps was urgently deployed to Finland, and a fleet was being prepared in Karlskrona. Petersburg was already waiting for the Swedish strike. Only the victory of Minich at Stavuchane somewhat cooled hot heads in Stockholm. However, the threat of war with the Swedes was one of the most important reasons that Russian diplomats were in a hurry to sign peace with Turkey.
As a result, Petersburg did not dare to continue the war with the Turks alone. The negotiations were mediated by France. 18 (29) September 1739, in Belgrade, Russia and the Ottoman Empire concluded a peace treaty. According to its conditions, Russia returned Azov, without the right to keep a garrison in it and build fortifications. At the same time Russia was allowed to build a fortress on the Don, on the island of Cherkas, and Porte - on the Kuban. Russia also could not keep the fleet in the Black and Azov seas. Moldavia and Khotyn remained behind the Turks, and Small and Big Kabarda in the North Caucasus were declared independent and neutral, turning into a kind of buffer between the two powers. Russian trade with Turkey could only be carried out on Turkish ships. Russian pilgrims were given guarantees of free visits to holy sites in Jerusalem.
Results of the 1737 campaign of the year and the war
Russian troops managed to defeat the Turks on the Dniester and develop an offensive in Moldova, with the prospect of joining this region to Russia. But the defeat of the Austrian army near Belgrade and the separate Austro-Turkish negotiations, which ended with the conclusion of a peace treaty in which the Russian side was forced to participate, as well as the threat of war with Sweden, prevented the development of success.
Thus, the results looked very modest. They came down to the acquisition of Azov (without the right to strengthen it) and to the expansion of borders a few miles in the steppe. The problem of the Crimean Khanate was not solved. Russia had the opportunity to create a fleet in the Azov and Black Seas. Failed to gain a foothold in the Danube. That is, the problem of military-strategic security in the southern and south-western directions has not been resolved.
Militarily, the results of the 1736-1739 campaign. had positive and negative sides. On the one hand, 1735-1739's. I smoothed the impression of the failure of the Prut campaign and showed that the Turks and Tatars can be defeated on their territory. The Russian army successfully crushed the Crimean Khanate, took strategic fortresses (Perekop, Kinburn, Azov, Ochakov), crowded the Turkish-Tatar troops, taking up in open fights. On the other hand, the war very clearly revealed the main problems of the war in the south. The difficulties lay in the great distances, the unusual natural conditions and the sluggishness of the Russian bureaucracy, including the officer corps. The Russian army suffered huge losses in the war: from 100 to 120 thousand people. However, only a small part (8-9%) of the dead were killed in battle. The main damage to the Russian army was caused by long and tedious transitions, thirst, epidemics, lack of supplies, underdeveloped medicine. A certain role in the problems of the army was played by inertia, abuse, aristocratic tendencies (the pursuit of luxury even in wartime conditions) and corruption among officials and officers. However, the lessons of the campaign 1735-1739. will be useful to the Russian army in the future victorious battles with the Ottoman Empire. In the near future, Russia had to win such wars, defeating the steppe and vast spaces, challenging the generally accepted rules of war, not being afraid of the numerically superior forces of the enemy.
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