Military Review

General Governors. The fate of the security officer

3
One of the brightest representatives of the state security bodies of the Andropov period was Nikolay Governors. In 1970's, he, first heading the KGB Reception Room, and then being the Deputy Head of the KGB Administration of the USSR, found himself at the very epicenter of problems, the focus of attention of the entire KGB community.



Nikolay Governors

Nikolai Vladimirovich Governors was born on November 28 on 1924 in the city of Velikie Luki in the family of a railroad worker. In 18 years participated in the Battle of Stalingrad, was an artilleryman.

It must be said that Konon Molodiy and Yuri Drozdov, who later became legendary intelligence officers and illegal immigrants, fought in artillery, so that the KGB fraternity was largely laid on the fields of the Great Patriotic War. In August-September 1943 of the year Nikolay Governors liberated the Donbass, in April-May 1944 of the year - Sevastopol, and ended the war in Riga.

After the war he graduated with honors from the Military Institute of Foreign Languages, in which Yuri Drozdov also studied. And Konon Young studied Chinese at the Academy of Foreign Trade, since he had mastered English before the war, visiting a school in San Francisco.

In 1950, Nikolai Vladimirovich entered the Military Law Academy, from which he graduated with honors. From the beginning of 1955, he served as the military prosecutor of the USSR Chief Military Prosecutor’s Office, and from the end of 1956, he served as senior investigator for particularly important cases of the investigative department of the 6 administration of the KGB of the USSR.

In those years, the State Security Committee (KGB), formed on the basis of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of State Security of the USSR, was repeatedly purged. Nikita Khrushchev and his protege as chairman of the KGB of the USSR Ivan Serov, who were tied up with mass repressions before the war in Ukraine, were imprisoned, fired and shot almost all state security leaders. Almost all the heads of subdivisions in the center and in the field were completely replaced, instead of which they recruited workers from Party and Komsomol bodies who have neither professional skills nor educational training.

This practice continued under Alexander Shelepin and Vladimir Semichastny. The KGB was weakened and could not effectively resist the intensified subversive activities of the enemy. Started loud failures in intelligence. In 1957, William Fisher (Rudolf Abel) was arrested by FBI agents at the Latham Hotel in New York, and the operation to rescue him from an American prison was assigned to Yuri Drozdov.

7 January 1961 in London at the time of the transfer of secret documents was arrested by Colonel Lonsdale (Konon Young), who shortly before the British Queen granted the knight's title "for great success in developing business activities for the benefit of the United Kingdom". 4 February 1964 of the year, while in Geneva, became a defector of the 7 th division of the 2 th Glavka KGB of the USSR Yuri Nosenko, resulting in the withdrawn from 300 to 400 scouts in Moscow. Yuri Nosenko was the son of a minister buried in the Kremlin wall on Red Square.

And when Stalin’s daughter Svetlana Alliluyeva fled to the United States and announced the publication of memoirs written to her, the CPSU Central Committee decided to remove Semichastny from the post of Chairman of the USSR KGB.

The new chairman of the KGB of the USSR, Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov, who was appointed to this position on 19 in May on 1967, made a real revolution in the state security organs. A course was set for comprehensive training and retraining of KGB personnel, strengthening the role of the Higher School of the KGB of the USSR, research work, bringing science closer to practice, resulting in, for example, under the guidance of the Chief of 2, Glaucius Grigorenko in-depth interaction of the counterintelligence directorate with reconnaissance, radio monitoring, outdoor surveillance and operational technical control.

The management structure of all elements of the counterintelligence process was developed: opening communication channels, in-depth study of the handwriting of each intelligence officer, developing a system of measures and special procedures for each unit and their interaction, working out instructions and standards for conducting counterintelligence activities, systematically analyzing actions within operations algorithms for conducting counterintelligence activities.

As a result, it was possible to expose numerous CIA agents of the United States and other foreign intelligence services, as a rule, deeply secreted. The KGB officer officer improvement courses were organized at the first department of the Higher School of the KGB of the USSR, where reservists were prepared in case of war to conduct partisan and reconnaissance and sabotage actions in the rear of the enemy (special forces of state security).
To combat the ideological sabotage of the enemy, the 5-e KGB Directorate, headed by Philip Bobkov, an experienced counterintelligence officer, who had encyclopedic knowledge of all the nuances of the life of the creative intelligentsia, was created. The task of the new body was not to suppress dissidence, but to insert agent sources into enemy centers in order to reveal the system of organizing the apparatus of ideological sabotage, detecting and suppressing the enemy’s intelligence, propaganda and subversive activities on the Soviet territory, including opening the mechanism of recruiting and involving Soviet citizens in organized opposition to the existing system.

Finally, Andropov was able to put a much higher level of medical support and living conditions for the staff and veterans of the country's state security agencies. Just the day after his appointment, Yuri Vladimirovich received the head of the sector of the administrative department of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Ardalion Malygin, who was in charge of the bodies. Ardalion Nikolaevich, a former active participant in the defense of Tula and the deputy head of the military counterintelligence, said that “over the past post-war period, not a single building was built for the KGB. For example, intelligence, located on the 7-m floor of the main building in Lubyanka, is simply choking on crowding. In small offices huddled around 15 – 20 employees.

General Governors. The fate of the security officer

Ardalion Malygin

We placed the second Glavk (counterintelligence) a bit due to the “relocation” of the Investigation Department to the Lefortovo prison. And the internal prison was occupied by operational units. The KGB Higher School is located in an unsuitable old building. And the Higher Red Banner Intelligence School of the PSU is lonely huddled in the shabby wooden barracks outside the city in the woods. Medical staff ... and there is nothing to boast. In the structure of the KHOZU there is a medical department. Under him, there is one clinic for adults and one for the children of employees. There is also an old pre-war hospital on the Volokolamsk highway. He is always overloaded ... "

- Would you agree to head this department? If you agree, I will immediately call Leonid Ilyich.

Andropov immediately picked up the Kremlevka receiver and called Brezhnev, and a minute later handed the phone to A.N. Malyginu. As Nikolai Vladimirovich Governors recalls, already being an assistant to Malygin, he heard from him that Brezhnev greeted Malygin and then said:

- We must help Jura, and you are just able to help, pull the KGB out of stagnation. Besides you, the Central Committee recommends two more deputies to help Yuri.

A few days later, the deputies Yu.V. Andropov was appointed Semen Tsvigun, George Tsinev and Ardalion Malygin. They occupied adjacent offices on the 4 floor of the building on Lubyanka.

The next day, the chairman met with the commander of 1, the Main Command (foreign intelligence), Colonel-General Alexander Sakharovsky, and asked him to bring up to date.

- Unfortunately, foreign intelligence has not yet recovered from the purges and upheavals that occurred after Beria’s arrest. Some were dismissed from intelligence, many were arrested on unreasonable suspicions - just because they worked under the leadership of Beria on atomic problems.

Major leaders were arrested - Pavel Sudoplatov, Naum Eitingon and other intelligence analysts. We do not have deep analysts who are able to generalize, anticipate and predict the development of events. It is necessary to form a special analytical group with the head of the central board ...

“Undoubtedly, this should be done without delay,” said Andropov. - However, this is not a cardinal solution to the problem. In modern conditions, as such a solution, I see the creation of a research institute for intelligence problems, which could work, for example, on disarmament issues, negotiations with the American side ...

- The creation of such a research institute would be ideal for intelligence. But that's where to place it?

- I plan to improve working conditions by building new buildings. I will discuss this question with L.I. Brezhnev and I will achieve its consideration on the Politburo. I think, ”continued Andropov,“ for your Glavka it is necessary to design a complex of buildings outside the city, together with a separate building for the scientific research institute of reconnaissance problems. The project should provide all the amenities of life support, as well as the construction of cottages for teaching staff.

Soon, Andropov came to a meeting with graduates of the KGB Higher School on Leningradsky Prospect, of which the Governors were a graduate student. Addressing the audience, Andropov said:

“Be in the midst of the people, keep the law and justice, show kindness and mercy, these feelings give rise to patriotism. Enrich your knowledge by adopting our native language, literature, and our spiritual strength. stories. After all, our ideology itself was formed in the process of history. And we all now live in compliance with the code of builders of communism, which has absorbed the best historical spiritual and moral norms - from the Christian commandments to popular wisdom, because Russia has always been distinguished by its irreducible spiritual strength and always rose from its knees, overcoming all the shocks. "

As Nikolai Vladimirovich recalled, he always tried to understand what the power of the penetrating influence on the people of this person was. He certainly possessed incredible spiritual energy, faith in a just cause and exceptional sincerity, genetically inherited from our mighty Russian ancestors, who, with their indestructible faith and soul, unified other peoples into great imperial Russia. At the same time, it is possible that Andropov possessed extrasensory abilities.


Victor Chebrikov, Yuri Andropov, Ardalion Malygin

The internal energy of such people is built and focused in the form of an energy beam directed into the region of the crown of the head of his counterpart. The most sensitive channel of perception of energetic influences by a person is the optic nerve - the best sensor among all existing in the human body.

Apparently, therefore, during the perception of Andropov's speech, accompanied by specific facial expressions, gestures, and, above all, with the fascinating-radiant look of his eyes, an invisible link was established between Andropov and his listeners.

“I, like everyone who was in the hall, felt completely comfortable, on a high elation. It was then that I had the dream to work together with such a gifted and extraordinary person, as I first saw Andropov, ”writes the Governors.
Shortly after Nikolai Vladimirovich defended his Ph.D. thesis on the topic “The sabotage and terrorist activities of German intelligence against the USSR during the Great Patriotic War,” his dream came closer - he was invited to work as his assistant A.N. Malygin, Deputy Yu.V. Andropov.

“Essentially, I got into the orbit of the activities of Andropov’s personal team, which already knew me and greeted me warmly and cordially,” writes the Governors. - One of Andropov’s constant concerns was control over the departure of Soviet citizens abroad, mainly scientists, cultural workers, heads of enterprises, ministries and departments. The last and main authority that gave permission to leave was the commission of the CPSU Central Committee, whose deputy chairman from the KGB was A.N. Malygin.

Andropov repeatedly called him, as he put it, “not to rage.” I remember once on a regular Thursday, we received a protocol of the commission, where Vladimir Vysotsky was among the refusers.

He was denied the opportunity to travel to Paris to his wife Marina Vlady. The reasons for the refusal in the protocol was not. There was only a brief note: “The KGB department for the city of Moscow and the region considers traveling to be inexpedient”. Malygin called me and ordered me to bring Vysotsky from the archive.

Taking the file from the archive, I studied it and carried Malygin. I reported that the refusal was unjustified, I said that I considered Vysotsky a patriot and was confident that he would not remain abroad.

- How do you know about it? - asked Malygin.

- By the way, I go with him to the Finnish bath and I know his mood. Volodya told me directly that those who think that he loves them less than the Soviet authorities and the Motherland do not let him go abroad.

Malygin smiled and, having picked up the phone, reported my opinion to Andropov. In response, Yury Vladimirovich remarked:

- I also think Volodya is a real patriot. And, if the commission refuses him to leave, it will be a blunder, a shame on the whole Union. So you, Ardalion Nikolaevich, tomorrow on the commission lay bones, but achieve a positive decision.

“Well, I will do that,” promised Malygin, and received the “good” to the Central Committee. Vysotsky traveled to Paris and returned to Moscow, expressing his impressions of Paris and the whole story in his famous songs. ”

In 1975, the head of the secretariat, Yevgeny Karpeshchenko, who had just created the duty service of the KGB, which included investigators, detectives and explosives, invited the Governor to lead the Foster KGB.

- With Malygin, your boss, I already talked. He agrees to let you go. You are a lawyer, a candidate of science, you know the work and the people in the reception and the secretariat, ”concluded Karpschenko's conversation. - And I also instruct you to develop a Regulation on a new structure called the Administration of the KGB of the USSR, which should be replaced by the current secretariat. We have long outgrown the old structure, and it is time to raise the title.

“Yury Vladimirovich,” he said, “he wants to get to know you better, although I reported to him your entire biography.”

“When I entered the office and sat down,” writes Nikolai Vladimirovich, “Andropov spoke first, looking intently into my eyes. From forensic science and my investigative practice, I knew that through the interlocutor's eyes one could perceive additional information about him. It is by our eyes that we judge first of all about a person when we get to know him and make an initial judgment about his personality.


Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov at his dacha in Zavidovo

By the eyes, we can learn a lot about their owner - about the emotional content of his character, openness, nationality, mental characteristics - such as will, kindness, tenderness, nastiness, cowardice, etc. I don’t think that at that moment Andropov studied my mentality with his keen, penetrating gaze, because he said that Karpschenko had reported everything about me with maximum detail.

- In addition, you have worked well as an assistant to A.N. Malygin, and he himself praised you to me.

Suddenly, Andropov asked me:

- And on what fronts did you fight? In Karelian accident was not possible?

“No,” I say, “I began to fight in Stalingrad, then I continued on 4-m Ukrainskiy and ended the war as part of 1-th Baltic.”

- And where was the hardest thing?

- Perhaps, it was especially hard when I forced the Sivash to cross in November 1943 of the year (I didn’t know how to swim) and when storming the Sapun Mountain during the liberation of Sevastopol. There I was wounded and contused.

- Have you ever worked with letters? - continued Andropov.

- Yes, I was engaged in the letters of citizens when I worked as a military prosecutor in the Main Military Prosecutor's Office.

- So, the case is familiar. But we, in the KGB, have their own specifics, it will have to be mastered. The main thing is sensitivity, kindness, justice and as little as possible unjustified refusals in the answers. And on the contrary, more attention, warmth to our visitors in the Reception.

“Well, well, then,” Andropov concluded, smiling. - I was glad to meet with a front-line soldier. I wish you successful work as part of our team. ”
As the head of the KGB, Andropov was one of the most informed people in the world. He received information from a wide variety of sources, including radio interceptions and "wiretapping" of telephone conversations of those individuals who came to the attention of the KGB, both in the USSR and abroad.

If we add to this the natural intelligence, high decency, and exceptional tactfulness of Yuri Vladimirovich, then one can imagine the terrible dilemmas this man was concerned about. After all, he, like no one else, realized from where and what danger threatens the very existence of the Soviet Union, the socialist community, understood that deep, but not killing and shocking changes in politics and economics that took shape in the Khrushchev-Brezhnev period are needed, sincerely wishing their comrades and fellow citizens of good, progress and prosperity.


Cabinet of Yuri Andropov in Lubyanka

Nikolai Vladimirovich Governors, first as the head of the reception room, and then the deputy head of the Administration of the KGB of the USSR, was at the very epicenter of these problems, the focus of attention of the entire KGB community. This tremendous burden and responsibility can be illustrated by the example of illegal intelligence officers and their families.

So, already mentioned above Konon Young in 1951, he married Galina Peshikova, who had a daughter Lisa from his first marriage, which he adopted. And his own son Trofim was born in 1958, when an illegal scout lived abroad for quite a long time. The fact is that about once a year Konon Trofimovich came to his homeland: he traveled from England to France, Switzerland, West Germany or another capitalist, using the last name he was known in Great Britain as Lonsdale. Upon arrival in, say, Paris, he received documents from a Soviet intelligence officer to a different name and flew to some socialist country — Poland, Czechoslovakia, from where he was brought to Moscow for a short time without any problems.

At the same time, the spouse was sure that her husband was coming on short-term leave from a distant Chinese province. After all, he told her such a legend. Yes, and on the stamp of all the letters that Galina Petrovna received from her husband from abroad were Chinese hieroglyphs. Only in 1961, when Colonel Lonsdale was arrested and tried in London, did the management of C (illegal intelligence) of the PGU of the USSR KGB tell Galina about where her husband had been for all these years and what fate had befallen him. The Chekists presented her with a big gold ring with aquamarine.

After serving three years out of twenty-five in a British prison, Konon Young was exchanged for Greville Wynn, an English intelligence officer and liaison officer of the GRU colonel Oleg Penkovsky, exposed in the USSR. Already in Moscow, Konon Trofimovich asked to prepare for publication his memoirs and some documents from the personal archive, because, according to professionals, he was a top-class scout, star number 1 in a complex and dangerous business, which is engaged in the special services of all countries of the world.

He, who had seen and experienced a lot, it seemed that such a book could be useful for understanding the political realities in the world. “I didn’t steal secrets, but I tried to fight against the military threat to my country with the methods and tools that I had at my disposal,” these words of Colonel Young are still relevant today.

October 15 The 1970 of the Year in the “Red Star” was published the sad message about the sudden death of Colonel K.T. Young. Abroad, it has even been suggested that the colonel's sudden death is a “trick” of the KGB. Like, Gordon Lonsdale received a new task ...

Alas, he died one autumn day in the woods outside Moscow, where he went with his wife and friends to pick mushrooms. He leaned down to cut the mushroom - and fell, so as not to get up. He was 48 years old ...

Initially, the book under the collective pseudonym “Trofim Podolin” was entitled “Special Trip”. She was in excerpts published in "Komsomolskaya Pravda" and "Week". But suddenly the publication was interrupted by censorship. It was easy to guess who gave such an indication to Glavlit, and Nikolai Vladimirovich addressed Andropov:

- Yury Vladimirovich, it's not just that it's a pity for three years of work. It seems to us unfair that the country does not know about the difficult fate of a beautiful person.

The chairman of the KGB of the USSR thoroughly explained the reasons for which it was decided to stop publishing. They all lay, so to speak, in the field of big politics. About Colonel Molodoy, what he did for the country, Yury Vladimirovich responded with great warmth. Concluding the conversation, he said:

“I have no doubt that the time will come when you can publish a story about Colonel Lonsdale.”

As a result, the book "Gordon Lonsdale: my profession is a scout" was released only in 1990 year. One can only guess how much material and mental trouble right up to nervous breakdowns fell on the widow of a scout, and Nikolai Vladimirovich provided constant support. And she is not alone, because in the world there are hundreds of illegal intelligence officers who are aimed not only at gathering information, but also at active work in the “X” hour.


The book with a dedication on the page: “Yuri Vedyaev, a member of the Andropov team. 17.2.2005. Governors "

By the beginning of 1982, Nikolai Vladimirovich already knew that Andropov was being transferred from the KGB to the Central Committee of the CPSU. Having studied for many years his emotional sensitivity and responsive attitude not only to his employees, but also to people in general, at one of the reports he addressed him with a personal request. Yuri Vladimirovich took off his glasses and, looking up from the papers, asked with his soft voice:

- Tell me what request?

- Yuri Vladimirovich, let me go to work at the KGB Higher Red Banner School, only there I can finish and defend my doctoral dissertation.

After a short pause, Andropov, as if thinking out loud, said:

- Yes, perhaps, with our download, it is difficult to complete the thesis here ... I now recall: you already expressed a similar desire when I congratulated you on conferring the rank of general to you and wished to grow further, especially since the title of general is in harmony with your name and hearing historically pleased - the Governors General. I remember you sincerely replied that the growth in the rank of general does not attract you and that you would like to defend your doctoral dissertation and devote yourself to research and teaching activities ... The topic is really relevant and interesting, and the experience of the investigator will be useful to you. Not only the general public, but also the young security officers do not know how the security officers acted in wartime, they have no opportunity to get acquainted with the documents and study them. But we have something to show and deserve to be proud of. Some titles of the Hero of the Soviet Union were awarded to more than thirty Chekists, and two were awarded the highest general orders of Suvorov. Therefore, it was decided to prepare and publish in several volumes a collection of documents on the activities of the state security bodies of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War. You will be helped by the accounting and archival units of the entire committee.

In 2005, the book of the Governor, Andropov’s Team, was published. This is a story about people with whom the Governor happened to serve when he was a member of the "Andropov team."


The manuscript of the book by Nikolai Gubernatorov "Team Andropov"

“I was lucky,” writes Nikolai Gubernatorov, “and I still feel the joy of life because, despite the war, serious wounds and contusions, I survived, and because I was lucky to work alongside Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov, under his direct leadership in the KGB under the Council of Ministers of the USSR. "
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 27 December 2015 07: 37
    +2
    Initially, the book under the collective pseudonym "Trofim Podolin" was entitled "Special Mission." It was published in excerpts in Komsomolskaya Pravda and Nedelya.... Yes, I remember, collected, cut ...
  2. Cap.Morgan
    Cap.Morgan 27 December 2015 10: 20
    -5
    Intelligence can do a lot for the development of the state. Eyes and ears.
    Now the truth is that an ever-increasing share falls on the share of technical intelligence. The time of illegal scouts is a thing of the past. Anna Chapman is one of the last of this profession. There is something to see!
    1. TanyaKar
      TanyaKar 28 December 2015 07: 49
      0
      Do not exaggerate the merits of Chapman.