Military Review

About hunger in the USSR in 1930-ies and the myth of the Holodomor

In November, the Memorial to the victims of the famine 1932 – 1933 was opened in Washington. The exact number of those killed at the opening ceremony was not called: they talked about the millions of victims.

Washington. Memorial to the victims of famine 1932 – 1933

The organizers of the event did not repeat the absurd assertions about 7 – 10 million Ukrainians killed during the so-called famine. Otherwise, we would have to answer the question of where, when and by whom almost a third of the population of the Ukrainian SSR was buried.


The law “On Holodomor 1932 – 1933 in Ukraine” was adopted by the Verkhovna Rada 28 in November 2006 on the initiative of then-Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko. Memorial Day for victims of famines is celebrated on the fourth Saturday of November annually. And the brainwashing of citizens of Ukraine goes on without a break. Historians like Stanislav Kulchitsky assure them that "the Holodomor was the result of a previously calculated and well-organized terror by famine."

In Soviet times, this twisted historian argued that "the idea of ​​organized famine in Ukraine is not only deeply erroneous, but also irrational, that is, unscientific." After the collapse of the USSR, Kulchitsky’s irrational and antiscientific idea was adopted for service. The idea that hunger was not needed by the Bolsheviks, if only because it had become an anti-advertisement for the collectivization of agriculture, he ignores.

The first to assert that the famine of 1932 – 1933 had an anti-Ukrainian orientation, as early as the 1930-s, the radical Ukrainian nationalists began. During the Cold War, the myth of the famine began to be used by the West in anti-Soviet propaganda. Under US President Ronald Reagan, who declared the USSR an “evil empire,” they engaged in the famine thoroughly. US citizen Yekaterina Chumachenko, who later became Yushchenko’s wife, also took part in this venture.

In 1980, Robert Conquest’s books The Harvest of Sorrow. Soviet collectivization and terror by famine "and James Mace" Communism and the dilemmas of national liberation: national communism in Soviet Ukraine in 1919 – 1933. ”

Speaking at an international conference in Tel Aviv, Mace, the first of Western researchers, qualified the famine in Ukraine as genocide by sowing the seeds of lies, which gave such a bountiful harvest in post-Soviet Ukraine.

Serious Western historians do not share the views of Mace and Conquest. And for this they have good reasons. For example, German historian Stefan Merle remarked:

“Conquest avoids some of the obvious questions: were Ukrainian peasants persecuted because they were Ukrainians, or because they were peasants? Why did peasants die of starvation in the Volga region and in the eastern grain-producing regions?

And why, in contrast, hunger to some extent spared the north-western part of Ukraine? Much says that the measures taken by the government concerned the entire Soviet peasantry, and by no means only Ukrainians ...

Conquest and Mace do not provide convincing evidence in favor of their thesis on genocide. It's a shame that they did not even try to substantiate it seriously. The fact that these authors presented to the reader is a mixture of unsubstantiated allegations, leading questions and isolated facts.

The problems that arise from the material they have submitted about hunger as a result of national policies remain unresolved. Actually, the wider approach of Conquest, whose book aims to describe the struggle of the Bolsheviks not only against “Ukrainians”, but also against the peasantry as a whole, leaves the reader wondering why the author speaks of hunger only for Ukrainians. ”

The question is put right by German scientists. Another thing is to give an honest answer to him the propagandists of the myth of the Holodomor cannot.


At the beginning of the Harvest of Sorrow, Conquest quoted the words "a famous English writer": "Facts are sacred - opinion is free." Reliably established facts are exactly what will allow us to show the falsity of the myth about the anti-Ukrainian famine.
What happened in the same years outside the Ukrainian SSR?

The situation in a number of regions was extremely difficult. In Mordovia, the collective farmers of the Zubovo-Polyansky District ate a surrogate in the form of a mixture of lentil flour, moss, and millet chaff and fallen horses dug out of cattle graves. “Mortality by s. Anaevo has recently increased dramatically, 10 and more people die daily, mostly children. From 10 April to 10 May, at least 130 people died. Due to the lack of bread, the population goes to Siberia, where more than 30 farms have left Anaev, ”the special reference to the Mordovia regional executive committee of 21 in May 1933 said.
A similar food situation has developed in other collective farms of the region. Due to food difficulties, the epidemic situation has sharply worsened. In the first half of 1932, 1463 patients with smallpox, 1371 - typhoid fever, 909 - typhoid fever, etc. were registered. And these are only registered patients ...

Historian Viktor Kondrashin published the results of a survey of the registry offices of the districts of the former Nizhne-Volzhsky and Mid-Volzhsky territories of Russia as early as 1991:

“It is known that in the starving areas, due to the lack of normal food, people were forced to eat surrogates, and this led to an increase in mortality from diseases of the digestive organs. Actual books for 1933. Show a sharp increase (in 2,5 times). In the column “cause of death” there appeared records: “from bloody diarrhea”, “from hemorrhoid bleeding due to the use of a surrogate”, “from poisoning with ziruhoy”, “from poisoning with surrogate bread”. Mortality significantly increased due to such causes as “intestinal inflammation”, “stomach pain”, “stomach disease”, etc.

Another factor that caused an increase in mortality in 1933 in this region of the Volga region was ... typhoid, dysentery, malaria, etc. Records in assembly books allow us to speak about the outbreak of typhoid and malaria epidemics here. In sec. Kogevino (Nizhne-Volzhsky Krai) in 1933. Of the 228 dead, 81 died of typhoid fever and 125 of malaria. The following figures speak about the scale of the tragedy in the village: in 1931 there, a person died from typhoid fever and malaria 20, in 1932, 23 died ...

In the books of books, there are other causes of death of the population in 1933, which were absent in the past, and now determined the growth of mortality and directly pointing to hunger: many peasants died “from hunger”, “from hunger strike”, “from bilelessness”, “from exhaustion organism on the basis of starvation ”,“ from malnutrition of bread ”,“ from starvation of death ”,“ from hungry edema ”,“ from complete depletion of the organism because of insufficient nutrition ”, etc. In sec. Alekseyevka from 161 of the deceased 101 died of starvation. ”

Records in assembly books recorded genuine family tragedies. 10 July 1933 of the year in sec. Vasilyevka, Teleginsky district, four-year-old V.S. Rodionov and one year old AS Rodionova, July 15 - a three-year-old S.S. Rodionova and eight-year TS Rodionova ...

Historian Yevgeny Oskolkov wrote about the tragedy of another Russian family: “In the Krasnoyarsk farmhouse (now part of the Ternovsky village council of the Sholokhovsky district. - Omskolkov's note) of the Lebyazhinsky village council of the Veshensky district of Semen Danishovich Shmatov, a grain-grower, died of starvation. In December, 1932, Mr. Semyon Danilovich and his wife, Ulyana, buried nine-month-old Grunya.

In March, eight-year-old Volodya died of starvation on 1933, and five days later the head of the family, Semyon Danilovich, died. Three weeks later, the widow left Ulyana buried the second eight-year-old son, Vanya. ”

But a fragment of the memories of F.L. Slynko (town of Belovo, Kemerovo region):

“When in the Akmola region they began to organize collective farms, they didn’t accept the father as a farmer and no tax authorities. He had to leave his native village and look for another share with his family. So he was forced to go to his relatives in the North-Kazakhstan region, the village of Pokrovka, Mamlyut district ...

My father settled down to clean the snow at the airport of the local Osoviahima, began to get rations on himself. We, the dependents, were not allowed rations. We were swollen from hunger, the father caught the crows, who got the hand to lure at the airport. Once I covered a flock of sparrows with a fishing net - here was a holiday for us, our joys cannot be described.

Peasants rent bread to the state. Ukraine. Early 1930's

My father grew weaker, completely emaciated, and went to Pokrovka for his relatives to at least get something for us. And on the road, before reaching the village, he died on the side of the road. At that time, a lot of people died at Mamluta station ...

My father had documents in his pocket, and our friend recognized him, came and told his sister that his father was dead in the barn. There is a stir in the family, a cry. The sisters went to look for the father’s body, but they don’t give it to him. With great difficulty we got and brought on a sled home.

The neighbors made a coffin, but there is nothing to put on, there is no linen — only rags. Neighbor ... gave worn, but clean underwear, pants and shirt. There was no Russian cemetery in Mamlute, it was necessary to bury it in Pokrovka. But there is no transport, and they decided to bury at the station by the tracks - a Russian cemetery spontaneously formed there. ”

Note that the propagandists of the anti-Ukrainian famine amicably silent about Russian cemeteries.

The head of the political department of the Yeisk MTS drew a heavy picture: “The condition of people in January of 1933 was terrible. From January to April, a number of collective farms died from 365 to 200 people. Total for 4 collective farms - over 1000 people. In Eyukrepreniya there were a number of cases of massacre and cannibalism of their loved ones, relatives. The corpses were stolen from the cemetery. ”

The massacre and cannibalism took place not only there. In the Volga region, eyewitnesses witnessed the facts of cannibalism in the villages of Shumeyka - Engels and Semyonovka - the Fedorovsky cantons of the Autonomous Republic of Germans of the Volga region, Simonovka, Novaya Ivanovka of the Balandinsky district, Ivlevka - Atkarsky, Zaletovka - Petrovsky, Ogaryovka, New Burasy - Novo Brask region, Brashinsky region, Brashinsky district - Volsky districts of the Saratov region.

Often the object of cannibalism were children. At times, the threat came from relatives and friends who lost their mind on the basis of hunger. And the old men stopped eating and went to die away from their home ...

Valuable recognition of Robert Conquest

It has been a quarter of a century since the topic of 1932 – 1933's famine has ceased to be a white spot. stories. And the above, and many other facts are not secret. However, propagandists of the myth of the anti-Ukrainian famine are silent about them.

But sometimes they miss it. In the Harvest of Grief, Conquest admitted in passing that “in the Central and Lower Volga, as well as on the Don, according to the data available, the losses were proportionally as great as in Ukraine.”

And if so (and this is exactly so!), Then all the stories about the so-called famine, organized by the Soviet authorities with the aim of exterminating the Ukrainians, are dirty and cynical falsification of history, pursuing political goals.
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  1. apro
    apro 27 December 2015 06: 26
    Speaking about the famine in the USSR, the Americans somehow keep silent about their own genocide against the American people during the years of the Great Depression, the scale was impressive there, the creation of camps and free dining rooms for the hungry people somehow did not fit in with the capitalist paradise,
    1. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 27 December 2015 10: 25
      So the Americans did have a fierce grin of capitalism. No wonder they starved the proletarians.
      We have a state of workers and peasants. How did it happen, with our most advanced management methods and visionary leaders?
      1. Igor39
        Igor39 27 December 2015 11: 36
        10 th
        I think it was the Trotskyists and agents of capitalism who organized this provocation, but the OGPU calculated all who succumbed to this provocation, well, went hungry and ate corpses, they were properly dealt with, shot.
    2. Max_Bauder
      Max_Bauder 27 December 2015 17: 26
      It is necessary to open a monument in Moscow to the millions of victims of the Indians of North America, who were mercilessly exterminated by white immigrants, it was the actual genocide at the state level to liberate the lands.

      Listen to the speech of the Native American leader Seattle in 1854. Well said.
      1. the villain
        the villain 27 December 2015 18: 05
        Quote: Max_Bauder
        It is necessary in Moscow to open a monument to the millionth victims of the Indians of North America

        Opposite the Merkan embassy. good
  2. Strashila
    Strashila 27 December 2015 07: 11
    The fact that the Americans are silent about what is happening during the depression of the 30s is a fact ...
    But the idea of ​​the "Holodomor" as some kind of local event is a blatant falsification ... what was happening at the same time in Polish Poland was blatant genocide. If in the USSR assistance was provided to everyone, regardless of nationality, then in neighboring Poland there was a choice on this basis ... Ukrainians were deliberately put in a losing position, forcing them to give their property and means of production to the Poles for a crust of bread.
  3. nogBogHuk
    nogBogHuk 27 December 2015 07: 50
    I can confirm with confidence about my relatives. My maternal grandmother lived in Kursk province in 1920-30, she had 13 children, so 10 children died of starvation and illness. If it weren’t for moving to Stalingrad, they would all have died. Grandfather got a job at the Stalingrad Tractor Plant.
    In the villages in the Center of Russia and the Volga region in the 20s and 30s there was a terrible famine, and whoever told me not to judge, think for yourself. I will not tell you terrible things that my grandmother told me. I’ll just say that before the revolution there was a well-to-do family not landowners but everyone and an educated one uncle judge had another priest, etc.
    1. Shadowcat
      Shadowcat 27 December 2015 10: 06
      There was a war. Civil. So in the fields, even if it was plowing, it was seized, or burned, or trampled on by the moment. So hunger was a natural result.
      1. Cap.Morgan
        Cap.Morgan 27 December 2015 10: 28
        War? In the thirtieth?
        Theoretically, yes. From this point of view, it has not yet ended. In Ukraine, one can observe the consequences of that war.
        1. Shadowcat
          Shadowcat 27 December 2015 11: 50
          The civil war went on until 1921. Officially. But the ki of any war remained - gangs, robbers, OUN members and other trash. And you just can't catch them. Remember "The meeting place cannot be changed" and G. Zheglov's speech on this topic. Here you need a delicate and painstaking work of the executive and judicial system, which will decide everything not in a day or two.
          But I pointed out the causes of hunger 20-30x, not 40x and not 50x
    2. Vadim237
      Vadim237 27 December 2015 10: 17
      Interestingly, how many of the entire population died of hunger for all the time.
      1. anew
        anew 27 December 2015 12: 58
        13 th
        Quote: Vadim237
        Interestingly, how many of the entire population died of hunger for all the time.

        The numbers are a little different. According to researchers (Andreev E.M., Darsky L.E., Kharkov T. L.), the first famine of 21-22 years claimed the lives of approximately 4,5 million people.
        A. N. Yakovlev cites the figure of more than 5,5 million dead, summing up the victims of starvation in the RSFSR in 1918–1922.
        In the early 1930s, according to the estimates of the OGPU organs, almost 2,5 million people participated in scattered peasant uprisings and protests under anti-Bolshevik and anti-Stalinist slogans. As a result, the Bolsheviks retaliated. At the suggestion of A. Mikoyan, and with the consent of Dzhugashvili, the rate of grain withdrawal by the state in grain areas was increased from 37% to 45%, despite the fact that in 1930 the harvest per person was 489 kg, and in 1932 - only 415 kg (a drop by 15%). Therefore, the Holodomor of 1933 was artificial or "man-made" in nature. The famine that struck in the winter of 1933 Ukraine, the Don, the North Caucasus, Western Siberia, the Volga region, the Kazak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, according to experts, took about 6,5 million human lives [an average estimate according to studies by many authors], and allowed the Stalinists to impose on the village " the second serfdom of the Bolsheviks. "
        In total, the times of Bolshevism and Stalinism (from 1917 to 1959) cost Russia a loss of 110 million (I.A. Kurganov) to 156 million (O.A. Platonov) people.
        Surprisingly, some require IT to be repeated. Isn't calling for a repeat of THIS an extremism?
        1. Shadowcat
          Shadowcat 27 December 2015 13: 06
          Quote: anew
          In total, Bolshevism and Stalinism (from 1917 to 1959) cost Russia a loss of 110 million (I.A. Kurganov) to 156 million (O.A. Platonov) people.

          And the territory of the USSR nafig died out ... But the party did not lose heart and made new people.
          If I'm not mistaken, Kurganov used a "pseudo-model" of population growth dynamics, i.e. entered into his calculations the dead souls of the unborn.

          1. anew
            anew 27 December 2015 14: 09
            Quote: ShadowCat
            And the territory of the USSR nafig died out ... But the party did not lose heart and made new people.

            When you come to work in the circus, the arena of revenge, there you will explain. But on such topics this is not appropriate.
            And learn what the term "population loss" means.
            1. user
              user 27 December 2015 15: 59
              And learn what the term "population loss" means.

              And if we add here, according to Solzhenitsyn, losses in the Great Patriotic War are more than 40 million or losses in the same war, but according to Astafiev over 60 million, plus tens of millions of repressed by the terrible Stalin, and to add here killed by the executioner Beria - Damn yes China still has as much population as of today, as you say we killed, shot and just buried.

              And if you seriously approach this issue and refer to the forecast of Mendeleev, who tried to make a forecast on the territories that were then part of the Russian Empire and did not take into account the loss of any wars or revolutions, his forecast was 500 million population as of January 1, 2000.
              So forecasts are not grateful, even for the great ones not all forecasts come true.
        2. Vadim237
          Vadim237 27 December 2015 13: 16
          So much for the Soviet government - industry has been raised, and ruined by tens of millions of people.
  4. Igor39
    Igor39 27 December 2015 07: 50
    The famine was however, but it was not Stalin's fault, it was Trotsky and his team discriminated against the great helmsman.
    1. Shadowcat
      Shadowcat 27 December 2015 10: 26
      I'm afraid not only of the Trotskyists. Let's be honest - you shouldn't attribute to them the merits of small-town drones, analogs of "Khrushchevs", as well as overzealous performers who do not approach the issues comprehensively.
  5. Egoza
    Egoza 27 December 2015 07: 51
    Yes, in Europe, too, famine was observed, only now the victims in Western Ukraine are also attributed to the victims of the USSR, although at that time, the memory was not related to the Ukrainian SSR.
    1. Beaver
      Beaver 27 December 2015 16: 50
      I thought the same thing after reading Strashila's comment. It seems that for all the insults inflicted by the Poles, Western Ukrainian nationalists are brought against Russia.
      When I was and lived in Ukraine (central), I often asked old women about the "past".
      As for the "Holodomor", people who were about 20 years old in those years could not tell anything special. It is strange that such a terrible event did not leave a big trace in the people's memory. This refers to the memory of ordinary people, not the memory of writers and politicians.
      Once, at a village cemetery, I saw a monument to the victims of the famine, it included all those who died in those years (apparently they thought that in a famine people die only of starvation). The list of victims was not so big, approximately comparable with the number of deaths in other years, maybe a little more.
  6. parusnik
    parusnik 27 December 2015 08: 00
    "Activists" came to my great-grandfather and demanded that they kill the draft animals .. He refused .. But the "red rooster was allowed" .. About the mass slaughter of draft animals, which preceded the famine, on the territory of the Kuban, Don, Kazakhstan, Ukraine ... not write ... and the slaughter did not take place at the request of the authorities ...
    1. apro
      apro 27 December 2015 08: 09
      Quote: parusnik
      .. They don’t write about the mass slaughter of draft cattle that preceded the famine on the territory of the Kuban, Don, Kazakhstan, Ukraine ...

      Why they do not write M. Sholokhov described in the raised virgin soil, just many do not imagine what an ox is in agriculture.
    2. alexej123
      alexej123 28 December 2015 06: 35
      For the Kuban. By "Google" "Blacklist of villages". I myself live in one of them. These are the villages of the present Krasnodar Territory and the Rostov Region. They did not fulfill the plan for grain procurement - they were completely blocked - the supply of food was stopped, it was forbidden to leave the settlements. Moreover, this concerned only local residents - the Cossacks. My grandmother said that she asked visitors (mainly from Central Russia) to buy groceries in the store - there were small children on hand. I am not trying to "condemn the criminal regime." It's just a fact. The family of my grandmother's older brother (formerly a Cossack officer) died out all - 5 people. There was no strength to drag them to the cemetery - they lowered them into the cellar, the adobe hut was filled up. As I remember, I asked my grandmother about Stalin - the answer was "Father" - "Beria is to blame for everything." It is in this situation that I fully support the mattress principle - "Whether she is right or not - THIS IS MY COUNTRY."
  7. V.ic
    V.ic 27 December 2015 08: 09
    In the early 70s I read Woody Guthrie's book "The Train Rushes to Glory". It describes the times of the so-called. "Great Crisis" in SsySiA. It was very sour for ordinary workers to live. At the same time, the confiscation of cash gold coins from the population began on pain of imprisonment. Not a bad movie was "They Shoot The Horses, Aren't They?" about a dance marathon in which people danced for a bowl of stew, trying to reach the finals and become a prize-winner and receive 1 dollars. How many thousands of people died there then, the "staff" are silent about it.
    1. dobr5919
      dobr5919 27 December 2015 11: 06
      Well, why are they silent? The numbers are counted, demographically they were missing 8 million, about half of them died of hunger. It is quite comparable with our losses. They just stick out our shoals, but for some reason, we are only making excuses instead of poking our noses. ... By the way, and the collective farms, then, to hunger in tenth place. They only by 30, began to become a system that still needed time to swing. Hunger, but to a greater extent, the product of the NEP, just after the famine on the 24th, it became finally clear that , a private trader will not be able to feed the country. The technology itself does not allow, and only just began to develop a replacement for it. But everything takes time. Especially against the background of the consequences of the so-called "civil", economic and technological blockade of the West, the internal activities of the then Grefs -chubais ..
      1. BMP-2
        BMP-2 27 December 2015 12: 08
        Well, apparently that is why they do not poke their noses, since perestroika and "democratization", which had changed somewhat, but continued even now, which were called upon to return the private trader, were essentially NEP-2.0.
    2. samarin1969
      samarin1969 27 December 2015 16: 40
      Steinbeck "The Grapes of Wrath" is a great novel: the 30s of the USA: hunger, etc. "depressive joys" ... up to 1,5 million died ... Nobody in the USA is beating his head in hysterics.
      But even “our” zealous grain procurers are “an abomination of mankind,” this is a fact. am
  8. semirek
    semirek 27 December 2015 08: 32
    What do the Americans have to do with Russia? And why such "empathy" all of a sudden? Then they declassify plans to destroy the USSR by means of atomic bombs --- would they erect monuments to us later? Who will come with flowers to him? - Americans for the most part are not they know where Mexico is located, and they are offered to remember some kind of Ukraine. It would be better to erect a monument to the millions of Vietnamese who died from the total destruction of American aircraft.
  9. istoler
    istoler 27 December 2015 08: 42
    More to the topic, the famine was caused by a mass of crop failure that covered Europe, including Poland, Romania, the USSR and etc. The pre-war Poland and Romania did not fall under an ideological war, and they don’t write anything about their hunger, but the Soviet Union itself was at the forefront of the struggle. They still humbly remain silent about the role of the Western capitalist countries in increasing the scale of hunger, but the fact is that they took the USSR into an economic blockade like the modern North Korea and demanded only grain for exchange, and especially in 32-33 since they also had an acute need for cereals.
    The Soviet leadership was faced with a brutal dilemma either to sell part of the grain now and get hunger or not to sell grain to reduce the rate of industrialization and be destroyed in the upcoming war. We went the middle way, having received hunger in a number of regions, slowing down the pace of industrialization somewhat and having plunged into a big war, not completely ready.
    In general, the Soviet leadership from 1917 to 1952 constantly decided the question: "To be or not to be"!
    1. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 27 December 2015 10: 35
      So we had nothing to sell except grain and art objects. The bourgeoisie did not need oil.
      About unpreparedness for war is a myth.
      If we had the number of weapons at times surpassing the Germans, how else can we prepare for war? Prepared just very well. Even TVs were made before the war. And radio-controlled boats and tanks of the Ostekhbyuro Bekauri.
      And radio stations of all types, including those with a range of 2000 km, only for some reason everything broke down and did not work when the war started.
      1. Bgerl
        Bgerl 27 December 2015 11: 36
        Believe it or not, a lot of things broke down long before the start of the war. Before the war we had a lot of tanks and they were no worse than German ones, but about 50% of vehicles and tractors were missing. By June 22, 1941, they managed to produce a lot of equipment, but the equipment did not differ in its great resource, which is primarily due to the low quality of serial production. In addition, there was a catastrophic shortage of spare parts for armored vehicles, tractors and vehicles, as evidenced by numerous reports, reports, survey reports, complaints, inquiries, etc. chiefs of logistics. In different districts, the provision with spare parts ranged from 20 to 50%. By the way, a small "raid" of mechanics is connected with this - if they were taught to the fullest, they would have remained without serviceable equipment at all. Also, there was not enough banal tires. The industry coped with the production of new equipment, but there was not enough for spare parts. This was especially true of complex components and assemblies. Therefore, of the same many thousands of tanks, about 60-65% were serviceable. The rest of the equipment was gathering dust in the repair shops, waiting for spare parts. The situation in aviation was similar.
        It's more difficult with radio stations. Only "command" tanks and aircraft were equipped with them. The role of radio communication may have been underestimated, and most likely the industry also failed.
        1. anew
          anew 27 December 2015 16: 11
          Quote: Bgerl
          Therefore, of the same many thousands of tanks, there were about 60-65% serviceable.

          We look at the summary of the Red Army on tracked armored vehicles on 01.06.41/77/89. The first and second categories (i.e. combat-ready) accounted for XNUMX%. On wheeled armored vehicles - XNUMX%. So with the technical condition of the armored vehicles, everything was not so bad.
      2. Alex
        Alex 27 December 2015 13: 31
        Quote: Cap.Morgan
        Even TVs were made before the war.
        IN USSR? I didn’t hear something. About developments - yes, but television, as a system, appeared, it seems, only in Germany, though it was more likely to resemble video salons of the late 80's than a home theater.

        And radio-controlled boats and tanks of the Ostekhbyuro Bekauri.
        There were some developments, but to no avail, the time did not come for such military robots.
        1. Glafira
          Glafira 28 December 2015 01: 27
          Mr. Alex!
          On October 1, 1931, regular television broadcasting began in the USSR. With a mechanical scan. (Not so long ago, celebrated the 75th anniversary)
          In 38 - in Leningrad and then in Moscow - broadcasting based on electronic systems. Yes, and TVs were released too.
          Television appeared almost simultaneously in 3 countries - the USSR, Germany, and the USA. How American is it there, if Zvorykin did it .... The Germans and we have independent developments.
          It's a shame that such a glorious page of our science and technology is almost unknown.
      3. user
        user 27 December 2015 16: 07
        So we had nothing to sell except grain and art objects.

        Not quite so, then there was also an embargo against Russia (do not be surprised, they began to impose an embargo against us almost the day after the revolution or coup, as you like). So, according to this restriction, payment for machines and other things was accepted only by grain, the goal is clear to everyone.
  10. Egoza
    Egoza 27 December 2015 08: 58
    And when will they write about the modern Holodomor in Ukraine? !!! Even before the war in Donbass, before the secession of Crimea, the population of the "Square" decreased from 54 million to 46 !!! what? everyone successfully drove over the hill? I'm not talking about the last year!
    The minimum pension in the territory controlled by the junta since September 1 of the outgoing year is 1074 hryvnias (3308 Russian rubles). With such scanty numbers, one wonders how to live on that kind of money, if food and utility bills have risen significantly.
    Specifically, for the last month, many paid gas for 800-1000 UAH for gas, for light - for 300-400 UAH. Not surprisingly, there are already cases of suicide among the elderly.

    Unlike WWII veterans, about which I had not heard anything for a long time, UPA punishers and Nazis of advanced years from the OUN in western territories b. December 22 of Ukraine (the day before yesterday) a decision was made to charge financial assistance.
    So, in the Ivano-Frankivsk region, punitive retirees will be charged at 750 hryvnia (2310 rubles). And in the Carpathian region, they previously paid 500 hryvnia of financial aid in addition to their pension, and now 750 will be added to these five hundred, which in total gives them a real second pension - 1250 hryvnia (3850 rubles).

    Isn't that genocide? Not a famine? Moreover, it was precisely those who built, created, fought against the Nazis, rebuilt the country!
    1. sssla
      sssla 27 December 2015 10: 10
      Quote: Egoza
      Specifically, for the last month, many paid gas for 800-1000 UAH for gas, for light - for 300-400 UAH. Not surprisingly, there are already cases of suicide among the elderly.

      100% true) And next year there will be at least TWO tariff increases !!!
  11. Valga
    Valga 27 December 2015 09: 09
    It is necessary to master this topic. And then the Ukrainians got it. If they don’t have any other arguments, they poke it like a Holocaust with the Holodomor.
    1. sssla
      sssla 27 December 2015 16: 24
      Well, judging by the flag, then you are the EU !!
      You helped push Ukraine into the abyss !!!
      Yelling to the whole world, whining "RUSSIA is bad, Russia is not democratic" !!! Whoever got it, it’s YOU, you wouldn’t be sitting there and mumbling !!!
  12. iury.vorgul
    iury.vorgul 27 December 2015 09: 09
    Well, why not open a monument to the victims of the Great Depression in 1930-1935 in Moscow, closer to Red Square and with a text in 15 languages ​​so that visiting tourists take pictures against it. Or a monument to the indigenous inhabitants of the United States - the Indians, whose genocide continues from the 17th century to this day. And you can still a monument to the victims of slavery - blacks, oooh, half of Moscow can be built up with such monuments, especially if Tsereteli attract.
    1. Koshak
      Koshak 27 December 2015 10: 10
      These monuments should be near the embassy fellow
    2. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 27 December 2015 10: 39
      By the way, a very correct idea.
      To everyone there Lincoln and Luther King. Innocent dead for the rights of blacks. And take the pioneers. Against the backdrop of a monument to black slaves.
      1. Bgerl
        Bgerl 27 December 2015 11: 41
        Lincoln himself was a slave owner, and he had the rights of blacks to the bulb, he did not have enough workers in the north. And Luther King is the usual lazy yap like 99% of blacks.
  13. or
    or 27 December 2015 09: 31
    To scribes to societies studying the famine. Everyone to Africa, there Putin caused a new horror. He feeds no one, and meat does not report to tigers. And, in general, the slaves fled to the United States themselves from the hunger arranged by your rush. Urgent monument in the canopy of the White House.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 27 December 2015 10: 23
      Africa will always starve the poor there, and also lazy people - they are used to living on handouts from the UN.
  14. astronom1973n
    astronom1973n 27 December 2015 12: 11
    Let the Merikans remember the slain Indians! How many indigenous inhabitants lived there and how many remained? And how do they live now, eh? The notorious famine and was not standing nearby!
  15. Jackking
    Jackking 27 December 2015 12: 33
    It is necessary to build in Russia a monument to those who died of starvation during the Great Depression of the SGA - I think that their number was not less ...
  16. tasha
    tasha 27 December 2015 12: 58
    To deny the hunger of 1932-1933 is criminal. As well as denying that the main reason for this hunger was the mistakes of the Soviet leadership, the path to accelerated industrialization and collectivization. This is a question of the responsibility of the authorities and the price of errors in decision making.

    You can speculate on anything. No wonder, it always has been.
  17. demo
    demo 27 December 2015 13: 03
    It's time in Moscow to create a memorial in memory of the victims of the genocide of the indigenous people of America.
    I think that our population will sympathize with such an initiative.
    And all American politicians coming to Moscow immediately drag there. And let the flowers to the wall.
  18. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 27 December 2015 13: 12
    In the United States, about 5 million people died of starvation during the Great Depression. It is necessary in Moscow to erect a monument to the victims of American capitalism and the American Indians !!! Opposite the US Embassy and other cities where there are American consulates!
  19. fa2998
    fa2998 27 December 2015 13: 33
    Quote: ShadowCat
    There was a war. Civil. So in the fields, even if it was plowing, it was seized, or burned, or trampled on by the moment. So hunger was a natural result.

    The civil war in the European part of Russia ended in 1920. Then the transformations began in the countryside. Collective farms were organized. Now I won’t figure it out whether it’s good or bad, but AFTER CARDINAL REFORM, you need to give a time until the system works. They began to seize grain for the city, and decided to carry out industrialization for the country's export and leadership, and more only wheat can be brought to the market.
    In general, the famine can be regarded as a common misfortune in the USSR. Both Ukrainians and Russians in the Don and Kuban regions and the Volga peoples died, the trouble was great. Until now, our families still have legends about how to dispossess (talked about) and about the famine in 30. hi
    1. olimpiada15
      olimpiada15 27 December 2015 14: 30
      Honest comment.
      Fists were recognized as enemies of the people, because they lived off the labor of farm laborers.
      But there were many strong peasant farms in the country, who worked as a family on their farmsteads and lived well. The country's territory was large and many in the outback lived a friendly community, working for themselves and there was mutual assistance.
      So, contrary to the struggle against the exploiters, the middle peasants and in general those who had strong farms were dispossessed. The people who lived nearby were to blame for this; they wanted to gratuitously.
      Among the dispossessed could be a village blacksmith who had a horse and three cows. And what is surprising, he received remuneration for his work and had his own farm. A widow with six children, the eldest of whom was 10 years old at the time of her father’s death and from that age she had been doing hard work. The truth, after a letter to Lenin written by a local teacher, an answer came from Moscow to return everything that was left.
      And when everyone took away, divided, there was no one to grow bread, all the farmers were dispossessed, sent out. Sometimes the whole village was dispossessed. There was no one to feed the country.
      As for the deportees, I once spoke in the village where the peasants were exiled. These are Kai forests, the exiles organized a collective farm there, set up greenhouses and began to grow vegetable and collective farms became advanced, thundered throughout the province. But then someone realized, and the collective farm was disbanded.
      Then excesses on the ground were recognized - there were much more dispossessed farms than there were kulaks.
      The conclusion from what is written is that any revolutions, no matter what good intentions they pursue, are a grave shock to the people.
      A good government is one in which the people can live in peace, because what is bad for the people is bad for the country.
      1. Beaver
        Beaver 27 December 2015 17: 19
        Quote: olimpiada15
        Sometimes they dispossessed the whole village.

        Well, why am I so unlucky !? I could not meet a single living witness of all these horrors in my life. Relatives told how everything was in their village - well, not at all.
        Activists arrived, they say so and so it is necessary from each village at least one dispossessed, so as not to spoil the reporting. And the village is small - there are no 20 yards, all close relatives are as usual. Every house has a five-wall 10x10, in the village there is a public creamery, mill, cattle in every yard. They gathered in peace, discussed yes and asked one to suffer for the whole society. In return, they took care of his family until he returned.
        1. anew
          anew 27 December 2015 17: 52
          Quote: Castor
          Well, why am I so unlucky !? I could not meet a single living witness of all these horrors in my life. Relatives told how everything was in their village - well, not at all.

          So you have just the very horror and set out below. What kind of village is this? Didn’t people live there at all? Just dodges are shameful? Or do you find their behavior normal?
        2. The comment was deleted.
  20. Aleksander
    Aleksander 27 December 2015 15: 05
    Unable to read this endless horror-medieval diseases, medieval hunger, cannibalism, corpse eating, .... And this is in the middle of the 20 century, although at the beginning of the century in Russia there were NO deaths from starvation! There was hunger, but there were NO starvation deaths due to developed state and public systems to combat hunger! Whatever the Soviet leadership was guided by, but its actions led to the terrible death of millions of people, for whose sake it allegedly acted. .
    -Famine 1921-22 gg- died about 5 million people
    _ Hunger 1930-x- died about 7 million people
    - Famine 1946-47 g-about 1 million dead.
    That is, in the USSR about 10% of the population died of hunger. Millions of people remained crippled, millions did not give birth and were not born. And this is a crime of power, IMHO ..

    The Holodomor separately in the Ruin is bullshit, it's obvious .....
    1. Snoop
      Snoop 27 December 2015 21: 01
      Rather, the actions of the Provisional Government, which led the economy to collapse. By the way, the first food surplus just started the temporary workers. But the Bolsheviks ... in principle, the choice was as follows, either the peasants or the townspeople are dying.
      1. anew
        anew 27 December 2015 21: 43
        Quote: Snoop
        But the Bolsheviks ... in principle, the choice was as follows, either the peasants or the townspeople are dying.

        And you are not surprised by these horror stories? Why did someone have to die? Why did no one die before the Bolsheviks? Starve, starve, but you didn’t die of hunger.
        Maybe it was all the same in them, in the Bolsheviks? Can it be easier to talk with swollen from hunger? Look at the German death camps during the war, no riots. Still living skeletons do not mind. And do not run away. The Bolsheviks are the same. Only the first, before the Germans.
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. Aleksander
        Aleksander 28 December 2015 04: 50
        Quote: Snoop
        Rather, the actions of the Provisional Government, which led the economy to collapse. By the way, the first food surplus just started the temporary workers. But the Bolsheviks ... in principle, the choice was as follows, either the peasants or the townspeople are dying.

        There was a Great War and the economies of ALL European countries were going through hard times. Inflation, disruption of economic ties (including in connection with the occupation of the territory) occurred during the reign of the tsar, but the growth of industrial production in Russia (1,2%) was also in 1916. The collapse of the economy happened immediately after 25 on October 17 - the banking, tax, judicial, executive systems, the system of enterprise contracts collapsed, ALL state apparats (who considered the October coup illegal) boycotted the decisions of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, the owners instantly curtailed production, and this was a real collapse . the same surplus-appraisal also began under the tsar, but did not lead to hunger, moreover, Russia was the only warring country where there was NO hunger, although Germany went hungry and there were tens of thousands of starvation dead, and for food looted from Ukraine Austria and Germany went armed fights!
        The Bolsheviks didn’t have to take power, that is, something that they could not handle ....
    2. Glafira
      Glafira 28 December 2015 01: 59
      Well, what is it to the readers here, the Communists will so freeze the light !!!! So they came to power, and the people began to die of hunger. Gentlemen / comrades !!!
      Well, you can’t be so ignorant in the history of your native country !!!!
      Famine was a regular and mass phenomenon in tsarist Russia. The hungry years were repeated with the same frequency, after 8-11 years, with which the lean years happened.
      There was no famine in Russia BEFORE 1861 !! Remind me what happened? Russia has embarked on the path of European development. Once again.
      Before that, the landowner was responsible for the life of his peasants. And no hunger. Basically. But capitalism is capitalism. “We are undernourished, but we’ll take it out!” - these are the words of the tsarist minister in the Duma in response to the charge of exporting bread abroad during the famine.
      Only at the beginning of the 20th century approx. 8 million peasants.
      "On average, 10% of the population in European Russia went hungry."

      A hunger 30s ..
      After Trotsky was expelled from the USSR, the West imposed an embargo on the import of Soviet goods to the West. In fact, the export of timber and oil products is prohibited, that is, all that paid for the delivery of Western cars. We look at the dates: the first five-year plan begins in 1929, the United States introduced the embargo in 1930–1931, France introduced the embargo in 1930, and the British government announced the embargo in 1933. That is, at first the West refused to accept gold as payment from the USSR, then everything else ... except grain!
      This behavior of the West seems illogical. At that time, the Great Depression raged there (it began just in 1929). In the United States, overproduction of products (including especially grain), the government destroys grain in huge quantities, and immediately accepts grain from Russia as payment for its machines - instead of gold, oil, etc. The British behave even more stupidly - in those years of the USSR was the main customer of the English machine tool builders, in 1932 80% of machine tool exports from England went to the Soviet Union - and the British leadership did everything possible to make this supply impossible, refusing to accept not only gold, but also much needed wood and ore from England coal and not mb. Everything - except grain, which the British could buy much cheaper in the United States.

      Thus, the Stalinist leadership of the USSR is faced with a choice: either a refusal to restore industry, that is, surrender to the West, or the continuation of industrialization, leading to a terrible internal crisis. The Bolsheviks will take the grain from the peasants - there is a very high probability of starvation, which, in turn, can lead to an internal explosion and the displacement of power. Whatever Stalin chooses, in any case, the West will benefit.
      The famine was. But the gain - then - was temporary.
      By the way, in 1934, grain exports from the USSR completely stopped.
      The famine carefully organized by the West in 1932-33 did not produce the desired result: the Bolsheviks held power.
      1. tasha
        tasha 28 December 2015 05: 30
        Quote: Glafira
        There was no famine in Russia BEFORE 1861 YEAR !!

        Starting from Peter the Great, a support system for peasants was built in Russia during the shortage. Bad, good, but for almost 200 years this system has more or less been created.
        The only surge in mortality that occurred in 1891-92 occurred largely under the influence of epidemics and remains the highest in the period under review (1890-1910gg). Mortality from starvation in other years (1897-98, 1901-02, 1905-07, 1911-12) was not recorded by either Russian pre-revolutionary, Soviet or Russian post-Soviet historians and demographers.
        1. tasha
          tasha 28 December 2015 05: 37
          What is the reason for such a sharp drop in productivity - because the weather conditions 1931 – 1932, though less favorable than the previous ones, were by no means catastrophic? And again, everything is extremely simple. As a result of collectivization, a catastrophic decline in the level of agricultural technology occurred. The decline in the number of live and productive livestock, the spontaneous migration of the rural population predetermined a sharp decline in the quality of basic agricultural work. Bread resources for industrial centers were extracted, including due to feed grain. As a result, in the winter of 1931 / 32, the sharpest reduction in the number of livestock and productive livestock since the beginning of collectivization took place. There was nothing to feed socialized cattle. According to the grain balance drawn up by Davis and Whitcroft, in the 1932 year, half the grain was consumed by livestock as compared to the 1930. 6,6 million horses fell - a fourth of the still remaining draft cattle, the rest of the cattle was extremely depleted. The total number of horses decreased in the USSR from 32,1 million in 1928 to 17,3 million in 1933.

          A catastrophic consequence was the decision of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks and the Council of People's Commissars of the 30 of July 1931 of the year “On the Deployment of Socialist Livestock Breeding”, which in practice meant a banal requisition of cattle from peasant farmsteads, which, by design, probably should have led to a reduction in labor costs by livestock maintenance and more efficient use of draft power of horses and bulls. In response, a significant portion of the livestock was simply destroyed by the peasants. From the 107,1 million sheep and goats that were at the beginning of the 1930 of the year, to the 1933, only a third remained, pigs and cattle - about half or less (see graph 2).

          The sharp urbanization also did not pass without a trace. Although there was agrarian overpopulation in tsarist Russia and the USSR of the 1920s and, in theory, a smooth outflow of the rural population to cities should not have a catastrophic effect on the productivity of the village, the problem was that the most able-bodied mass of healthy and young people fled to the cities peasants - first from fear of dispossession, then from collective farm poverty in search of a better life and, finally, from gradually approaching hunger. In addition, about 2 million peasants who fell under dispossession were evicted to remote areas of the country.

          So, by the beginning of the spring sowing season of 1932, the village came up with a serious lack of draft power and a sharply worsened quality of labor resources. At the same time, the dream of "plowing the land with tractors" was still a dream. The total capacity of the tractors reached the target for the 1933 year only seven years later, the combines were just starting to be used.

          As a result, the fields sown with bread in the 1932 year in Ukraine, the North Caucasus and other areas were overgrown with weeds. Even parts of the Red Army were sent to weeding. But this did not save, and with a fairly tolerable biological harvest of 1931 / 32, sufficient to prevent mass starvation, grain losses during its harvest grew to unprecedented proportions. In 1931, according to the data of NKRK, more than 15 million tons were lost during harvesting (about 20% of the gross grain harvest), in 1932 the losses were even greater. In Ukraine, as already noted above, up to 40% of the crop remains at the root, in the Lower and Middle Volga, losses reached 35,6% of the total gross grain harvest. It is precisely in this, in returning to the cave level of agricultural technology that occurred in just two years of active state intervention in the rural economy, that the causes of mass starvation in the Soviet village lie.
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. Aleksander
            Aleksander 28 December 2015 06: 42
            Quote: tasha
            So, by the beginning of the spring sowing season of 1932, the village came up with a serious lack of draft power and a sharply worsened quality of labor resources

            A small addition, if possible:
            5 January 1930 g. Released Decree of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks “On the Rate of Collectivization and Measures of Assistance to the State on Collective Farm Construction”» In the decree, the task was set mainly complete collectivization by the end of the five-year plan (1932), while in important grain growing areas such as Lower and Middle Volga and North Caucasus, Ukraine- already in the fall of 1930 or in the spring of 1931.

            Where did people die of starvation in 1932-33? Right- "Lower and Middle Volga and North Caucasus, Ukraine"
      2. Aleksander
        Aleksander 28 December 2015 05: 50
        Quote: Glafira
        Famine was a regular and mass phenomenon in tsarist Russia.

        And also in Europe and the USA and not mass.
        О state and public systems to combat hunger in the Russian Empire, just read (in short), (more), it will take about ten minutes, but you will find out a lot of interesting and unexpected things, and the main thing is that in the Russian Empire in the 20 century, people from hunger already- did not die!
        Quote: Glafira
        Thus, the Stalinist leadership of the USSR is faced with a choice: either refusal to restore industry, that is, surrender to the West

        In the Russian Empire, the industrial revolution took place without millions starving and with the same existing West, with which it has successfully managed and collaborated for centuries. If the power incapable to manage without millions of victims (and not only from hunger), then she does not have the right to lead and exist, IMHO. For whom was all this done if their people were dying out, for the Chinese, for Asians, Africans?
        1. Flank
          Flank 1 January 2016 19: 55
          They died under the kings, just on a smaller scale. But then that was the norm, that was the system. And Stalin decided to change the system to one in which there would be no hunger at all. And he succeeded in literally 2 years. Which is amazing in itself.

          In the Russian Empire, the industrial revolution WAS NOT. Except, of course, the times of Peter. And then ...

          The people did not die out under the Bolsheviks, you stop throwing mud at it. Population growth was large except for failure in the war.
  21. potalevl
    potalevl 27 December 2015 15: 38
    The organizers of the monument need to make some amendment to "victims of the Holodomor from its organizers - the US government." In 1929, collectivization began in the USSR, and a moratorium was adopted in the United States on the import of any goods and raw materials from the USSR, except for grain. At the same time, the US had its grain in excess and the government simply destroyed its surplus. Following the USA, such a moratorium is accepted by the countries of Europe, despite the fact that it was not profitable for them. As a result, the USSR was forced to buy everything necessary to restore its economy, which was destroyed during the civil war for grain. Plus, bad harvest years for the USSR followed, the Trotskyists-saboteurs and other half-finished bourgeoisie hindered the restoration of the country's economy in every possible way. The calculation of the West was aimed at creating a food shortage in the country and, as a result, at the overthrow of the Bolsheviks. However, the Holodomor plan created by the USA did not lead to the overthrow of the Bolsheviks and the collapse of the USSR. And immediately after that, the moratorium was lifted in the United States and Europe. The next plan of the USA and Europe, for the collapse of the USSR, relied on Hitler. But that is another story. Something like this.
  22. German Titov
    German Titov 27 December 2015 17: 22
    In 2006 or 2007, the late O. Buzina also spoke about the Holodomor of the Ukrainian people. Of the official "victims of the Holodomor", he counted very many who died from domestic diseases, criminal, and generally not Ukrainians by nationality. If my grandfather moved from starvation from the Oryol region with his whole family to Stalin's before the war?!?
  23. Logos
    Logos 27 December 2015 18: 01
    Carnivore and cannibalism took place not only there. In the Volga region, eyewitnesses witnessed the facts of cannibalism in the villages of Shumeyka - Engelsky and Semenovka

    And just during this time period, the USSR increased grain exports abroad

    he counted a lot of people who died from domestic diseases, criminal, and generally not Ukrainians by nationality

    You don’t think of the simple idea that during a mass famine, people more often die from the simplest diseases, like a cold (immunity is greatly weakened), from crimes related to the struggle for a piece of bread and that hunger mows people without analyzing nationalities
  24. Orionvit
    Orionvit 27 December 2015 22: 34
    Quote: ShadowCat
    I'm afraid not only of the Trotskyists. Let's be honest - you shouldn't attribute to them the merits of small-town drones, analogs of "Khrushchevs", as well as overzealous performers who do not approach the issues comprehensively.

    Trotskyism is not an ideology, it is a mental illness. We are still fighting.
  25. palm
    palm 28 December 2015 20: 27
    AUTHOR - The Holodomor is not a myth at all. From those who survived the famine I heard the saying: Seek? look for how they look for bread !. a myth is the concern of the Bolsheviks for the people.
  26. serg55
    serg55 29 December 2015 03: 28
    Surprisingly, doesn’t anyone know the causes of the famine? No one even thought about why they took the bread from the peasants? Really, no one has heard of the sanctions and embargo on all Soviet products. Yes, yes, except for bread. Yes. The West imposed a trade embargo against us, and we could only sell bread. Dot. Thus, it is the United States + West- who are directly guilty of the famine in the USSR. If not for this, there would have been no famine. This is a fact. Everything else is a deliberate lie, without which neither stubborn Ukrainians, nor the West as a whole can exist.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 29 December 2015 05: 48
      It turns out the same scheme: the Holodomor, perestroika, the current situation. For the destruction of the USSR, Russia. Apparently every time they hope that they will succeed this time. It does not work out.
      Economy. "Anaconda loop".
    2. vlavek
      vlavek 29 December 2015 17: 39
      Quote: serg55
      Surprisingly, doesn’t anyone know the causes of the famine? No one even thought about why they took the bread from the peasants? Really, no one has heard of the sanctions and embargo on all Soviet products. Yes, yes, except for bread. Yes. The West imposed a trade embargo against us, and we could only sell bread. Dot. Thus, it is the United States + West- who are directly guilty of the famine in the USSR. If not for this, there would have been no famine. This is a fact. Everything else is a deliberate lie, without which neither stubborn Ukrainians, nor the West as a whole can exist.

      We are hungry, but the West is to blame! Doesn't that seem illogical to say the least?
      1. Flank
        Flank 1 January 2016 19: 50
        Yes, one of the reasons is that the West is to blame. There is nothing surprising. Somewhat lucidly written why.