Military Review

Loading into the mine of intercontinental ballistic missile "Topol-M"

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Transportation and loading into the mine of an intercontinental ballistic missile of the 5 generation rocket complex RT-2PM2 Topol-M

Place: 60-I Tamansky Order of the October Revolution Red Banner Rocket Division


The complex RT-2PM2 "Topol-M" (code RS-12М2, according to NATO classification - SS-27 Sickle "Serp") is a Russian strategic missile system with an intercontinental ballistic missile developed at the end of 1980-x and the beginning of 1990-x on the basis of the complex RT-2PM "Topol".

• The first intercontinental ballistic missile developed in Russia after the collapse of the USSR. Adopted in 1997 year. The leading developer of the missile complex is the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering (MIT).



The rocket complex "Topol-M" is a solid, three-stage. Ultimate range - 11 000 km. Carries one thermonuclear combat unit power 550 CT. The rocket is based both in mine launchers (silos) and on mobile launchers. In the mine version of the base adopted for the 2000 year.

Designed to perform tasks on delivering a nuclear strike on the enemy's territory in the face of the existing and future anti-missile defense systems, with multiple nuclear effects on the positional area, while blocking the positional area by high-altitude nuclear explosions. It is used as part of a mine-based 15PO65 complex and a mobile-based 15П165.



The stationary complex "Topol-M" includes 10 intercontinental ballistic missiles mounted in mine launchers, as well as a command post.



Key Features:

Number of steps - 3

Length (W / L) - 22,55 m

Length (without MS) - 17,5 m

Diameter - 1,81 m

Starting weight - 46,5 t

Drop weight 1,2 t

Fuel type - solid blend

Maximum range - 11000 km

Type of head - monoblock, nuclear, detachable

The number of warheads - 1 + about 20 dummies

Charging power - 550 CT

Control system - autonomous, inertial on the basis of BTsVK

Way of basing - mining and mobile



The Topol-M mobile complex is a single rocket placed in a high-strength fiberglass transport and launch container (TPK) mounted on an eight-axle MZKT-79221 high-throughput chassis and structurally practically does not differ from the mine version. Launcher weight - 120 tons. Six pairs of wheels of eight are swiveling, which provides a turning radius of 18 meters.



The pressure on the ground installation is two times less than a conventional truck. Engine V-shaped 12-cylinder diesel with turbocharging JMZ-847 800 l. C. Wade depth to 1,1 meter.

When creating systems and units of mobile Topol-M, a number of fundamentally new technical solutions were used as compared with the Topol complex. Thus, the system of incomplete hanging makes it possible to deploy PU "Topol-M" even on soft soils. Improved maneuverability and maneuverability of the installation, which increases its survivability.



Topol-M is capable of launching from any point of the positional area, and also has improved means of masking, both against optical and other reconnaissance means (including by reducing the infrared component of the complex’s unmasking field, as well as using special coatings that reduce radar visibility).



The intercontinental rocket consists of three stages with solid-fuel cruise engines. Aluminum is used as a fuel; ammonium perchlorate acts as an oxidizing agent. Cases of steps are made of composites. All three stages are equipped with a swiveling nozzle to deflect the thrust vector (lattice aerodynamic control wheels are absent).



The control system is inertial, based on the BTSVK and gyro-stabilized platform. The complex of high-speed command gyroscopic instruments has improved accuracy characteristics. The new BTSVK has increased productivity and resistance to the effects of the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion. Aiming is provided through the implementation of an autonomous determination of the azimuth of the control element mounted on a gyro-stabilized platform using a ground-based set of command devices located on the TPC. Ensured increased combat readiness, accuracy and service life of on-board equipment.



Start method - mortar for both options. The marching solid-fuel rocket engine allows it to pick up speed much faster than previous types of rockets of a similar class made in Russia and the Soviet Union. This greatly complicates its interception by means of missile defense in the active leg of the flight.



The missile is equipped with a detachable warhead with one thermonuclear combat unit with a power of 550 KT of TNT equivalent. The head part is also equipped with a complex of means for overcoming missile defense. The complex of means for overcoming missile defense consists of passive and active false targets, and also means of distorting the characteristics of the head section. Several dozen auxiliary correction engines, instruments and control mechanisms allow the warhead to maneuver along the trajectory, making it difficult to intercept it in the final part of the trajectory.



False targets are indistinguishable from warheads in all ranges of electromagnetic radiation (optical, laser, infrared, radar). False targets make it possible to mimic the characteristics of warheads in virtually all selection traits on the extra-atmospheric, transitional and significant part of the atmospheric portion of the downward branch of the flight path of missile warheads, are resistant to the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion and the radiation of a super-power nuclear-pumped laser. For the first time, false targets have been designed that can withstand a super-resolution radar.



In connection with the cessation of the existence of the START-2 agreement, which prohibited the creation of multiply-charged intercontinental ballistic missiles, the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering is working to equip Topol-M with separate head units for individual guidance. Perhaps the result of these works is the PC-24 "Yars". The mobile version of this complex, located on the chassis of an eight-axle tractor MZKT-79221, is being tested.



The high resistance of the 15IX65 rocket to the effects of a potential enemy’s missile defense systems is achieved by:

The reduction in time and length of the active site by extremely rapid acceleration of the rocket. Acceleration time to final speed (over 7 km / s) is less than 3 min.

The ability of the rocket to maneuver in the active area, complicating the decision of the enemy to intercept, as well as to make a program maneuver during the passage of a cloud of a nuclear explosion

The protective coating of the hull of the new development, providing comprehensive protection against the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion and weaponsbased on new physical principles.

The complex for overcoming missile defense, including passive and active false targets and means of distorting the characteristics of the head section. LCs are indistinguishable from warheads in all ranges of electromagnetic radiation (optical, laser, infrared, radar), allow you to simulate the characteristics of warheads in almost all the selection features on the extra-atmospheric, transitional and significant part of the atmospheric section of the descending branch of the flight path of the missile warheads, down to heights 2 - 5 km; they are resistant to the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion and to the radiation of a super-power laser with nuclear pumping, etc. For the first time, LC was designed to withstand super-resolution radars. The means of distorting the head-end characteristics consist of a radio-absorbing (combined with a heat-shielding) MS cover, active jamming generators, etc. The radar visibility of the combat unit is reduced by several orders of magnitude, the EPR is 0,0001 sq.m. The range of its detection is reduced to 100 - 200 km. Optical - and IR-visibility of BB is extremely reduced due to effective cooling of the BB surface in the trans-atmospheric region and reduction in the luminosity of the BB wake on the atmospheric portion, which is achieved including due to injection into the trace region of special liquid products that reduce the intensity of radiation. As a result of the measures taken, it is possible to overcome a monoblock warhead with a promising multi-echelon missile defense system with space-based elements with a probability 0.93 - 0.94. The high- and transatmospheric region of missile defense is overcome with a probability of 0.99, the atmospheric - with a probability of 0.93 - 0.95.



Rocket 15Ж65 equipped with a fusion monoblock warhead power 0.55 MGT. Tests of ICBMs with an FPG (from 3 to 6 separable warheads with an 150 power unit capacity) were carried out. In the future, it is planned to equip the missile with a maneuvering warhead (tests of which are also successfully carried out in 2005) and, therefore, the possibility of intercepting warheads is professionals will be practically reduced to zero.

Circular probable deviation - no more than 200 m, which allows the MS of half-ton power to confidently hit highly protected point targets (in particular, KP and silo). By virtue of the limited throw-in weight that limits the power of PBC, the Topol-M rocket, in contrast to the Voyevoda 15А18 rocket (the capacity of the single-unit warhead of which was 20-25 MGT), has limitations on the implementation of the killing effect on a large areal target.



The 15P165 mobile-based complex has unique characteristics of initial survival, able to function covertly and autonomously for a long period of time. The area of ​​the patrol complex - 250 000 sq. Km.


The Topol-M missile is unified with the sea-based Bulava missile, which are being built for the 955 project’s SSBN. The competitor of the Bulava is the R-29RMU2 “Sineva” liquid ICBM. It significantly surpasses the Bulava (like all other ICBMs) in energy-mass perfection, but it is inferior in an important criterion for Russian sea-based missiles - survival in the active segment due to lower acceleration rates and greater vulnerability from laser weapons typical of liquid-propellant missiles compared to solid fuel. However, the Bulava rocket, with a launch mass of about 37 tons, is significantly inferior in terms of strike power to the existing heavier solid-fuel missiles, including the Trident rocket -2 with a launch mass of 59 tons. (BC "Bulavy" - 6x150 CT, "Trident-2" (theoretically) - 8X475 CT). The project to equip the naval component of the Russian nuclear submarines with the Bulava light ballistic missiles has been criticized by experts who point out the need to arm the Russian submarines with high-tech solid-propelled SLBMs R-XNUMHUTTH, which were tested in the 39s. and which, if put into service, would not have world analogues among SLBMs in strike power and flight performance.

Loading into the mine of intercontinental ballistic missile "Topol-M"




















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22 comments
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  1. kind
    kind 23 December 2015 07: 06
    10
    My division! Everything is familiar from childhood! Thanks to the author, I looked and rejoiced, as if I had been in my youth!
  2. Terner38
    Terner38 23 December 2015 07: 10
    +4
    The latest photos are impressive ..
  3. denvar555
    denvar555 23 December 2015 07: 48
    +2
    In my opinion, the article is not new and was already a year and a half ago on this or a similar site. But all the same, the potential and power of the Strategic Missile Forces are pleased.
    1. SergeySh
      SergeySh 23 December 2015 08: 04
      +1
      Judging by the form it is. The article is not the first freshness.
  4. Belousov
    Belousov 23 December 2015 08: 23
    +1
    Beauty is indescribable! soldier
  5. Ascetic
    Ascetic 23 December 2015 08: 52
    +2
    the Bulava rocket, with a launch weight of about 37 tons, is significantly inferior in impact power to existing heavier solid fuel rockets, including the Trident -2 rocket with a launch weight of 59 tons. (Warhead "Clubs" - 6x150 ct, “Trident-2 ″ (theoretically) - 8x475 ct).

    A 88-kiloton W475 warhead has not been produced since 1989,

    4000-5000 was originally planned, production was terminated ahead of schedule by the FBI raid on Rocky Apartments in November 1989. Although the possibility of resuming W-88 production using recycled pits from other weapons was considered on January 29, 1992 by Admiral Watkins, chap. power engineers that production stopped constantly being.
    -Google translation if that
    Schedule Development W88
    March 1984 Technical development began at LANL
    March 1986 The development of production technology began.
    September 1988 First production units completed
    April 1989 Mass production started
    November 1989 FBI raid on Rocky Apartments production shuts down
    Deployment

    Initial production September 1988
    Initial working ability achieved June 1989
    Total production: 400

    W-88 will remain in active storage at START, equipping Trident II (D-5) SLBMs.

    reference

    So, we are currently equipping ICBMs with Trident W76 warheads with a capacity of 100kt, but if memory serves the rocket, it can carry up to 14 such warheads. As for the W88, it has an operating life of 25 years, and as you can see, the time has already come. Either renew or upgrade or decommission.
    There is a big scandal associated with this bg
    1. The FBI has revealed the leak of all technology in China
    2. The thermal protection of the warhead was so unreliable. That when entering the atmosphere, the warhead simply collapsed.
    As for the TOPOL-M, in addition to the monoblock warhead, the missile can be equipped with a unified dilution platform with the RF warfare engine of various modifications.
    1. Baikal
      Baikal 23 December 2015 09: 03
      +2
      However, the Bulava rocket, with a launch weight of about 37 tons, is significantly inferior in impact power to existing heavier solid fuel rockets, including the Trident -2 rocket with a launch weight of 59 tons. Warhead "Clubs" - 6x150 ct, "Trident-2 ″ (theoretically) - 8x475 ct)

      Knowing, please tell me why such different indicators in the number and power of the blocks? Why is there such a difference in weight? Where did it go historically? hi

      Quote: Ascetic
      At the present time, the Trident W76 warhead with 100ct power is equipped with ICBMs. True, if the memory does not change, a missile can carry up to 14 such warheads.

      In other words:
      "Mace" - 6х150 ct
      “Trident ″ - 14x100 ct

      So, it turns out? Such a big difference request
      1. DenZ
        DenZ 23 December 2015 10: 12
        +3
        Knowing, please tell me why such different indicators in the number and power of the blocks? Why is there such a difference in weight? Where did it go historically

        I'm not a very big specialist, but I know some things for sure. The same Bulava can be equipped with one warhead (monobloc b / h) of high power (theoretically). We (in Russia) have several warheads of different power that are placed on different missiles. Under the START II treaty, there should be parity in the sum of the missile warheads' power. This is where you have to choose - to make 2 missiles each with one warhead of enormous power, or to spread this potential into conditionally 10 missiles, and even with several warheads of much lower power (cited as an example). All other things being equal, 30 missiles have greater survivability in the event of war, and the number of targets may be greater. Our Strategic Missile Forces adhere to the second option, and there is nothing special about it. In addition, under the START-30 treaty, the number of warheads on a rocket is limited (like a maximum of 2), although theoretically at least 4 can be stuck on the same "Sineva" or "Bulava". Something like this. Parity rules and common sense.
      2. The comment was deleted.
    2. Ascetic
      Ascetic 23 December 2015 09: 11
      +2
      Well, a little about Trident D5, which is terribly cool and surpasses our newest Mace in all respects, as American lizozhop and liberalists of all stripes like to talk about.
      Trident D5 rocket production theoretically exists, but since 2007 not a single rocket has been produced. In 2006, the latest Trident D5 missiles cost the US $ 31 million apiece. The program for the delivery of 108 missiles in 2008-2012 is estimated at $ 15 billion. That, calculated for one rocket, gives a cost of $ 139 million. However, not a single missile has been made, even at this atomic price. For example, the last batch of the Mk6 guidance system was ordered and received under the 2001 fiscal year budget. The resumption of its production was recognized as unprofitable. Well, that is, the old element base is simply lost, and attempts to remake the system on a new element base have failed. Therefore, it was decided to create a new guidance system "from scratch"

      The West does not write about this, because it is their national SHAME. But the podniks like to talk about the "flightless" Mace. Although I am categorically opposed to how Solomonov and Dvorkin, through Sergeev and Urinson, pushed it instead of Makeeev's, showing a vivid example when, to put it mildly, corporate interests prevailed over state interests,
      But what we have is that we have too late to tear the hair on the head, we need to improve and bring to mind what is. Indeed, in terms of overcoming the ABM of the same Mace there are no equal.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 23 December 2015 11: 46
        +1
        Quote: Ascetic
        Although I categorically oppose how Solomonov and Dvorkin, through Sergeyev and Urinson, pierced it instead of Makeev’s, setting a vivid example of how, to put it mildly, corporate interests prevailed over state ones,

        Makeyevtsy themselves messed with the P-39. After this "single monster", which, moreover, after all the upgrades and modifications still did not meet the required performance characteristics, the sailors were rather wary of the solid-propellant Makeyevka missiles.

        Someone from MIT wrote that when they offered the sailors their missile with the maximum possible unification with the poplar, the first reaction was: "Again a single rocket? Thank you - no need, already ate!" smile
        1. Baikal
          Baikal 23 December 2015 12: 47
          0
          Thanks for answers! hi drinks
  6. Andryukha G
    Andryukha G 23 December 2015 09: 18
    +2
    The photographs are very interesting, in Soviet times, for such unauthorized photos of launchers, Strategic Missile Forces mines, it was possible to get a prison term and not a short one. ALL rocket launchers with the Strategic Rocket Forces last December 17 (he recently participated in events - the 55th anniversary of the 49th Strategic Rocket Forces Division, which was on duty at the western borders of the USSR in Lida, Grodno Region). All the Strategic Rocket Forces veterans health and long life .
  7. Wert
    Wert 23 December 2015 10: 49
    0
    Tell me, is it possible to reuse the mine after the launch of the rocket or is it disposable?
    1. Walking
      Walking 23 December 2015 11: 39
      +2
      Reusable mine
  8. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 23 December 2015 11: 40
    +1
    The project to equip the marine component of Russia's nuclear forces with SSBMs with light ballistic missiles Bulava is criticized by experts who point out the need to equip domestic SSBNs with high-tech solid-fuel ballistic missile R-39UTTX, the tests of which were curtailed in the 90s. and which, if put into service, would not have world analogues among SLBMs in terms of striking power and flight performance.

    And these experts, incidentally, do not report - where to build SSBNs for this missile, how much they will cost (and how many of them will be allowed to be built according to the existing agreements)? Because the R-39UTTH is a modified R-39, for which it was necessary to fence "water carriers" of 941 projects.
    You can’t rely on the original 941s standing upright - they are already 30-35 years old. And at first they would have to be driven into overhaul and modernization, after which they would have served, at best, for another 5-7 years.
  9. red rocket
    red rocket 23 December 2015 15: 04
    0
    amazing car!
  10. Nirvanko
    Nirvanko 23 December 2015 17: 38
    0
    Someone has shoulder straps on his shoulders. Somewhere a new form - somewhere old. To beat for sloppiness is necessary.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 23 December 2015 19: 13
      0
      Quote: Nirvanko
      Someone has shoulder straps on his shoulders. Somewhere a new form - somewhere old. To beat for sloppiness is necessary.

      You snickering, my friend! smile In the pictures there are only three types of form. Three! And then, most likely, the old one is used as a substitute - for dirty work. smile

      Just five to six years ago, the main form was "form No. 8: what we found is what we wear"The photographs of the formation and work in the military unit resembled photos of partisan detachments. The combinations of details of clothing from various types of uniforms were the most fantastic. And in the field they wore everything that could be found - from" amoeba "to" numbers "
  11. Yak28
    Yak28 24 December 2015 06: 38
    0
    Compared with the Voyevoda rocket (SS-18 Satan), Topol-M and Yars, low-power slag.
    The reference to the START-2 Treaty, which required the destruction of only all multiply charged mine rockets and did not formally enter into force, is untenable. However, its provisions were meekly fulfilled by Russia in the period from 1993 to 2000 year. At the beginning of the 90-s, our country was imposed a false course on the preservation and reproduction of Topol-type land-mobile ICBMs, as vulnerable as the former ground-group dislocation missiles, due to the ease of detection and destruction by any means. Additional evidence that these new missiles do not pose any threat to the United States is the ignoring of Topol-type missiles in all the mentioned START treaties.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 24 December 2015 10: 17
      0
      Quote: Yak28
      In the early 90s, our country was imposed a false course on the preservation and reproduction of land-based Topol-type ICBMs, which are just as vulnerable as previous land-based missiles — because of the ease of detection and destruction by any means.

      Please tell us - at what capacity could Russia produce heavy liquid-fuel ICBMs? More precisely, the serial production of which ICBM VT was completely concentrated on the territory of the Russian Federation at the time of the collapse of the USSR?
      Russia was not imposed a false course. Russia simply had no other alternatives besides the production of Topol, the only ICBMs whose full production cycle remained on its territory.
      Do you want to put a series of ICBMs on VT from scratch? In the 90s? belay
      Or maybe you want to tie all our strategic missile forces on Yuzhmash? And stay with a bare fifth point at the slightest change in the political situation in Ukraine?
      Quote: Yak28
      land-mobile ICBMs of the “Topol” type, as vulnerable as previous missiles of the ground-based group deployment, due to the ease of detection and destruction by any means.

      That is, stationary silos with exactly known coordinates are less vulnerable? Especially taking into account the reduction of the quo potential adversary at the end of the last century?

      In addition, the decision to modernize the Topol PGRK into a version with a universal mobile / silo ICBM was made back in the USSR.
      1. Yak28
        Yak28 24 December 2015 18: 20
        0
        But that a mine-based missile is protected worse than mobile poplars? 5-10 or more mine-based missiles cannot be put out of action with one blow, and mobiles are easy. Plus, missiles in mines can carry more payload, and flight range is longer, and mobile systems are limited .A best of all are submarines; they are more difficult to calculate.
  12. pts-m
    pts-m 8 January 2016 13: 32
    0
    Yeah, the calculation of the creative thought of the engineers is amazing. It’s kind of like just putting a shovel on a stalk and sometimes you have to work hard, and then such a colossus of a tyutelka in a tyutelka. Honor and respect to our creative forces!