Transportation and loading into the mine of an intercontinental ballistic missile of the 5 generation rocket complex RT-2PM2 Topol-M
Place: 60-I Tamansky Order of the October Revolution Red Banner Rocket Division
The complex RT-2PM2 "Topol-M" (code RS-12М2, according to NATO classification - SS-27 Sickle "Serp") is a Russian strategic missile system with an intercontinental ballistic missile developed at the end of 1980-x and the beginning of 1990-x on the basis of the complex RT-2PM "Topol".
• The first intercontinental ballistic missile developed in Russia after the collapse of the USSR. Adopted in 1997 year. The leading developer of the missile complex is the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering (MIT).
The rocket complex "Topol-M" is a solid, three-stage. Ultimate range - 11 000 km. Carries one thermonuclear combat unit power 550 CT. The rocket is based both in mine launchers (silos) and on mobile launchers. In the mine version of the base adopted for the 2000 year.
Designed to perform tasks on delivering a nuclear strike on the enemy's territory in the face of the existing and future anti-missile defense systems, with multiple nuclear effects on the positional area, while blocking the positional area by high-altitude nuclear explosions. It is used as part of a mine-based 15PO65 complex and a mobile-based 15П165.
The stationary complex "Topol-M" includes 10 intercontinental ballistic missiles mounted in mine launchers, as well as a command post.
Number of steps - 3
Length (W / L) - 22,55 m
Length (without MS) - 17,5 m
Diameter - 1,81 m
Starting weight - 46,5 t
Drop weight 1,2 t
Fuel type - solid blend
Maximum range - 11000 km
Type of head - monoblock, nuclear, detachable
The number of warheads - 1 + about 20 dummies
Charging power - 550 CT
Control system - autonomous, inertial on the basis of BTsVK
Way of basing - mining and mobile
The Topol-M mobile complex is a single rocket placed in a high-strength fiberglass transport and launch container (TPK) mounted on an eight-axle MZKT-79221 high-throughput chassis and structurally practically does not differ from the mine version. Launcher weight - 120 tons. Six pairs of wheels of eight are swiveling, which provides a turning radius of 18 meters.
The pressure on the ground installation is two times less than a conventional truck. Engine V-shaped 12-cylinder diesel with turbocharging JMZ-847 800 l. C. Wade depth to 1,1 meter.
When creating systems and units of mobile Topol-M, a number of fundamentally new technical solutions were used as compared with the Topol complex. Thus, the system of incomplete hanging makes it possible to deploy PU "Topol-M" even on soft soils. Improved maneuverability and maneuverability of the installation, which increases its survivability.
Topol-M is capable of launching from any point of the positional area, and also has improved means of masking, both against optical and other reconnaissance means (including by reducing the infrared component of the complex’s unmasking field, as well as using special coatings that reduce radar visibility).
The intercontinental rocket consists of three stages with solid-fuel cruise engines. Aluminum is used as a fuel; ammonium perchlorate acts as an oxidizing agent. Cases of steps are made of composites. All three stages are equipped with a swiveling nozzle to deflect the thrust vector (lattice aerodynamic control wheels are absent).
The control system is inertial, based on the BTSVK and gyro-stabilized platform. The complex of high-speed command gyroscopic instruments has improved accuracy characteristics. The new BTSVK has increased productivity and resistance to the effects of the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion. Aiming is provided through the implementation of an autonomous determination of the azimuth of the control element mounted on a gyro-stabilized platform using a ground-based set of command devices located on the TPC. Ensured increased combat readiness, accuracy and service life of on-board equipment.
Start method - mortar for both options. The marching solid-fuel rocket engine allows it to pick up speed much faster than previous types of rockets of a similar class made in Russia and the Soviet Union. This greatly complicates its interception by means of missile defense in the active leg of the flight.
The missile is equipped with a detachable warhead with one thermonuclear combat unit with a power of 550 KT of TNT equivalent. The head part is also equipped with a complex of means for overcoming missile defense. The complex of means for overcoming missile defense consists of passive and active false targets, and also means of distorting the characteristics of the head section. Several dozen auxiliary correction engines, instruments and control mechanisms allow the warhead to maneuver along the trajectory, making it difficult to intercept it in the final part of the trajectory.
False targets are indistinguishable from warheads in all ranges of electromagnetic radiation (optical, laser, infrared, radar). False targets make it possible to mimic the characteristics of warheads in virtually all selection traits on the extra-atmospheric, transitional and significant part of the atmospheric portion of the downward branch of the flight path of missile warheads, are resistant to the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion and the radiation of a super-power nuclear-pumped laser. For the first time, false targets have been designed that can withstand a super-resolution radar.
In connection with the cessation of the existence of the START-2 agreement, which prohibited the creation of multiply-charged intercontinental ballistic missiles, the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering is working to equip Topol-M with separate head units for individual guidance. Perhaps the result of these works is the PC-24 "Yars". The mobile version of this complex, located on the chassis of an eight-axle tractor MZKT-79221, is being tested.
The high resistance of the 15IX65 rocket to the effects of a potential enemy’s missile defense systems is achieved by:
The reduction in time and length of the active site by extremely rapid acceleration of the rocket. Acceleration time to final speed (over 7 km / s) is less than 3 min.
The ability of the rocket to maneuver in the active area, complicating the decision of the enemy to intercept, as well as to make a program maneuver during the passage of a cloud of a nuclear explosion
The protective coating of the hull of the new development, providing comprehensive protection against the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion and weaponsbased on new physical principles.
The complex for overcoming missile defense, including passive and active false targets and means of distorting the characteristics of the head section. LCs are indistinguishable from warheads in all ranges of electromagnetic radiation (optical, laser, infrared, radar), allow you to simulate the characteristics of warheads in almost all the selection features on the extra-atmospheric, transitional and significant part of the atmospheric section of the descending branch of the flight path of the missile warheads, down to heights 2 - 5 km; they are resistant to the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion and to the radiation of a super-power laser with nuclear pumping, etc. For the first time, LC was designed to withstand super-resolution radars. The means of distorting the head-end characteristics consist of a radio-absorbing (combined with a heat-shielding) MS cover, active jamming generators, etc. The radar visibility of the combat unit is reduced by several orders of magnitude, the EPR is 0,0001 sq.m. The range of its detection is reduced to 100 - 200 km. Optical - and IR-visibility of BB is extremely reduced due to effective cooling of the BB surface in the trans-atmospheric region and reduction in the luminosity of the BB wake on the atmospheric portion, which is achieved including due to injection into the trace region of special liquid products that reduce the intensity of radiation. As a result of the measures taken, it is possible to overcome a monoblock warhead with a promising multi-echelon missile defense system with space-based elements with a probability 0.93 - 0.94. The high- and transatmospheric region of missile defense is overcome with a probability of 0.99, the atmospheric - with a probability of 0.93 - 0.95.
Rocket 15Ж65 equipped with a fusion monoblock warhead power 0.55 MGT. Tests of ICBMs with an FPG (from 3 to 6 separable warheads with an 150 power unit capacity) were carried out. In the future, it is planned to equip the missile with a maneuvering warhead (tests of which are also successfully carried out in 2005) and, therefore, the possibility of intercepting warheads is professionals will be practically reduced to zero.
Circular probable deviation - no more than 200 m, which allows the MS of half-ton power to confidently hit highly protected point targets (in particular, KP and silo). By virtue of the limited throw-in weight that limits the power of PBC, the Topol-M rocket, in contrast to the Voyevoda 15А18 rocket (the capacity of the single-unit warhead of which was 20-25 MGT), has limitations on the implementation of the killing effect on a large areal target.
The 15P165 mobile-based complex has unique characteristics of initial survival, able to function covertly and autonomously for a long period of time. The area of the patrol complex - 250 000 sq. Km.
The Topol-M missile is unified with the sea-based Bulava missile, which are being built for the 955 project’s SSBN. The competitor of the Bulava is the R-29RMU2 “Sineva” liquid ICBM. It significantly surpasses the Bulava (like all other ICBMs) in energy-mass perfection, but it is inferior in an important criterion for Russian sea-based missiles - survival in the active segment due to lower acceleration rates and greater vulnerability from laser weapons typical of liquid-propellant missiles compared to solid fuel. However, the Bulava rocket, with a launch mass of about 37 tons, is significantly inferior in terms of strike power to the existing heavier solid-fuel missiles, including the Trident rocket -2 with a launch mass of 59 tons. (BC "Bulavy" - 6x150 CT, "Trident-2" (theoretically) - 8X475 CT). The project to equip the naval component of the Russian nuclear submarines with the Bulava light ballistic missiles has been criticized by experts who point out the need to arm the Russian submarines with high-tech solid-propelled SLBMs R-XNUMHUTTH, which were tested in the 39s. and which, if put into service, would not have world analogues among SLBMs in strike power and flight performance.