Almost all wars are connected with the Cossacks, in which they proved themselves to be courageous warriors. But as for politics, this is not for them. Not so long ago, I went to my homeland, and I was met by our farmer ataman, Yuri Aprychko, from a regular bus. And on the way, he talked a lot about his troubles and sorrows. Yura, a respected man, who has matured in his affairs, enjoys unquestioned authority among the farmers. He is here - the first power: the local policeman is a few kilometers away and cannot quickly come if sectarians appear on the village streets and distribute their calls to their god, who is contrary to the local people brought up in the Orthodox faith. The ataman does not give such descent, keeps order, but his soul hurts him for the future of the Cossacks, which today passes its next stage, determining the further development of this distinctive, controversial, but already established culture, no matter how denied it. After all, people who had the task to profit from the deep patriotic roots of the Cossacks and undermine the foundations of a single state, its national security, did not fail to take advantage of it.
Kazak Dolgov was safely removed from the shots at the Russian position
The Cossacks were the first to support state undertakings, especially as regards combat operations. The state rulers of Russia were able to build effective work with Cossack settlements (this can be said now). And then it took more than a dozen years to "tame" a runaway people to serve in the glory of the Fatherland. But it happened and the Cossacks began to fight and support almost all government initiatives until the 1917 year.
It was possible to participate in the Cossacks in the Russian-Japanese war 1904-1905. Along with other Cossack troops, Siberians, Kuban, the Don Cossack army also took direct part in the war.
The fourth Don Cossack concessional division received 1 on June 1904 of the year. The highest command to go to martial law, according to which on July 20 it was necessary to carry out the first mobilization and sending Cossacks to the front. Interestingly, all the Cossacks of the line and reserve discharges from the state treasury were given a lump sum in the amount of one hundred rubles (for each foot and horse).
During the mobilization of the regiments, the Cossacks of one village were, if possible, determined to be one hundred, the principle of fraternity was meant and enforced. In the Cossacks, fraternity is a great pledge of unity, courage and integrity of action, every cowardly fears that his neighbor will come and tell the villagers how he, in such a case, cowed or did not show boldness. The village will not forgive the coward, there still lives the spirit of the Cossacks, of youth, courage.
The State Archives of the Rostov Region have documents that allow us to trace directly the personal involvement of the Cossacks of the Kagalnitskaya and Khomutovskaya villages in the hostilities.
Here is one of them: October 24 1904 two Cossack 24 regiments were injured. Details in the situation in which they were injured are drawn as follows: "At six o'clock in the afternoon, a hunter from the Buzuluk regiment arrived at the outpost in the village of Sandnoza and reported verbally that the head of the hunting team requested to get in touch with the team, since six hunters were sent from the village of Vuchzhanin The commander of 4, hundreds of 24 regiments, Esaul Erandakov sent three people to communicate to the village of Phaoziyan for reconnaissance, and two Cossacks and a paramedic went to them in 500's steps.
During the passage between the old trenches in the village of Phaotsziyan, Vakhmister Iosif Tikhonovich Artemenkov (Olginskaya stanitsa), who was walking in front, was wounded in the back leg. Then the consignor Cherkesov Fedor (the village of Khomutovskaya), the consignor Grigori Ivanovich Ezhov (the village of Olginskaya), Karp Gurov (the village of Migulinskaya) and the hundred-year-old medical assistant Dmitry Ivanovich Korolev (the village of Kagalnitskaya) turned back.
The following shots wounded Cossack Grigori Ivanovich Dolgov (stanitsa Gnilovskaya) in both legs. Those who had come from behind ran up to him, the medical assistant made a dressing for Dolgov, after having transferred the wounded man in his arms with the help of his comrades into the trench, not paying attention to the Japanese rifle fire. It was necessary to leave with the wounded under a hail of bullets. Thanks to the volleys of the hunters from the village of Vuzhzhanin, the wounded Cossack Dolgov was safely removed from the shots to Russian positions. "
In the State Archive there are no lists of Cossacks, called up to the fourth Don Cossack division in the Russo-Japanese War. Only the list of headquarters and senior officers in the service in the regiments of the fourth Don Cossack division in the Russian-Japanese war has been preserved.
In the 24-th Cossack regiment cornet served Khoroshilov Hippolyte Vasilevich from the village Khomutovskaya 27-mi years and 19-th regiment were from the village of podesauly Kagalnitskaya tridtsatitrohletny Dementiev Pavel years Zhogolev Marcian Nikolaevich (34 years).
For courage and bravery shown in the Russian-Japanese war, many of the Don Cossacks were awarded the Cross of St. George the fourth degree: cossack 19-Regiment Puzanov Basil from the village Kagalnitskaya - for different time differences in the battles with the Japanese, of 24-regiment for their courage and bravery Kagalnitsky Cossacks were rewarded with St. George's crosses - Senior Inspector Golubov Ivan, Senior Medical Assistant Korolev Dmitry Ivanovich, Vakhmist Peter Belousov, Senior Inspector Yegor Bespamyatnov and orderly Cherkesov Fedor from Khomutovskaya stanitsa.
For courage and bravery in the January battles with the Japanese, the commanding Cherkessov Semyon from the village of Khomutovskaya, from the village of Kagalnitskaya, Cossack Ivan Levchenkov and Timoshenkov’s deputy Kozma, and Yrmilov Matvey, was in charge of the care of the departed for the care of the Japanese for the care of the Japanese. battles with Japan.
As indicated in the case, located in the State Archives of the Rostov Region: “The 24 th regiment in November-December 1904 took part in the cavalry raid of Major General Mishchenko at Yingkou railway station. The station served as a supply point for Japanese troops who had besieged Russian troops in the fortress of Port Arthur. For the eight days of January 1905, a detachment commanded by Major General P.I. Mishchenko, walked about three hundred miles, scattering and capturing several Japanese rear teams in them. Hundreds of wagons with food supplies and military property were destroyed, and food depots in Yingkou itself were burned. During the raid, the Don Cossacks repeatedly showed high standards of combat skills. ”
For bravery and resourcefulness during the raid on Yingkou 52, the warrior of the Don Cossack Regiment was awarded the St. George's Cross of the fourth degree. Among the recipients were Cossacks of the Kagalnitsky stanitsa, Senior Constable Nosov Fedor, Vakhmistr Myshakin Ivan, Senior Constable Tymoshenkov Maxim, Cossack Alexander Farinov and Khomutovskaya Stanitsy Junior Insignia Cherkesov Semen Ignatovich and orderly Koltsov Petr. Bespamyatnov Yegor Kagalnitskoy stanitsa was awarded the St. George of the Third Grade, being seriously wounded, remained in the ranks until the end of the battle.
In the Ynkou 30 battle of December 1904, the Cossacks of the stanitsa Kagalnitskaya were among the dead: the Cossack Koretskov Hilarion, the orderly Petelin Nikolai, the Cossack Golubov Mitrofan, and on the village of Vuchzhanin on November 10 of the year Cossack Skachkov Nikifor died of wounds at the village of Vuchzhanin.
Cossacks Solovyov Kuzma, Farinov Alexander, Perervin Petr, junior contractor Yepor Bespamyatnov and Cossacks of the Khomutovskaya stanitsa Puchkov Ilya, Koltsov Timofey, Vasio Lisovenkov were injured at Yingkou station.
During the 30 battle of December 1904, the Cossack of the village of Kagalnitskaya Apanasov Athanasiy was missing.
In early April, 1906 of the year began to arrive at the station in Novocherkassk from the Far East, trains with regiments of 4-oh Don Cossack Division, and then the Cossacks followed the marching order to their native villages.
11 April 1906, in the village of Khomutovskaya, was the solemn meeting of the Cossacks who returned from the Far East, both their own village and the villages of Kagalnitskaya and Mechetinskaya. By the time the Cossacks met, the entire stanitsa had gathered on the church square. The first to arrive were the Cossacks of the village of Kagalnitsky, and behind them the Cossacks of the village of Mechetinskaya. Those and others were met by the old men and the chieftain, who, on behalf of the stanitsa society, brought bread and salt to these Cossacks, then a prayer service was served near the church. Kahalnichany brought an altar cross to the village of Khomutovskoy, and mosque khoryvitsya in gratitude for the cordial welcome during the farewell of these Cossacks to the Far East in 1904 year.
Having led Kagalnitsky and Mechetinsky Cossacks, the village solemnly met their Cossacks. Khomutovtsy were greeted with a procession and with a guard of honor. They were also offered public bread and salt. Then a prayer of thanksgiving was served on the church square.
The Cossacks brought an icon of the Savior for the church, and a silk banner for the reign. They brought the icon of St. Seraphim to the priest, and the village ataman V.I. Kuznetsov's silver gilded glass with the inscription "VI Kuznetsov Khomutovsky stanitsa ataman from the Cossacks who served in the Far East."
After the moleben, the Cossacks were invited by the village ataman to eat public bread and salt, which was presented to them by grateful residents right there on the church square.
So it was in the old days.
About the tragedy of storytelling, mass executions in the years of the Civil War was written enough.
How did the little atamans share power in the 90s?
The so-called revival of the Cossacks began, and all these undertakings would have come to a hard business, but gradually the state put this attack in order. I want to tell an interesting case from my journalistic practice that occurred in 1996 year.
But it all began in 1991, when the first ataman Alexander Izvarin was elected on a big circle in the village of Gukovskaya. A year later there was a change of power: the Gukovsky Cossack yurt was formed and the ataman Viktor Anikin became his chieftain, to whom the Cossacks of the village of Gukovskaya should have obeyed. But they did not agree with this and chose their one-powerful new ataman of the village of Gukovskaya - Alexander Tsukanov.
On this the leapfrog of atamans and the divisions of the villages into yurts did not end. In 1993, the Cossacks again decided to unite their two camps and thus enter another Sulinsky yurt of the Donetsk district again on a large circle in the village.
In 1993, there was a change of power again: Gennady Filippenko became the ataman.
And all this happened very close to Novocherkassk, from the ataman of the Great Don Cossacks stationed there at that time. And it was on the table at the military ataman statement. I read it and marveled at the generosity of Gukovsky ataman Filippenko, who, from his ataman generosity, whips left and right with his whips.
From the statement: “I, Lapauk A.M., a resident of the farm Nizhnyaya Kovalevka, Krasnosulinsky district, Rostov region 2, June 1996, was returning home with father-in-law Puk Alexander. On the way, met with ataman Filippenko. My relative asked how long the horses of the Cossacks would poison his crops. Ataman did not like it terribly, he answered us, holding the handle of the gas pistol.
Began to swear, rode off, but I quickly separated them. When I came home, my wife told me that 10 or 15 Cossacks came with nunchucks and brass knuckles, they demanded me and my father-in-law ”.
From the testimony of the Bocharov family (neighbors in the cottage): “We hear some noise on the road. Fought Filipenko and Puk. My husband did not hit anyone, just said: “Why, you, Alexander, touch the chieftain, he will die. At night, we woke up from the roar. “Where is the husband?” They ask. Cossacks climbed out the window, tore the film. Our minor daughter was met on the way, threatened with her. And on the morning of June 4 knocked on the door. I opened - five people burst into the room. She grabbed an ax and drove them away. I saw a bus and cars full of Cossacks standing near the house, and Filippenko was there. I said to him: “Shame on you, you are poisoning your husband for nothing”. He jumped: "I will evict you a month." And the Cossacks, too, began to shout: “Whoever moves the ataman will not leave a stone unturned.” When we were harvesting hay, Filippenko came again and began to shout that we were trying in vain. We do not know what to do. We kindly ask for help. ”
This conflict situation did not fail to take advantage of former atamans. One of them, Alexander Izvarin (the first ataman of the village), gave the investigator testimony: “4 of June, early in the morning a group of Cossacks headed by the village ataman and his first deputy Rykin broke into the house of the Puk family. They lifted the men out of bed and did not let them get dressed, took them to the farm of Platovo, where they were beaten. ”
From the statement of Alexander Lapauk: “The test and I was beaten with whips. After all, the chieftain demanded money - 200 thousand rubles and ordered to get out of the farm for a month. Please protect me from lawlessness. ”
The local priest also stood up to protect the family. The rector of the church of Kazan Mother of God, Father Sergius (in the world, Sergei Avdyushkin) demanded an end to lawlessness, reminded of the commandments of God. So Filippenko met with the Metropolitan of Rostov and Novocherkassk (this is the superior leadership of Father Sergey) and demanded that Father Sergius be removed from the parish, they say, the priest does not obey him.
In his defense, the head priest said that the Cossack circle would always appoint the stanitsa ataman at the time when the service was going and doing it on purpose so that the priest would not know the true state of affairs. And there were a lot of complaints about the actions of the chieftain.
The priest remained to serve in his parish.
Conflict situations arose on financial matters. One of the comrades of Ataman Filippenko told about another unpleasant episode. In January, 1996, they had a conversation about writing off money. “We don’t even know what they were spent on,” I wondered. The chieftain, in response, said that the documents should be transferred to the administration.
Made fake acts, issuing them in hindsight. From a statement by a member of the elders, centurion Ivan Chekunov: “In May, the stanitsa ataman Filippenko came to me on 1995 of the year, and filed a deduction act in the amount of 30 million rubles. Supposedly products were purchased for the local children's pioneer camp. But I did not attend. And draw up the last number of acts - not fit! And in the act were already signed Vlasov and Sidelsky. But I still refused. ”
However, the ataman Filippenko failed to shift, he spent seven years in his honorary position. Until he was again dismissed in this post by the new chieftain.
How to divide the power of the major chieftains
If this state of affairs occurred in relatively small Cossack formations, then soon followed a series of changes in power and division of territories, which took place for many years and was far from the true and pure bright patriotic rise that the Cossacks of the first wave felt. This leapfrog caused concern from the authorities and law enforcement agencies, which received many complaints about the illegal actions of the nascent new government, which tended to lynch and subjectivism.
Even their own “republics” appear: “Upper Kuban Cossack Republic”, which united two other “republics”, “Zelenchuksko-Urupsky Cossack Soviet Socialist Republic” and “Batalpashinsky Cossack Republic”, “Armavir Cossack Republic”, “Terskaya Cossack Republic”.
Then in Russia, according to official data, one after another Cossack societies began to appear geographically tied to the locality: the Union of Cossacks in Far Russia, the Union of Siberian, Ural and Semirechensky Cossacks, the Don Cossack Army, the All-Cuban Cossack Army, the Black Sea Cossack Army, the Stavropol Cossack Army, Terek Cossack army, Cossack army of Kalmykia, Astrakhan Cossack army, Ural Cossack army, Orenburg Cossack army, Siberian Cossack army, Semirechensky Cossack army, United Yenisei Cossa whose army, the Irkutsk Cossack army, the Trans-Baikal Cossack army, the Amur Cossack army, the Ussuri Cossack army, the Yakut Cossack regiment and others.
At that time, there were three Cossack organizations on the Don: Military Cossack Society (EKR) "The Great Don Army", headed by a Cossack general V.P. Vodolatsky.
The second non-governmental organization, the International Union of non-governmental organizations "Vsevelikoye Don Army" (MSOO "VVD"), headed by Nikolai Kozitsyn, settled in Novocherkassk on the first floor of the main administrative building, where the mayor worked on the second floor. And the power with Nikolay Kozitsyn tried to divide the Ratians.
The third in a row was the "Don Cossack Republic" under the leadership of Alexander Yudin, who did not pass the official registration and almost from her first steps began to fall on information tapes in connection with numerous scandals. Law enforcement agencies immediately attributed to this republic cautiously and “in November 2009 of the year for violation of the established procedure for organizing a public event held in the territory of Starocherkassk rural settlement of Aksay district Yudin by a court decision was brought to administrative responsibility according to part 1, article 20.2 of the Administrative Code of the Russian Federation "(According to the website of the Rostov Region Prosecutor's Office).
And in February 2010, the Rostov region prosecutor issued a warning to the self-proclaimed organization Don Cossack Republic about the inadmissibility of extremist activity, which was to actively promote the idea of creating a self-proclaimed new state entity within Russia. Spread literature, detailing all the charms that may arise in the new state. But at the heart of all the appeals - it was established by law enforcement agencies - there were calls for an uprising. The newly-minted Cossacks even wrote their own constitution and read it during unauthorized meetings, which were spontaneously held in different parts of the Rostov region. From Yudin, there were calls for appealing to the UN to recognize a new territorial-administrative unit. But the three letters about the UN were not inspired by the local population - the other three primordial letters were heard in response, which usually were sent to the high-profile guests.
To once again unite the Cossacks, finally, 16 February, 2011, the President of Russia D.A. Medvedev made amendments to the State Duma to the law "On the State Service of the Russian Cossacks", which proposes the creation of an All-Russian Cossack society. What was done.
However, the Cossack separatist movement still exists and sets forth its own conditions for a new revival of its movement. But everyone is tired. I want to write in big letters: people are tired of you. People want to live in peace and do good, not permanent evil. Because good is forever. I want to stop on the good, and it is connected with the Cones, with the pines, with the yellow sand and the Don wind, with the blue gyrus Don, which lovingly outlines this writer's patrimony.
And about the most important chronicler of the Cossacks - Sholokhov
The hard fate of each person, and the writer in particular, who for centuries passed on the surprisingly distinctive spirit of the Cossacks, to which all real, not masked Cossacks feel involved, and they have a real, not ostentatious sense of pride for their land, for their homeland that feeds roots not one generation. And this blood, spiritual connection is unlikely to be broken by strangers like the Yudin and others. Because there are on Don such as the ataman of the farm Yura Apryshko, who really care about their people for their people and protect them from everyday adversity, without bulging up their daily work on the Maidan and the squares. Yura just knows how to live and teaches this life, the correct life of other people.
For this we also have Sholokhov.
It was recalled that in February there will be 31 year from the day of the death of Mikhail Sholokhov. A man who knows almost the whole world. After all, Sholokhov wrote about us, about the earth, without inventing and not imposing false values, which eventually disappear into non-existence. It remains the present. And it arises in the most unexpected moments.
About this amazing stories I accidentally found out when I was invited to the garrison home of officers of the city of Morozovsk (Rostov region), where the traditional meeting of the cadets A.V. Morozovskaya took place. Suvorov cadet boarding school and graduates of higher military educational institutions of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation.
Since its founding, the boarding school has maintained excellent links with military units of the Morozovsky Aviation Garrison. Today, the educational department of the garrison, which is headed by the assistant commander for work with personnel, lieutenant colonel V.E. Gutorov with the support of A. Morozovskaya, Deputy Director Suvorov cadet boarding school for the educational work of military foreman V.P. This was not the first time Linkov had a meeting between high school students and graduates of military universities. In this military-vocational guidance campaign entitled "Choose the profession of an officer!" officers participated aviation group senior pilot Lieutenant A. Averin and navigator senior lieutenant Makarenko. The officers commented on the video about the flight of modern aerobatic teams, which was shown to the cadets. Lieutenant Alexander Averin told the guys about his academic achievements, that he dreamed of becoming a military man, like his father, about military service and his profession. He graduated from high school with a silver medal, then the Krasnodar Higher Military Aviation School of Pilots (KVVAUL) with honors.
And quite unexpectedly, there was a story about a prototype of the Sholokhov hero, who, it turns out, was a pilot.
The heroic destiny of Grigori Dolnikov, a pupil of KVAAUL, who was taken prisoner unconsciously, who escaped from him and returned to the ranks, served as the basis for Sholokhov's writing of his world famous story “The Fate of a Man”. Grigory Dolnikov was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union and in peacetime he became Colonel General of Aviation.
To be honest, Sholokhov for me every time turns around a completely different side. As a child, I excitedly read his Don stories, imagined the bitter fate of a little man, Nakhalenok, born out of wedlock and how he was hunted by farmers. And then Nakhalyonok accomplished his main feat and became completely different. In some ways, his fate is similar to mine, Nakhalenkovskaya. Only this is the fault of the parents, not mine, and my sister born out of law, but the fate of sidelong glances and whispering neighbors, true Don inhabitants, who value mental and physical morality, did not pass away.
And I also remember the stories of my Aunt Rai - God rest her soul! - about his meetings with the writer. She, an ordinary farm woman, spoke about the writer, lowering her voice and with some kind of trepidation in front of an unknown and incomprehensible feeling in front of a great man, whose value she understood, a simple woman who had completed several classes of elementary school.
And I also remember the stories of my father, who was also a writer, but did not like Sholokhov and said that this writer was no different and did not like the Cossacks at all, and did not understand at all, for which they gave Sholokhov a Nobel Prize. Envy among the writing environment has been and will be. And they will deduct sentences by line, and they will wonder how it happened that the other person wrote this, and not they, such great and brilliant, whose selfishness and self-love was higher than the great work that they could touch for a moment.
Disputes about the works of Sholokhov do not stop today, especially with regard to his famous “Quiet Don”.
When I was a student, I also analyzed the style of the novel. And immediately the difference in the writing of the text was clearly caught in the eyes. As if the text was written not by one person, but by two people. The style is completely different. With this and some literary critics agreed. Only after all the writing person can reincarnate several times, it is akin to the state of a talented actor.
The most incredible rumors spread. For example, as if Sholokhov kept a white officer chained and vytyvyl from him all the information for his novel. Another rumor - Mikhail found a bag with sketches of the novel.
And Sholokhov for me today became the personification of something real, the involvement in which then was felt by practically all the people who lived on the land of Don. They carried this participation to the great through the years and passed it on to the next generation.
Yes, Sholokhov was alive. He loved to drink, he loved women, and children born out of wedlock were in the nearby Bazka farm, which are on the other side of the Don, just opposite Vyoshenskaya stanitsa. But tell me, there will be plenty of such “tails” in the lives of many men ... But only men began to write books less and less.
True, there are exceptions. I remembered our Oleg Chuvakin. Frost on the skin of his stories. I cried as I read his stories. What a pity that today there is practically no powerful system of promotion of authors at the state level, which began in the 1930-ies. It may be objected to me that these authors were fed up ... But who then did not feed from the broad state hand? Both talented and worthless. But the real thing remained, what remained later became the property of our country. All writers have a hard time, but they worked to leave something after them, real, worthy. And I believe that after Oleg Chuvakin, there will also remain something real, worthy that will lift the spirit of the Russian person, making him resistant to many trials.
And there will be many trials. This was said to me by an Orthodox priest in confession. Only in these tests, people always held on to a strong hand. And it was the hand of the state.