Military Review

Tensile strength

There were no trifles in the work on Soviet missiles

There are a lot of stories about the main designers and global victories, much less information about those whose hands and talent put incredible ideas into metal. The interlocutor of "MIC" - Marina Demertseva, a specialist in strength calculations, who worked in the Dnepropetrovsk design bureau Yuzhnoye from the first days of its existence. Order of Lenin, two “Badges of Honor”, ​​30 years of experience at one of the most secret enterprises of the USSR.

- Marina Fedorovna, how did you find yourself in Dnepropetrovsk?

- After graduating from MAI in 1948, I worked at SRI-88 in Podlipkah. Then this institute, created right after the war, was engaged in all directions of jet weapons. Since the end of the war, hundreds of our engineers have worked in Germany, collecting all possible information about German jet development. Korolev led the subject of ballistic missiles, exploring and developing developments on the German V-2, I also worked for Yevgeny Sinilshchikov, and our specialization was anti-aircraft and cruise missiles, the German Vasserfal and Schmetterling.

Tensile strength

Employees of OKB-586 at a festive demonstration. Second left - Marina Demertseva, in the center - Vasily Budnik

However, in 1950, the entire division of Sinilshchikov was transferred to Khimki, to the design office of S. Lavochkin. But they left me with Korolev — young engineers came from the institutes, but they had neither specialization nor experience. And by that time I, having two years experience at NII-88, was considered to be a good and experienced strength. And I was invited to the sector of strength, which was headed by Sergey Okhapkin.

For six months I worked with the Queen, and once in the sector, it was in June, it seems, one woman came to quit. It turned out that they are being transferred to a new place of work with her husband - to Dnepropetrovsk, they promise to provide housing there. Moreover, she had already been there and avidly told what beauty she saw: the Dnieper is wide, the acacias are in bloom! And I myself am from Uzbekistan, we ate a handful of white acacia in childhood ... Well, the apartment. In Moscow, my husband and I did not shine, would have stayed in the hostel. Gena was older than me, but he also studied at the MAI, having managed to do some fighting on a fighter, having become disabled and once again rose to the sky with a prosthetic leg.

I want to go to Okhapkina and so. He replies that he would be happy to leave me, but he understands that he will not be able to offer housing in the near future. And he called Vasily Budnik himself, who formed the group in our scientific research institute to be included in the list. So I got to Dnepropetrovsk, the last of the first list of designers aimed at the mass production of a new type of weapon, the P-1 rocket, being created. A little earlier, a group of engines, recruited mainly in KB-456 Valentina Glushko, went to a new job.

- “The resettlement of peoples” than you remember?

- We left Podlipok 5 August 1951, on a small bus - Vasily Sergeevich Budnik, our group of 13 people and the representative of the first department is a secretary. We drove two days overnight in Orel. We first settled in a hotel, but literally in the early days Budnik took us to an already built house on Philosophical Street, 36 / 38, showed apartments. For some time we waited until the finish is finished, and then settled. Especially for bringing things from Podlipok, Vasily Budnik ordered two cars, sent people there to collect and load everything. Now it is ridiculous, but then the roots of saxaul were brought in these cars - great fuel for kitchen stoves, there was no gas in the house yet ...

Budnik went to Dnepropetrovsk to the post of chief designer of the SKB plant 586. The automobile plant, on the basis of which mass production was developed, began to be built in the 1944 year, and by the time of conversion, it had already managed to produce several experimental machines. Accordingly, some workshops were, but for the mass production of missiles it was necessary to build a lot more. Therefore, in the same way as during the evacuation of factories in 1941, development and production were carried out in parallel with the construction of buildings. I still remember the saying: “There is no more dirt than at DAZ”.

Arriving for the first time at a future place of work, we saw a construction site, instead of a walk-through - booths with watchmen. Our design bureau was located in dog houses, a kind of three-story building that forms one of the walls of the shop. Initially, we settled in one floor, then with the arrival of new employees occupied all the new premises. We have already issued 7 August, took a non-disclosure subscription, issued a pass. The first meeting was held in the office of the chief engineer of the automobile plant.

A part of the employees of the factory automobile design bureau came over to us, most of the workers also turned out to be “motorists”. I must say, they were excellent specialists, because if there were problems in mastering absolutely new products for them, everything was solved quickly and calmly. The shop where the engines were assembled was built, but the tanks were first made essentially on the street — neither the roof, nor the walls.

- That is, the time for the buildup was not given?

- The task before the design bureau and the plant was specific: by January the first product in the metal should be ready for testing. The word “rocket” was not something that we were allowed out loud, even mentally pronounced.

Then somehow I didn’t think about it, but now it’s clear that Vasily Budnik, when creating a serial design bureau, kept in mind that the time would come for his own developments. We were not just hired employees - he did everything so that we quickly felt like a single team, a team. It worked and the fact that we lived in the same house, spent leisure time together, and Vasily Sergeyevich tried to organize joint trips: a boat was rented and we went to the collective farm on Sunday to some of the Dnieper islands or went on a tour by bus — to watch the Dnieper and Khortytsya .

We were not pioneers for a long time - young specialists from different universities of Moscow, Leningrad, Saratov, Kazan also began to arrive ...

- What made people work with such tension? They say Korolev was cool. And the rest?

- I knew Korolev even from Podlipk, but even then it was a magnitude for all of us. He didn’t have any conversations on a short leg with ordinary employees. It is believed that everyone feared him, and probably there is some truth in this. Although in fact it was not fear. We all were children of our time and understood: this man is responsible for everything, he is free to decide the fate of any of us with the stroke of a pen and at the same time his fate depends entirely on how we work. This is discipline. Yes, strict. But sensible, and we took it without any doubt.

Every morning you come to the first department to receive your briefcase with documents - we didn’t have anything left on the tables for the night - and should get to work as soon as possible. The schedule was very hard, just to leave the room and go about your business is unthinkable. At the checkpoint on time - by itself, so also the time sheet in the KB, internal accounting. And then not everyone had a watch, it was considered a luxury. And the timekeepers, as on the selection, are harmful: the slightest delay was recorded and immediately transferred to the frames. But we took it as a norm, did not complain about life.

- Serial KB was not at all the ultimate dream of Budnik, as far as I know ...

- As soon as the work on the first production product went into regular mode, when there was no need for constant intervention by designers and technologists, Vasily Sergeevich began to load us with the creation of his own developments. He was a supporter of missiles, allowing long-term storage in the refilled state, which was impossible in the royal P-1. “One” and the following “two” (P-2) and “five” (Р-5) were refueled just before launch, which is extremely inconvenient for use on combat duty in the troops.

"Park of rockets" in Dnepropetrovsk
shows only a small part
YuMZ products. Photo:

Therefore, in Dnepropetrovsk, work began on a rocket, where the oxidant was a composition based on nitric acid. Due to aggressiveness, fuel components also did not allow the rocket to be stored for more than a month, but this was also considered a gift by the military. In fact, it was these works that made the design bureau in Dnepropetrovsk chief in military rocket production.

To the products for the army, the requirements were very harsh. We, the strengths, had to solve problems with many unknowns. In fact, at the same time, “rocket” strength standards were created. For aircraft, such norms have long existed, and for rockets, we did. This is a huge design and scientific work - to create a product with a minimum own weight, with a maximum load, withstanding in addition to starting voltages, where we started, and shipping conditions, plus taking into account metal fatigue during long-term storage. We didn’t speak about double safety factor from the very beginning, but the responsible units were designed with the 1,5 coefficient, where it was possible - 1,3. These figures were not taken from the ceiling, along with the design was carried out a huge amount of experimental work.

Over time, the tasks were set more and more difficult, we expected the strength of the products up to options for their use in a nuclear attack. When the first experiments with mathematical modeling began, the computing complex in the KB occupied an entire floor.

From 1951 until April 1954, we worked under the guidance of Vasily Budnik. It was already a big design bureau, with its own work. And then Mikhail Kuzmich Yangel was appointed chief designer. Budnik was a very good designer, an excellent organizer, but Yangel, if I may say so, is the peak, the top of the professional level. Budnik became his first deputy, which certainly hurt his pride. But at that time nobody paid attention to the insults. It really was a race in which everything personal was not at all taken into account. It seemed to us unfair that another person would come to the place of the leader who had created everything practically from scratch. But it was only until the appearance of Yangel.

- Charmed?

- Not that word. When he began to work, when new themes began to open up, ideas that seemed completely impossible to be realized, the attitude to Mikhail Kuzmich changed. He was really loved by everyone, and he deserved it.

The development of each new product is a chain of ideas, inventions, design innovations and technological solutions. Moreover, the case was put so that creativity in fact was imputed to the responsibility of each employee. I don’t know if this is possible elsewhere, but our design bureau was a community of inventors.

For our products, other companies carried out a huge number of orders, and this is also new, there was no time for long-term research. For example, we count brackets-supports, on which the rocket is in the mine. New alloy, certain characteristics. Developed a design, tested - everything is fine, regularly, the product goes into a series, is placed in the starting mines. To stand there for rockets for many years, but suddenly a year and a half later they report: fatigue cracks began to appear in the brackets. A rocket on alert, there are many of them and you need to make a decision immediately. The first thing we did was special covers that took on part of the load of the standard brackets. That is, the problem of the already installed missiles was decided, and then they set about rafting. They investigated it in all respects, together with the manufacturers they changed the composition ... As a result, they achieved that they got almost perfect material on the combination of weight, strength and reliability. A similar situation arose when we started working with titanium alloys. Materials are awesome, but capricious, very demanding on processing technology.

- It is clear that the problems - both planned and sudden - were in abundance. Plus time trouble. How did you manage to cope?

- The main thing is that there were no situations when we were left alone with the problems. Relationship subcontractors like "we have done our work, and then figure it out for yourself," if there were, then stopped at the root. As a single organism, not only the CB, but the entire system worked. Specialists from different departments from dozens of cities around the Union understood that it was a common thing.

Business trips were our daily life, and wherever we went to see our colleagues, we felt everywhere that we were visiting our own. I still feel like a very happy person - I had to work with so many talented people on a huge number of products. Each next step multiplied the number of problems. The increase in the number of stages, mine placement, mortar launch, work on space carriers ... There was no one to ask, we were the first to go in this area. At times I got tired terribly - you fumble around the house, and in your head: the instrument compartment, the fairing, the transition compartment, and in each heap of parts, everything is riveted ... Dozens of names and the weak link must not be missed, everything must be absolutely reliable. Sometimes solutions for a few days looking for how to do everything in the best way. However, the instinct worked - sometimes it was already becoming clear from one type of detail that it would not work properly. But all the same, guesses need to be confirmed by calculations.

- It was recently said that the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau was working for the moon ...

- Yes, we also had a chance to participate in the Soviet lunar program. Our design bureau got the development of the so-called E-module, which was supposed to deliver a manned compartment with an astronaut to the surface of the moon, and then return it to orbit for subsequent docking with the main ship and return to Earth. There is even a photo in the archive of the factory, where I am depicted with this unit during temperature strength tests. We could not provide all the required modes, because we, together with a sample of the product, went to one of the institutes of Novosibirsk and worked there. 14 of computational cases was considered: on the dark or on the light side of the moon, takeoff and landing will take place, on what surface, at what possible speeds ... And what temperatures will affect the module in each case, how all elements will behave in this or that case designs. There were two main engines of our design with bottom protection, two helmsmen, a toroidal tank and ball tanks were located around the frame, the instrument compartment was above, and the mount for the habitable compartment was on top. But the astronaut compartment was developed and we did not. Unfortunately, the lunar program was closed after the Americans were ahead of us. But we worked our part of the program completely, the module was tested three times in an unmanned version on the Earth's orbit and everything went flawlessly.

- You started with a fairly simple rocket P-1 ... And what problems solved thirty years later?

- Very interesting история was with the choice of launch vehicle for the Sea Launch project. The KDU in the middle of the 70-s was commissioned to develop a middle-class launch vehicle. For options designed for maximum payload (including for the project of the manned reusable ship Zarya), an unusual launching algorithm was developed - the rocket was not simply placed on the launch pad, but was attached to it in a special way. The engine was started, and only after it gained power much more than the weight of the rocket, the mount broke. This provided improved stabilization of the rocket during acceleration and, most importantly, an increase in the payload mass. On the basis of the same carrier for the project "Energy" - "Buran" in Dnepropetrovsk were made accelerating blocks, "boarks" with engines manufactured by Glushko.

And when in the middle of 90-x started talking about the US-Russian-Ukrainian-Norwegian project Sea Launch, our developments turned out to be very useful - the option of attaching the carrier to the platform, although it was developed with completely different goals, in this case turned out to be irreplaceable. It is a pity that the Sea Launch has suspended its work - the well-being of Yuzhmash and the KBYu depended on it very much.
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  1. Ami du peuple
    Ami du peuple 20 December 2015 13: 02
    As a single organism, not only the design bureau worked, but the whole system. Specialists from various departments from dozens of cities throughout the Union realized that this was a common thing.

    What a great country we pissed off, in which such wonderful people lived and created. Forgive us ..
    1. Haettenschweiler
      Haettenschweiler 20 December 2015 13: 05
      Quote: Ami du peuple
      What country are we

      - Old, old "song about the main thing." Nothing can be changed - in the past. But it is within our power to change the future. No matter how trite, but even those who are now in power and plundering the country will sooner or later go to feed the worms. The main thing is that those who took their place were at least a little different.
      1. cniza
        cniza 20 December 2015 13: 14
        Quote: Haettenschweiler
        The main thing is that those who took their place should be at least slightly different.

        Everything depends on us, no one will come and will not do for us. We got enough vaccinations, examples and errors above the roof, it remains to work as it should.
        1. avg
          avg 20 December 2015 13: 34
          I don’t know how I can’t understand how such dill grandchildren grew up with such people, where did they get such detachment, even hostility toward the life and work of their grandfathers and parents, why did they absorb the most dirty from our enemies.
          1. Ezhaak
            Ezhaak 20 December 2015 14: 24
            Quote: avg
            how did such dill grandchildren grow up in such people,

            It’s so simple, in what environment you rotate, you adopt those habits.
            Quote: avg
            where did they get such detachment from, even hostility to the life and affairs of their grandfathers and parents

            From there. Today's young people are slowly becoming not producers, but consumers, whose life’s task is to find a place where they pay well (a lot) and you can do nothing all day.
            1. aksakal
              aksakal 20 December 2015 15: 04
              Quote: Hedgehog
              From there. Today's young people are slowly becoming not producers, but consumers, whose life’s task is to find a place where they pay well (a lot) and you can do nothing all day.

              Well, excuse me if I were like that
              highly qualified specialist
              in less than half a million a month I wouldn’t go, but they went and worked! honor to them and respect!
              1. Ezhaak
                Ezhaak 20 December 2015 15: 51
                Quote: aksakal
                in less than half a million a month I wouldn’t go,

                Well, at first the housing problem arose there tightly. And then, given that time, salaries were not very high. Too often in those days they did not ask if you want to or not. Here you have a direction, come, report. It is only the institute that graduated today, it is already making demands. Not having a specific specialization. The article says so well. So it was in the USSR. They gave general information, and after graduation, people acquired a specialty specifically.
              2. V.ic
                V.ic 20 December 2015 17: 22
                Quote: aksakal
                less than half a million a month would not go

                I would go! In Magadan ... and even for nothing.
          2. Sirocco
            Sirocco 20 December 2015 15: 44
            Quote: avg
            That's how I can’t understand how such dill grandchildren grew up in such people,

            One of the reasons, it's that in the 90s, everyone was busy surviving, earning dough, and as a rule, children were left to their own devices, grandmothers and grandfathers. He was a witness and a participant, he pulled out a boy from under a pallet with a brick at a construction site near the house, in the mid-90s, he was crushed with a fracture of the spine, the boy died, and where are the parents? correctly on earnings in Poland were.
            Who is to blame for this situation? primarily the state.
            We have not gone far, with our skeletons in the closet, and the education system.
          3. goncharov.62
            goncharov.62 20 December 2015 17: 58
            "How did such people grow up such grandchildren-dill" - I have a friend-friend-friend-enemy in the Dnieper? (now I don't know myself) was early. telemetry department at Yuzhmash. "We are not your brothers", "Ukraine is not Russia! We went to Lviv in May 2014 - I was so tired of watching him jumping around the statue of Bandera ... And my father was buried in Russia, oh, no words !!!
          4. WINovikov
            WINovikov 20 December 2015 18: 24
            That's how I can’t understand how such dill grandchildren grew up in such people ...
            And how did our rulers and effective managers grow such children and grandchildren?
            Or in your own eye ...
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. The comment was deleted.
    2. kil 31
      kil 31 20 December 2015 13: 09
      That is, they did not give time for a buildup?

      - The task before the design bureau and the plant was specific: by January the first product in the metal should be ready for testing. The word “rocket” was not something that we were allowed out loud, even mentally pronounced.
      That's how it should be. Times were exactly the same. "The West considers us an enemy, all sorts of sanctions have been introduced." This is the answer to the article below.
    3. Coconut Tima
      Coconut Tima 20 December 2015 13: 10
      The Ukrainian government has introduced a moratorium on the payment of $ 507 million, which two Ukrainian companies - Yuzhnoye KB and Ukravtodor - owe to Russian banks. This is bankruptcy
      1. Extraneous
        Extraneous 20 December 2015 16: 27
        This is a private debt. Bankruptcy Outskirts is not related.
    4. Monos
      Monos 20 December 2015 13: 42
      What a great country we pissed off

      And now we are supposedly "homeless"? Sorry, but this is not the time to grieve. Need to work. Build and rebuild. After the Patriotic War, in the end, it was worse.
      1. 79807420129
        79807420129 20 December 2015 15: 50
        Quote: Monos
        What a great country we pissed off

        And now we are supposedly "homeless"? Sorry, but this is not the time to grieve. Need to work. Build and rebuild. After the Patriotic War, in the end, it was worse.

        No, we are certainly not homeless people, and no matter how skeptics cry about this, we are far from homeless people, but all the same, the USSR's capabilities were still greater than Russia has now, you are right, in order to achieve something, you have to work. But Yuzhmash is a pity, " Stiletto "and" Voevoda "are theirs, and now they produce stoves.
    5. Andrey Yuryevich
      Andrey Yuryevich 20 December 2015 15: 35
      Quote: Ami du peuple
      What a great country we had

      alas my friend ... alas ... crying
    6. sinoptic
      sinoptic 21 December 2015 12: 40
      Quote: Ami du peuple
      What a great country we pissed off, in which such wonderful people lived and created. Forgive us.

      No need to sprinkle ash on your head. We managed to build it before and now we will build it! Everything will be fine.
      Do not forget that the military-industrial complex is the "golden cow" that ruined the USSR. We had the best weapons, but there was not enough sausage in the stores. I am for the military-industrial complex, but wisely.
      In general, the main thing is to save, not to lose yourself in this world, and it seems that we did it.
      I am critical of Putin (his economic policy), but it is precisely the revival of our national core that is his greatest merit. Thanks to him.
      What happens to those who lose themselves, we see our national core on the example of Ukraine.
  2. venaya
    venaya 20 December 2015 13: 03
    Unfortunately, the lunar program was closed after the Americans got ahead of us

    They didn’t get ahead of us, they didn’t get ahead of us and there is already evidence for this.
    How many labors have people put on the altar of survival of the country? Such articles need as much as possible.
  3. avvg
    avvg 20 December 2015 13: 03
    Yes, in Ukraine today they drank, ate the whole legacy of the USSR .. Ukraine is the sad legacy of Atlantis
  4. Aleksandr72
    Aleksandr72 20 December 2015 13: 06
    Yes, there were people, there was an enterprise, and rockets too ... were. And now the only thing left for Ukrainians is to dream about the former labor glory of UMZ. Once they wrote about him:
    State Enterprise “Production Association Southern Machine-Building Plant named after A.M. Makarova ”(hereinafter - YUZHMASH) is one of the world scientific and production complexes that carry out serial production of samples of modern rocket and space technology. Many of them are the embodiment of research and development, which, by design and execution, has no analogues in the world.
    For 65 years, the enterprise has created four generations of launch vehicles (LV) and several types of spacecraft (spacecraft, satellites). The fifth generation of the LV and the new generation of the spacecraft are currently being created. In implementation of the internationally known international launch project Sea Launch, Yuzhmash manufactured a two-stage environmentally friendly launch vehicle called Zenit. Under the program of this project, more than two dozen launches of launch vehicles from the Pacific Ocean were made from a specially developed floating platform, which launched several tens of satellites from different countries (Russia, the USA, etc.) into low Earth orbit. In order to launch such launch vehicles from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, a joint venture, Land Launch, was created.
    As part of the conversion, Yuzhmash, in cooperation with Russian enterprises, upgraded two types of strategic two-stage launch vehicles (an acceleration unit was installed, necessary improvements were made) for launching communication spacecraft into orbit
    A new modification launch vehicle is being created, developed as a result of a joint Ukrainian-Brazilian project to launch satellites from the Alcantara cosmodrome, Brazil.
    Thanks to the successes made by Yuzhmash in the field of space exploration, Ukraine has deservedly consolidated its status as a world space power. According to the results of the launches, which make up 11% of the global total, YuZhMASH can claim one of the places in the top five leading space-rocket enterprises.

    And now, after the breakdown of extensive ties with Russia, the autochthons only have to do what to produce all kinds of different tractors at YuMZ.
    By the way, UMZ production tractors were considered the worst of all produced in the USSR even in Soviet times, Belarusian MTZ and Lipetsk T-40s were much better - only auxiliary equipment was put on our UMZ-6 and usually they planted either the most negligent or the youngest tractor drivers - such a peculiar punishment. Now, the UMZ tractor is completely real ... mo.
    I have the honor.
    1. proletarian
      proletarian 20 December 2015 13: 56
      Yes now and it actually does not exist.
  5. EvgNik
    EvgNik 20 December 2015 13: 16
    Thank you for the article. Something, of course, I knew, but there was no specifics. And more often you need to remind young people how was it.
  6. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 20 December 2015 13: 17
    Good memories of a wonderful specialist. Everything was in the USSR - and the research institutes kept their employees for months "on potatoes", and "Buran" was done automatically.
    Sorry for the EMPIRE. Mediocrity and freeloaders of the leadership will ruin any business.
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 20 December 2015 17: 42
      Quote: Mountain Shooter
      Sorry for the EMPIRE. Mediocrity and freeloaders of the leadership will ruin any business.

      It's not only about "mediocrities and freeloaders", but also about development goals. Lenin and Trotsky threw into the masses the slogan "a moment" of the new year of "Evolution" ... Stalin had to work hard to attach the "Evolutionary" s to the construction sites of socialism. Stalin was killed and the Trotskyists of Khrushchev's batch broke through to power again. Yap corn again promised the people communism, although "Lukich" promised the same to the participants of the third RKSM congress. In the absence of leaders of a Stalinist scale in the leadership of the USSR, the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU was saddled by Moishe, the tagged one, who promised the people a separate apartment for each family by the year 2000. Notice the constant lowering of the bar: from the world revolution through communism in a single "camp" to a separate apartment. Now the bar is even lower and more prosaic: just to survive and survive for the oligarchic state and the former Soviet people surviving in it.
  7. lukke
    lukke 20 December 2015 13: 18
    but he still studied at the Moscow Aviation Institute, having managed to fight on a fighter, having received disability and again ascending into the sky with a prosthetic leg.
    well, like that, with everyday words about People (along with Maresyev), whose names are unfortunately not well-known. But everyone knows Kirkorov, Pugachev, etc. at what they don’t get out of the box - on all channels. And then we wonder why young people know a lot about Barbie and Batman, but they don’t know anything about Komsomol members, etc.
  8. tol100v
    tol100v 20 December 2015 13: 20
    Sadly, YUZHMASH is no more!
  9. NordUral
    NordUral 20 December 2015 13: 33
    The best years of our country and people.
  10. Zomanus
    Zomanus 20 December 2015 13: 33
    Good article. In reality, the country lived as a single organism.
  11. dchegrinec
    dchegrinec 20 December 2015 13: 34
    Sometimes you want to rewind time ago, but for those who set up the division of such a powerful country as the USSR, how to put it mildly, without mats, to instruct and chillim somewhere to engage in logging, and not politics.
  12. Great-grandfather of Zeus
    Great-grandfather of Zeus 20 December 2015 13: 39
    It’s just obvious that the Ukrainian authorities keep the word given to the curators, and are zealously driving the economy into the Stone Age, eliminating the whole growth of production and destroying science.
  13. ruskih
    ruskih 20 December 2015 14: 07
    Wonderful article. You are right that the country lived as a single organism. The heart was bleeding when heating pads were produced in such factories. Here is an excerpt from an article dedicated to the 50th anniversary of our plant: "We laid a plant on the outskirts of the city, now it is an industrial quarter between the center and a residential area. Young engineers were driving from Moscow and Leningrad, then personnel began to be trained at the local polytechnic. Vizbor sang about such enterprises. we make rockets. "

    There has never been a missile production in Brest. But here they released their heart and brain - computers for controlling ballistic missile launches from submarines, as well as complexes for strategic aviation.

    Vitaly Steinberg, chief designer of the Argon Research Institute (Moscow): “The order of the Ministry of Radio and Radio Industry for the airborne radar monitoring and guidance systems was very important. The Americans have a prototype - the Avax system - with a large antenna on the aircraft fuselage. ”

    In the best years, 13 thousand people worked at the enterprise - it was considered prestigious to get here. After the BEMZ, other large enterprises began to be built in Brest. This scope was also reflected in demographics - the population of a border town grew threefold in half a century. After the collapse of the Union, high-class specialists had to rebuild from secret military orders for peaceful products - electricity meters, tape recorders, televisions, home computers. (Http://
    Yes, the enterprise once rattled throughout the Union experienced a conversion (consisting, as they say here, of two words - “convulsion” and “sabotage”).
  14. evil partisan
    evil partisan 20 December 2015 14: 47
    I envy the rockets of the first generations with fierce envy! I myself was familiar with some of them. None of them are left ... Health to you Dear Marina Demertseva love
    1. Andrey Yuryevich
      Andrey Yuryevich 20 December 2015 15: 49
      Quote: Angry Guerrilla
      I envy rocketeers first generations fierce envy! I myself was familiar with some of them.

      know the measure! Korolev S.P. left in 1966, you were 3 years old! laughing maybe Werner von Braun knew? laughing(here I am pulled !!! laughing laughing laughing , this is for you all the humiliation!) drinks
      1. evil partisan
        evil partisan 20 December 2015 16: 24
        Quote: Andrey Yurievich
        Korolev S.P. left in 1966, you were 3 years old! maybe Werner von Braun knew?
        If you take into account the age difference, then everything will work out for you yes I even knew a man who at 17 years old came to work at the Jet Institute. He knew both Langemaka and the Queen. And they’ll be older than Von Braun wink .
  15. Former battalion commander
    Former battalion commander 20 December 2015 15: 46
    +2 have achieved their goal, the country has been destroyed, now the infrastructure is being destroyed, the personnel potential is being destroyed, the madness of stupid people who have reached the authorities is going through the roof ... They know how to arrange EVERYWHERE DEVELOPMENT, to prosper themselves. And there’s no reason to be offended - the idiots themselves have destroyed everything and now we are finishing off the remnants ... and building ... building is too difficult for such mediocrity that they are now making decisions ... Slavic civilization is coming to an end ... like the Indians will be on reservations ...
    1. kotvov
      kotvov 20 December 2015 17: 21
      Slavic civilization comes to an end ... like the Indians will be on the reservation ... ,,
      for the first offers, plus, but for the last, do not be afraid, we will break through.
    2. sherp2015
      sherp2015 20 December 2015 17: 31
      Quote: Former battalion commander
      . Slavic civilization comes to an end.

      And here is x ... r them the Anglo-Saxons on the collar!
  16. garik647
    garik647 20 December 2015 16: 11
    Quote: Haettenschweiler
    - Old, old "song about the main thing." Nothing can be changed - in the past. But it is within our power to change the future. No matter how trite, but even those who are now in power and plundering the country will sooner or later go to feed the worms. The main thing is that those who took their place were at least a little different.

    You can’t change anything ... everything is in the past ... thieves are around ... the pessimist from you directly crawls out of all holes! This is not a nostalgic article, but a memory of those difficult and at the same time happy (for many scholars) days ... Well, whoever has the history of his people across his throat means that he is a clear or hidden enemy of all Russian!
  17. tokens2
    tokens2 20 December 2015 17: 46
    What a great country we pissed off

    Well ... no need to speak for everyone.
    The mass of ordinary communists was simply deceived. Like the whole people.
    It doesn’t matter what results the system has achieved. If you could take it ... and lower the flag.
    And the saddest thing is that the Russian people have been taught to live in conditions of constant turbulence.
    To experience such a betrayal as in 1917 and in 1991? But what kind of people can stand it?
    With such an internal policy, a "control shot" is inevitable.
    Putin has done a lot to keep the country from the edge, but even he is not omnipotent.
    Let's hope for the best.
  18. Al_oriso
    Al_oriso 20 December 2015 19: 00
    We need to restore former power and glory. The previous generation did not waste their lives in vain.
  19. archimer
    archimer 20 December 2015 21: 35
    What would the best aces of the USSR answer!
    1. Barakuda
      Barakuda 20 December 2015 22: 05
      Only the wing machine guns removed, And the margin of safety in the tail. At the peak, the Messers lost.
  20. Starik72
    Starik72 21 December 2015 00: 28
    I would put this article a hundred pluses, if possible. If only such articles would be published in our mass media, and more so that the younger generation would know how WE worked and lived. I am an optimist by nature and I believe that someday WE will return to this path that we lived and worked on, but this will happen only when WE are small to large, stop worshiping GOLDEN Taurus or for simple MONEY!
  21. Wolka
    Wolka 21 December 2015 05: 40
    sentimental yes, there was only the plank for the departed USSR, everything was there, everything worked like a watch, people were busy with business and loved it, believed in what they were doing, in what was really useful for everyone and their state too ...