Military Review

"Admiral Count Spee." Pirate weekday and the end of the battleship-cut

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"Admiral Count Spee." Pirate weekday and the end of the battleship-cut

"Admiral Count Spee" in Montevideo. Last parking



In the evening of December 17, a crowd of thousands of spectators from the shores of the Gulf of La Plata watched an exciting spectacle. The war, which was already in full swing in Europe, finally reached the carefree South America and was no longer in the form of newspaper reports. Angular, with sharp chopped forms, like the medieval Teutonic knight, the German raider "Admiral Count Spee" was moving along the fairway. Those who were well-versed in the naval stories, thoughtfully shook their heads - the circumstances were too reminiscent of the events of 120-year-old, when the inhabitants of Cherbourg escorted the cruiser of the Confederates "Alabama" to battle with "Kearsarge". The crowd was eager for battle and inevitable bloodshed: everyone knew that the English squadron was guarding the entrance to the Bay of Spee. "Pocket Battleship" (the English term, the Germans called such ships battleship-edged) slowly went beyond the boundaries of the territorial waters, the anchors rattled in the cliffs. And then the explosions thundered - a cloud of smoke and flame rose above the ship. The crowd sighed spellbound and disappointed. The expected battle did not take place. Betting and bargaining collapsed, newspaper reporters were left without fees, and Montevideo doctors were out of work. The career of the German "pocket battleship" "Admiral Count Spee" was over.

Sharp Dagger in Narrow Sheath

In an effort to humiliate and trample Germany after the First World War, the Entente allies entangled the defeated country with many restrictions, primarily militarily. It was not easy enough to determine in a long list with no less impressive additions, refinements and explanations: what can be defeated in armament and what should it look like? With the death of the most efficient core Fleet The British lords finally breathed easier on the high seas through self-flooding in Scapa Flow, and the fog over London became less gloomy. The Weimar Republic was allowed to have only 6 battleships as part of a small "club for the elderly", which can be called a fleet with a stretch of the nose, not counting the limited number of ships of the remaining classes, which were actually armadillos of the pre-pre-dreadnought era. The pragmatism of Western politicians was obvious: these forces were enough to confront the Navy of Soviet Russia, the state of which was even more dull by the beginning of the 20s and at the same time completely insufficient for any attempts to sort things out with the winners. But the larger the text of the agreement, the more points it contains, the easier it is to find the corresponding loopholes and a field for maneuver in it. Under the Versailles Peace Treaty, Germany had the right to build new battleships with a tonnage limit of 10 thousand tons instead of the old ones after 20 years of service. It just so happened that the time spent in service of the battleships of the Braunschweig and Deutschland type, which entered service in 1902–1906, was approaching the treasured twenty-year mark by the mid-1920s. And just a few years after the end of World War I, the Germans began designing the ships of their new fleet. The fate in the person of the Americans presented the vanquished with an unexpected but pleasant gift: in 1922 the Washington Naval Agreement was signed, imposing restrictions on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of ships of the main classes. Germany had a chance to create a new ship from scratch, being within the framework of less stringent agreements than those of the Entente countries that defeated it.

At first, the requirements for new ships were fairly moderate. This confrontation in the Baltic either with the fleets of the Scandinavian countries, who had the junk themselves in abundance, or a reflection of the “punitive” expedition of the French fleet, where the Germans considered the main ships of the battleships of the intermediate class of the “Danton” type - the French would hardly send their deepest seated dreadnoughts. The future German battleship at first confidently resembled a typical coastal defense ship with powerful artillery and a low board. Another group of specialists advocated the creation of a powerful 10000-ton cruiser capable of fighting any of the “Washingtonians,” that is, cruisers built to meet the restrictions imposed by the Washington Maritime Agreement. But then again, the cruiser was of little use in the Baltic, moreover, the admirals scratched their heads, complaining about the insufficient booking. A project deadlock was formed: a well-armed, protected and high-speed ship was required. A breakthrough in the situation came when the fleet was headed by Admiral Zenker, the former commander of the battle cruiser Von der Tann. It was under his leadership that the German designers managed to cross the “hedgehog with a snake”, which resulted in the I / M 26 project. The convenience of fire control and space saving has led to an optimal 280-mm main caliber. In 1926, the tired of victory, the French left the demilitarized and occupied by them Rhineland, and the Krupp concern could guarantee the timely production of new barrels. Initially, the ship was planned to be equipped with intermediate caliber - universal 127-mm guns, which was an innovative and progressive decision for those years. However, everything that looks good on paper is not always embodied in metal (sometimes, fortunately) or is not realized at all. The conservative admirals, who are always preparing for the naval battles of a bygone war, demanded a return to the 150-mm medium caliber, which would complement the 88-mm anti-aircraft guns. Further service "pocket battleships" showed the fallacy of this idea. The center of the battleship turned out to be overloaded with weapons, protected, moreover, for the sake of saving only with splinter shields. But this seemed a little to the admirals, and they pushed through the installation of more torpedo tubes, which had to be placed on the upper deck behind the main tower. I had to pay for this with protection - the main armor belt “lost” from 100 to 80 mm. Displacement increased to 13 th. Tons.

The first ship of the series, serial number 219, was laid in Kiel at the Deutsche Fanka 9 February 1929. The construction of the main battleship (in order not to embarrass the “enlightened navigators” and their friends, the new ships were classified) was not very fast, and under the pretentious name “Deutschland” it was handed over to the 1 fleet of April 1933. 25 June 1931 at the state shipyard in Wilhelmshaven was laid the second unit - "Admiral Scheer". Its construction was going on at a rather fast pace. Meanwhile, the appearance of some suspicious “battleships” in Germany, having contractual dimensions on paper, but in reality looking very impressive, could not but bother their neighbors. First of all, the French, who quickly began to design the "hunters" for the German "Deutschlands". The fears of the French were embodied in the ship steel of the Dunkerque and Strasbourg battle cruisers, superior to their opponents in all respects, although they were significantly more expensive. Germanic designers had to respond to the appearance of “dunkirk” with something, which caused some pause in the construction of the series. It was already too late to make drastic changes to the project, so we limited ourselves to revising the third ship's booking system, bringing it to 100 mm, and instead of 88-mm anti-aircraft guns, put more powerful 105-mm.


"Admiral Count Spee" comes down from the stocks


1 September 1932 of the year on the slipway after the descent of the "Sheer" lay "battleship C" with the building number 124. 30 June 1934, the daughter of German admiral Count Maximilian von Spee, Countess Hubert, smashed a traditional bottle of champagne on board a ship named for her father. 6 January 1936 of the Year "Admiral Count Spee" joined the kriegsmarine. In memory of the admiral who died in the Falkland Islands in 1914, the new battleship carried the coat of arms of von Spee's house on its nose, and on the tower-like superstructure was made the Gothic inscription “CORONEL” in honor of the victory gained by the admiral over the English squadron off the coast of Chile. From the first two battleships of the “Spee” series, it was distinguished by enhanced booking and a developed superstructure. A few words should be said about the power plant of the Deutschland type. Naturally, these so-called “battleships” were not intended for any protection of the Baltic waters - their main task was the violation of enemy communications and the fight against merchant shipping. Hence the increased requirements for autonomy and cruising range. As the main power plant was supposed to install diesel engines, in the production of which Germany has traditionally kept the lead. Back in 1926, the well-known firm “MAN” began the development of a lightweight marine diesel engine. For the experiment, a similar product was used as an installation for an economic course on the Leipzig light cruiser. The new engine turned out to be capricious and often failed: since the design turned out to be lightweight, it created an increased vibration, which led to breakdowns. The situation was so serious that the “Spee” began to work out options for installing steam boilers. But the engineers of MAN promised to bring their brainchild to mind, besides the project requirements did not foresee the difference in the types of engines installed, and the third ship of the series received the 8 main nine-cylinder diesel engines with a total capacity of 56 thousand hp provided for it. By the beginning of World War II, the engines on all three ships were brought to a high degree of reliability, which proved in practice the first raid of the Admiral Scheer, which took 161 day 46 thousands of miles without serious damage.

Pre-war service


Spee passes by the Kiel Canal


After various tests and equipment checks, the “pocket battleship” took part in the naval parade held on May 29 on May 1936, which was attended by Hitler and other high-ranking officials of the Reich. Before the resurgent German fleet, there was a problem of training personnel of the seafarers, and already 6 of June "Graf Spee", taking on board the midshipmen, sailing to the Atlantic to the island of Santa Cruz. During the 20-day hike is checked the work mechanisms, especially diesel engines. It was noted their increased noise, especially on the main course. Upon returning to Germany - again exercises, trainings, training voyages in the Baltic. With the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, Germany took an active part in these events. As a member of the “Committee on Non-intervention”, whose function was to prevent the supply of military cargo to both opposing sides, the Germans sent almost all of their large ships to Spanish waters. In the Spanish waters, they first visited Deutschland and Scheer, then it was the turn of the Count Spee, who set sail for the Bay of Biscay 2 in March 1937. The “pocket battleship” for two months kept its watch, visiting the Spanish ports in between times and encouraging the Francoists with their presence. In general, the activities of the “Committee” over time began to be increasingly humiliating and one-sided, turning into a farce.


“Pocket Battleship” at Spithead Marine Parade


In May, the “Spee” returned to Kiel, after which it was sent as the most modern German ship at that time to represent Germany in the naval parade on the Spithead raid, given in honor of the British King George VI. Then again a trip to Spain, this time short. The “pocket battleship” time left before the big war was spent in frequent exercises, training voyages. Repeatedly the fleet commander raised the flag on it - the Spee had a weighty reputation as an exemplary parade ship. In 1939, a large foreign campaign of the German fleet was planned to demonstrate the flag and technical achievements of the Third Reich, in which all three “pocket battleships”, light cruisers and destroyers were to take part. However, other events occurred in Europe, and the Kriegsmarine was no longer up to demonstration campaigns. The Second World War began.

The beginning of the war. Pirate weekdays

In the face of the increasingly deteriorating situation of the summer of 1939 and the inevitable clash with Poland and its allies, England and France, the German command planned to launch a traditional raider war. But the fleet, whose admirals were worn with the concept of chaos on communications, was not ready to create it - only Deutschland and Admiral Count Spee, who were constantly in dense operation, were ready for a long march to the ocean. It also turned out that the hordes of raiders converted from commercial ships are only on paper. To save time, it was decided to send two “pocket battleships” and supply vessels to the Atlantic to provide them with everything they need. 5 August 1939, the ship Altmark left Germany and went to the United States, where it was supposed to take on diesel for Spee. The “pocket battleship” itself left Wilhelmshaven 21 of August under the command of captain Zee G. Langsdorf. 24, followed by its sistership, was followed by Deutschland, working in conjunction with the tanker Westerfald. The zones of responsibility were divided as follows: “Deutschland” was supposed to operate in the North Atlantic, in the area south of Greenland - at “Count Spee” hunting grounds were located in the southern part of the ocean.

Europe still lived a peaceful life, but Langsdorf was already ordered to observe the maximum secrecy of movement, so as not to alarm the British ahead of time. “Spee” managed to sneak unnoticed, first to the shores of Norway, and then go to the Atlantic south of Iceland. This route, subsequently carefully guarded by British patrols, will not be repeated by any German raider. Bad weather helped the German ship continue to go unnoticed. 1 September 1939 caught the pocket battleship in 1000 miles north of the Cape Verde Islands. There was appointed and held a meeting with the "Altmark". Langsdorf was unpleasantly surprised by the fact that the supply team found and recognized the German raider on a high tower-like superstructure, which has no analogues in other ships. Moreover, the Altmark itself was spotted from the Spee later. Having received the fuel and completing the command of the supplier of artillery servants, Langsdorf continued sailing south, observing a complete radio silence. “Spee” kept complete secrecy, dodging any smoke, - Hitler still hoped to resolve the issue with Poland in the style of “Munich 2.0” and therefore did not want to make the British angry earlier. While on the "pocket battleship" they waited for instructions from Berlin, his team, taking into account the opinion of colleagues from the "Altmark", took up the disguise of the ship. Of plywood and canvas behind the front tower of the main caliber, a second one was installed, which gave the Spee a distant resemblance to the Scharnhorst battle cruiser. It was possible to expect that a similar trick would work with the captains of civil courts. Finally, September 25 Langsdorf received freedom of action - an order came from the headquarters. The hunter could now shoot a game, and not just watch her from the bushes. The supplyist was released, and the raider began to patrol the northeast coast of Brazil near the port of Recife. September 28 was lucky for the first time - after a brief harassment, the British 5 thousandth steamer “Klement” stopped the coastal flight from Pernambuco to Bahia. When trying to send their first booty to the bottom, the Germans had to sweat a lot: in spite of the explosive cartridges laid and the Kingston open, the ship did not sink. Two torpedoes launched along it passed by. Then the 150-mm guns went into action and, spending precious shells, the obstinate Englishman was finally sent to the bottom. The war had just begun, and both sides had not yet accumulated merciless bitterness. Langsdorf contacted the coastal radio station and indicated the coordinates of the boats in which the members of the Clement crew were located. However, this not only revealed the location of the raider, but also helped the enemy to identify him. The fact that a powerful German warship was operating in the Atlantic rather than an armed “torgash” in any way alarmed the British command, and it promptly responded to the threat. To search and destroy the German “pocket battleship”, 8 tactical combat groups were created, which included the 3 battlecruisers (the British Rinaun and the French Dunkirk and Strasbourg), the 3 aircraft carrier, the 9 heavy and 5 light cruisers, not counting ships engaged in escorting Atlantic convoys. However, in the waters where Langsdorf was going to work, that is, in the South Atlantic, he was confronted by all three groups. Two of them did not represent an excessive threat and consisted of a total of 4 heavy cruisers.

His second trophy, the British steamer "Newton Beach", "Spee" captured on the line Cape Town - Freetown 5 October. Together with the cargo of maize, the Germans received an intact English ship radio station with the appropriate documentation. On October 7, the steamer "Ashley" carrying raw sugar was the victim of a raider. Allied ships were actively searching for the robber who dared to get into the Atlantic, in this “old English court”. October 9 aircraft from the aircraft carrier "Ark Royal" discovered a large tanker, which lies in the drift west of the Cape Verde Islands, which was called the American Delmar transport. Since no one accompanied the aircraft carrier apart from Rinaun, Admiral Wells decided not to conduct a search and follow the previous course. So the supplier of Altmark escaped the fate of being destroyed at the very beginning of his voyage. Out of harm's way, the transport moved to southern latitudes. October 10 "pocket battleship" stopped a large transport "Huntsmen" carrying various food loads. Having sunk it, “Spee” 14 of October met with the nearly exposed “Altmark”, to which he transferred prisoners and products from captured English ships. Replenishing fuel reserves, Langsdorf continued the operation - October 22 raider stopped and sank the 8-thousandth ore carrier, which, however, had time to betray the distress signal, which was taken on the shore. Fearing to be discovered, Langsdorf decided to change the area of ​​activity and try his luck in the Indian Ocean. For the first time since the beginning of the hike, contacting the headquarters in Berlin and saying that he plans to continue the hike until January 1940 of the year, 4 of November “Spee” goes around the Cape of Good Hope. He moved towards Madagascar, where large ocean shipping routes intersected. The 9 of November when landing in the conditions of excitement at sea was damaged by the ship's reconnaissance aircraft Ar-196, which left the pocket battleship for a long time without eyes. The reliance on the rich booty that the Germans were counting on was not justified - only on November 14 the small ship Africa Shell was stopped and flooded.

November 20 "Admiral Count Spee" returned to the Atlantic. November 28 - pleasant for the crew, exhausted by a futile campaign, a new rendezvous with the “Altmark”, from which they received fuel and updated their stock of provisions. Langsdorf decided to return to the successful for his ship of water between Freetown and Rio de Janeiro. The stocking ship could now continue cruising until the end of February 1940. His engines were moved, and the aircraft mechanics were finally able to bring the reconnaissance aircraft back to life. It went merrily with the flying Arado - 2 December sank the Dorik Star turbo-ship with a load of wool and frozen meat, and 3 December 8 the thousandth Tyroa, which also transported lamb in refrigerators. Langsdorf again decides to change the area of ​​cruising, choosing for this the mouth of the river La Plata. Buenos Aires is one of the largest ports in South America, and several British ships almost every day came here. December 6 "Admiral Count Spee" for the last time meets with its supplier Altmark. Taking the opportunity, the “pocket battleship” conducts artillery exercises, choosing its own tanker as a target. Their result was extremely disturbed by the senior gunner of the frigate ship capitain Asher - the personnel of the fire control system for two months of inactivity showed a very mediocre level of technical skills. 7 December, taking away more 400 prisoners, "Altmark" forever parted with his ward. By the evening of the same 7 December, the Germans managed to seize their last trophy - the ship "Streonschel", loaded with wheat. The newspapers found on board included a photograph of the British heavy cruiser Cumberland in camouflage. It was decided to make up for it. “Spee” is repainted, and a false chimney is mounted on it. Langsdorf planned, piracy from La Plata, to return to Germany. However, the story was different.

Commodore Harwood's British cruiser compound “G”, like insistent hunting dogs following the wolf’s tracks, had long been plying the South Atlantic. In addition to the heavy cruiser Exeter, the Commodore could count on two light cruisers — the Ajax (New Zealand Navy) and the Achilles of the same type. The conditions of patrol of the Herwood group were probably the most difficult - the nearest British base, Stanley, was more than 1000 miles from the area of ​​activity of its compound. Having received a message about the death near the coast of Angola "Dorik Star", Harwood logically calculated that the German raider would rush from the coast of Africa to South America to the most "grain" area for extraction - at the mouth of La Plata. With his subordinates, he had long ago developed a battle plan in case of a meeting with the “pocket battleship” - to approach each other aggressively in order to maximize the use of numerous 6-inch artillery of light cruisers. On the morning of December 12, all three cruisers were already off the coast of Uruguay (the Exeter was hastily summoned from Stanley, where it was undergoing preventive maintenance).

Around the same area moved and "Spee". On December 11, its onboard aircraft was finally disabled when landing, which may have played an important role in later events.

The wolf and the hounds. Fight at La Plata

At 5.52, observers from the tower reported that they could see the tops of the masts, - Langsdorf immediately gave the order to give full speed. He and his officers decided that this was some kind of "merchant" hurrying to the port and went to intercept. However, in the approaching ship from the Spee, a heavy cruiser of the Exeter type was quickly identified. In 6.16, Exeter made a sign at the flagship Ajax that the unknown looks like a pocket battleship. Langsdorf decides to take the fight. Ammunition was almost complete, and one "Washington tin" was a weak threat to the "pocket battleship." However, soon two more enemy ships were discovered, smaller. These were light cruisers Ajax and Achilles, mistaken by the Germans for destroyers. The decision to take the battle at Langsdorf strengthened - he took the cruiser and destroyers for the protection of the convoy, which should be nearby. The defeat of the convoy was supposed to successfully crown the modest sailing of Spee.

At 6.18, the German raider opened fire, shooting at Exeter with a main caliber. At 6.20, a British heavy cruiser fired back. Initially, Langsdorf gives the order to focus fire on the largest English ship, providing the "destroyers" of auxiliary artillery. It should be noted that in addition to the standard firing controls, the Germans also had FuMO-22 radar, capable of operating at a distance of 14 km. However, during the battle, the Speer gunners relied more on their excellent range finders. The overall ratio of artillery of the main calibers: six 280-mm and eight 150-mm guns on the "pocket battleship" against six 203 and sixteen 152-mm on three British ships.

The Exeter gradually reduced the distance and with its fifth salvo hit the Spee - the 203-mm projectile punched the 105-mm starboard installation and exploded inside the raider's hull. The Germans' response was weighty, the eighth volley of the “pocket battleship” smashed the tower “B” on the Exeter, a squall of fragments riddled the bridge, wounding the captain of the ship captain 1 rank Bell. Then came the new hits, which knocked out the steering and caused new damage. Settled on the nose and shrouded in smoke, the Briton lowers the rate of fire. Until that time, he managed to achieve three hits in “Spee”: the most sensitive - in his control tower (control and distance measuring post). At that time, both light cruisers crept up to the “pocket battleship” on the 12 thousand meters, and their artillery began to inflict damage on the lightly armored raider superstructures. It was because of their perseverance in 6.30 that Langsdorf was forced to shift the main-fire artillery to these two “scum”, as the Germans themselves later said. Exeter launches torpedoes, but Spee easily dodged them. The commander of the German ship ordered to increase the distance to 15 km, leveling the already highly annoying Ajax and Achilles fire. In 6.38, another German projectile knocked out tower A on Exeter, and now it already increases the distance. His companions again rush to the raider, and the heavy cruiser gets a break. He is in a deplorable state — even the Ajax ship's plane, which was trying to correct the fire, reported to Harwood that the cruiser was burning and sinking. In 7.29, Exeter is out of combat.

Now the battle turned into an unequal duel between two light cruisers and a “pocket battleship”. The British constantly maneuvered, changed course, knocking over to the German gunners. Although their 152-mm projectiles could not sink the Spee, their breaks shattered the unprotected superstructures of the German ship. In 7.17, Langsdorf, who commanded the battle from the open bridge, was injured - his arm and shoulder were broken up with shrapnel and he applied it so that he temporarily lost consciousness. In 7.25, both Ajax stern towers were disabled by an accurate hit of an 280-mm projectile. However, light cruisers did not stop shooting, having achieved a total of 17 hits in the "Admiral Count Spee." Losses in his crew amounted to 39 people killed and 56 injured. In 7.34, a new German projectile demolished the top of the Ajax mast with all antennas. Harewood decided to end the fight at this stage - all of his ships had heavy damage. Regardless of his English opponent, Langsdorf also came to the same conclusion - reports from combat posts were disappointing, water was observed entering the hull through holes at the waterline. The move had to be reduced to 22 nodes. The British put a smoke screen and opponents disperse. By 7.46 the battle ends. The British suffered much more - only Exeter lost 60 people killed. The crews of light cruisers had 11 dead.

Difficult decision


The end of the German raider. "Spee" undermined by the crew and burns


The German commander faced a difficult task: to wait for the night and try to slip away, having at least two opponents on the tail, or to go to the repair in a neutral port. Specialist in torpedo weapons, Langsdorf fears night torpedo attacks and decides to go to Montevideo. Happy December 13 "Admiral Count Spee" enters the raid of the capital of Uruguay. Ajax and Achilles guard their adversary in neutral waters. Inspection of the ship gives contradictory results: on the one hand, the battered raider did not receive any fatal damage to himself, on the other - the total amount of damage and destruction caused doubts about the possibility of crossing the Atlantic. In Montevideo, there were several dozen British ships, with the closest ongoing monitoring of the actions of the Germans. The British consulate skillfully spreads rumors that it is expected the arrival of two large ships, which clearly imply the “Arc Royal” and “Rinaun”. In fact, the "enlightened seafarers" bluffed. In the evening of December 14, Humberwood, instead of the Exeter who had gone to repair, was joined by the heavy cruiser Cumberland. Langsdorf leads difficult negotiations with Berlin on the subject of the future fate of the crew and the ship: to intern in Argentina, loyal to Germany, or to sink the ship. For some reason, the option of a breakthrough is not considered, although Spee had every chance of this. In the end, the fate of the German ship was decided directly by Hitler in a difficult conversation with Grand Admiral Raeder. On the evening of December 16, Langsdorf receives an order to sink the ship. In the morning of December 17, the Germans begin to destroy all valuable equipment on the “pocket battleship”. All documentation is burned. By evening, work on preparing for self-destruction was completed: the main part of the crew was transferred to the German ship "Tacoma". Around 18 hours on the masts of the "pocket battleship" flags were raised, he moved away from the pier and began a slow movement along the fairway to the north. This action was watched by a crowd of at least 200 thousand people. Moving away from the coast for 4 miles, the raider dropped anchor. At about 20 hours, 6 explosions thundered - the ship went to the bottom, fires began on it. The explosions were heard on the shore for another three days. The crew, with the exception of the wounded, safely reached Buenos Aires. Here Langsdorf last addressed the team with a speech, thanking her for her service. 20 December he shot himself in the room of one of the hotels. The campaign "pocket battleship" was completed.


Shipwreck


Mocking fate was pleased that the ship "Admiral Count Spee" after a quarter of a century rested at the bottom of the ocean just a thousand miles from the grave of a man, after whom he was named.
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  1. Nikolay71
    Nikolay71 21 December 2015 06: 32 New
    19
    Thanks to the author, a very interesting article.
    1. qwert
      qwert 21 December 2015 11: 17 New
      +8
      Quote: Nikolay71
      Thanks to the author, a very interesting article.

      Support.
      The photo shows an interesting camouflage solution. A powerful breaker is drawn on the bow of the ship, which was supposed to mislead the submariners, forcing them to incorrectly assess the speed of the raider.
  2. Aleksandr72
    Aleksandr72 21 December 2015 06: 54 New
    35
    The article is really very interesting and informative, although it seems to me more reflects the point of view of the British. I would not call the actions of the raider "Graf von Spee" piratical, because he set out on a raid, capturing and sinking the ships of the enemy - England, at the behest of the then legitimate German government. This warship was part of the country's navy and acted on the orders of its command, and not at the whim of its captain. As for the British sailors themselves, their actions to seize the "Almark" mentioned in the article in the port of then neutral Norway cannot be called anything other than really pirate, but the British consider it differently. Once again, the British double standards are on edge.
    I do not condone the actions of Langsdorf and the Kriegsmarine as a whole. Not at all. I simply believe that historical truth and justice should be respected even with respect to the losing side.
    Article and author from me +.
    I have the honor.
    1. moskowit
      moskowit 22 December 2015 19: 16 New
      0
      I fully and fully support your position.
  3. Rurikovich
    Rurikovich 21 December 2015 06: 56 New
    14
    Like it or not, this is just a cruiser! Only its characteristics received a certain roll in one direction or another due to the introduction of certain innovations. Thus, the refusal of the KTU in favor of diesel engines allowed us to reduce the weight of the machine installation by several times and increase the cruising range, but due to a decrease in speed (it’s also a diesel engine in Africa) , and redistribute the released weight in favor of weapons. Reservation remained at the level of ordinary cruisers. Therefore, if something happened, the rival cruisers could simply stop the battle, taking advantage of the superiority in speed. There is already a question for the commanders and assigned tasks request
    This once again shows that a warship is a compromise when you don’t bend above the head within the allotted displacement and always have to sacrifice or neglect others to ensure some characteristics ... But always, the person is the main factor in making decisions or the outcome of a battle ! People are not fighting ships.
    Personally, ships of the "Deutschland" type cause positive emotions in me good The Germans managed to create a good powerful ship for their time smile And only people could use its characteristics in the right way. It turned out or not - the story shows ...
    hi
    1. Bennert
      Bennert 21 December 2015 08: 56 New
      +4
      Quote: Rurikovich
      a ship is a compromise when you don’t bend above the head within the allotted displacement and always have to sacrifice or neglect others to ensure some characteristics ...

      What does "assigned displacement" mean?
      by whom was it "assigned"?

      16 thousand tons. Quite a bit, even by the standards of the time. Far from the largest of the World War II cruisers

      Graf Spee is a typical victim of international restrictions. Having no formal prohibitions, the Germans did not dare to “play on the nerves” of the leading maritime powers. As a result, they had to more or less follow the rules of the game and follow the established trend, "squeezing" their ship to the limit.

      1. Task
      2.specifications
      3.and only then it will become clear what will be the size and displacement of the ship

      The Germans acted the other way around, hence the logical result.

      I wonder how about comparing "Graf Spee" with an American big cruiser like Alaska (CB-1)? wink
      1. Per se.
        Per se. 21 December 2015 09: 30 New
        +4
        Quote: BENNERT
        What does "assigned displacement" mean by whom it was "assigned"?
        The answer to your question at the very beginning of the article - "According to the Versailles Peace Treaty, Germany had the right to build new battleships with a tonnage limit of 10 thousand", when the republic bequeathed to live a long time, and Hitler began to build the Third Reich, then, indeed, unrestrained, the Germans began to design heavy cruisers such as the Admiral Hipper much stronger than others built within the constraints of the Washington Agreement. If we compare the "Alaska", which was recognized by many as a battle cruiser rather than a heavy cruiser, then the German Scharnhorst would be closer, which in fact was also more of a battle cruiser than a battleship. By the way, on the same type "Gneisenau" the Germans started a modernization in the middle of the war, wanting to make an insert in the central part of the hull, due to the increasing load when installing instead of three towers with 280 mm guns, three towers with more powerful guns, similar to battleships of the "Bismarck" ... Surely, had the Germans completed this alteration, the comparison of "Alaska" with "Gneisenau" would not be in favor of the Americans.
        1. Bennert
          Bennert 21 December 2015 09: 45 New
          +1
          Quote: Per se.
          - "According to the Versailles Peace Treaty, Germany had the right to build

          Those. these are all the fruits of international restrictions, artificially "squeezing" the size of ships

          but not at all "the warship is a compromise"
          The only compromise was the Washington cruisers. The dimensions of the remaining ships were regulated only by the front tasks and the required performance characteristics for their implementation. And there was no compromise there, all sorts of Baltimore, Des Moines and Scharnhorsts were sufficiently armed, protected and fleet to solve the problems they faced.

          Quote: Per se.
          By the way, on the same type of "Gneisenau" the Germans started modernization in the middle of the war, wanting to make an insert in the central part of the hull, due to the increasing load when installing instead of three towers with 280 mm guns, three towers with more powerful guns

          "more powerful" - poorly said

          Gneisenau planned to arm nine 380 mm down with shells weighing 800 kg (versus 330 kg for the original 283 mm) !!! The monstrous increase in firepower was supposed to put the "Gneisenau" on a par with the later battleships of the Allies, built 10 years later, already during the war
          Quote: Per se.
          If we compare "Alaska", which was recognized by many as a battle cruiser rather than a heavy cruiser, then the German Scharnhorst would be closer.

          Closer - it depends on what the purpose of the comparison is.

          Alaska, being twice the size of the "pocket battleship", had incomparably higher combat capabilities. No "compromise"
          Quote: Per se.
          Surely, had the Germans completed this alteration, the comparison of "Alaska" with "Gneisenau" would not be in favor of the Americans.

          Alaska and so complete trash on the background of Scharnhorst

          strange decisions of its creators - almost complete neglect of PTZ, belt armor 305 versus 350 mm "Sharkhorst", and this despite the 10-year age difference !!
          1. Per se.
            Per se. 21 December 2015 09: 56 New
            +3
            Quote: BENNERT
            Gneisenau planned to arm nine 380 mm down

            Not nine, but three twin-turrets, similar to those on the Bismarck-class battleships. It is interesting that the Germans before the war, knowing about the projects of our heavy cruisers of the "Kronstadt" type, offered to supply such towers to our cruisers, which, in addition to increasing the firepower, required significant overloads and required an increase in the design displacement. The picture shows "Gneisenau" in the rearmament version.
            1. Bennert
              Bennert 21 December 2015 10: 11 New
              +3
              Quote: Per se.
              besides increasing firepower, it promised significant overloads and required an increase in design displacement.

              Well, they wanted to

              If the ship must shoot 800 kg with blanks, moreover, be able to fight with their own kind, the name is appropriate security and 30+ knots for effective art. duels
              with the loss of technology of the 30s.

              its displacement will be at least 30-35 thousand tons
            2. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 21 December 2015 10: 59 New
              +3
              Quote: Per se.
              It is interesting that the Germans before the war, knowing about the projects of our heavy cruisers of the "Kronstadt" type, offered to supply such towers to our cruisers, which, in addition to increasing firepower, required significant overloads and required an increase in the design displacement.

              Not just offered. The towers were ordered, and the further construction of KRT, pr. 69 was carried out according to project 69I - with German BShGK 3 * 2 * 38 cm
          2. Aleksandr72
            Aleksandr72 21 December 2015 10: 13 New
            +3
            Let me correct you a little: after the modernization, the Gneisenau should have had not 9, but only 6 (six) 380-mm cannons. three two-gun towers. At the same time, he became an analogue of the British "Rhynown" in artillery, surpassing them in armor protection, at approximately the same full speed. By the way, according to some researchers, the Germans laid such a possibility of replacing artillery even when designing ships of the Scharnhorst type (after all, the 283-mm main battery in the 30s for a battleship (battle cruiser, if you like) did not look at all impressive).
            In the article I noticed one mistake: the French built their "Dunkirk" simultaneously with the "Deutschland", and not in response to its construction. "Strasbourg" - the same paddling pools were built in response to the beginning of construction in Italy of battleships of the "Roma" type, which had to be opposed by the "real" French battleships under construction of the "Richelieu" type ("real" because "Dunkirk" with their 330-mm artillery GK still were not equal to foreign counterparts with their artillery GK 356 ... 406 mm). The French considered the Italian fleet to be their most likely enemy in the upcoming hypothetical war (which, alas, became a reality). The Britons had to deal with the Teutons.
            Regarding the Americans: on all the "capital thorns" built immediately before and during World War II, the Americans neglected the thickness of the main armor belt, which even on battleships did not exceed 2 mm, although, unlike the "Alaska" on battleships, the Americans all - so PTZ installed, perhaps the best in that war (not a fact, but the PTZ as a whole corresponded to its task). You can certainly recall the LK type "Montana", which the Americans began to build in the amount of as many as 310 pieces, but did not complete it - the need disappeared, his Majesty replaced the LK - an aircraft carrier, which played a major role in the naval war in the Pacific Ocean.
            I have the honor.
            1. Bennert
              Bennert 21 December 2015 10: 17 New
              +2
              Quote: Aleksandr72
              LK was replaced by His Majesty - the aircraft carrier, who played the main role in the naval warfare in the Pacific.

              submarines can safely dispute this

              as well as cruisers and destroyers
              1. Aleksandr72
                Aleksandr72 21 December 2015 10: 47 New
                +3
                Of course, they can argue, but the theorists and practitioners of naval warfare, after the very first battles in the Pacific Ocean, as well as the successful British attack on Taranto, began to consider aircraft carriers as the backbone force of the fleet instead of the previous battleships, and not cruisers, destroyers, submarines and other torpedo boats ... Although it is quite possible that the light forces of the fleet (the same KR, EM and submarine) together and separately (by class) destroyed the enemy more than the carrier-based air groups. By the way, American submarines owe their numerous (and well-deserved) victories in the naval war in the Pacific to the primitive Japanese PLO, which was often completely absent as a class (the sinking of the Shinano AB, for example), as well as the American strategy of "swamp them all." And the cruisers that played a big role in the battles in the Pacific Ocean (and not only there) owe this primarily to the fact that the Japanese and the Americans (especially after Pearl Harbor) had relatively few battleships, then considered the main force of the fleet, and therefore, they are battleships i.e. replaced by cruisers wherever possible and where not. Destroyers, on the other hand, were consumable in these fleets, it was not a pity for them, they were used everywhere and everywhere and very intensively. And the more intensively a weapon is used, the more chances it has to excel - this is also true for the war at sea.
                I have the honor.
                1. Bennert
                  Bennert 21 December 2015 11: 09 New
                  0
                  Quote: Aleksandr72
                  they began to consider the carriers to be the fleet’s force instead of the previous battleships

                  "the strength of the fleet" - there is no such thing

                  The fleet largely lost its strategic importance with the advent of aviation. But the need for surface ships of the main classes remained. And nowadays their role has become even greater

                  Submarines - a separate story that changed all the canons of hostilities at sea
                  Quote: Aleksandr72
                  . Although it is quite possible that the light forces of the fleet (the same KR, EM, and PL), together and individually (by class), destroyed the enemy more than carrier-based air groups.


                  His Majesty - the aircraft carrier, who played a major role in the naval war laughing
                  Quote: Aleksandr72
                  victories in the naval war in the Pacific are mainly due to primitive Japanese PLO

                  And even if there was something that has changed

                  for comparison - the Germans blocked 123 warships and 2770 transports
          3. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 21 December 2015 10: 54 New
            +3
            Quote: BENNERT
            The only compromise was the Washington cruisers. The dimensions of the remaining ships were regulated only by the front tasks and the required performance characteristics for their implementation.

            Not at all. There were still technical limitations. For example, the dimensions of existing docks. Or the dimensions of the Panama Canal locks.
            1. Bennert
              Bennert 21 December 2015 11: 14 New
              0
              Quote: Alexey RA
              For example - dimensions of existing docks

              This is all from the same opera of artificial restrictions.
              how were you going to build an ocean fleet if you don’t have the strength to build even a dock

              and what dimensions a ship must have in order to get stuck in the Panama Canal / a rhetorical question /
              1. The comment was deleted.
              2. The comment was deleted.
              3. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA 21 December 2015 11: 40 New
                0
                Quote: BENNERT
                and what dimensions a ship must have in order to get stuck in the Panama Canal / a rhetorical question /

                Width - more than 33,5 m. Draft - more than 12 m.

                It was because of the Panama Canal locks that SoDak and Norka were unable to get a normal PTZ and booking.
            2. Per se.
              Per se. 21 December 2015 13: 55 New
              0
              Quote: Alexey RA
              Or the dimensions of the Panama Canal locks.
              For the Germans, for example, the Kiel Canal. It was necessary before WWI to take into account its depth and width during the construction of the Kaiser fleet.
              1. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA 21 December 2015 16: 38 New
                0
                Quote: Per se.
                For the Germans, for example, the Kiel Canal. It was necessary before WWI to take into account its depth and width during the construction of the Kaiser fleet.

                For their opponents, the situation was no better - for a long time during the construction of the British dreadnought had to take into account the size of the existing docks.
          4. Rurikovich
            Rurikovich 21 December 2015 18: 49 New
            0
            Quote: BENNERT
            Those. these are all the fruits of international restrictions, artificially "squeezing" the size of ships

            but not "the warship is a compromise"
            The only compromise was the Washington cruisers. The dimensions of the remaining ships were regulated only by the front tasks and the required performance characteristics for their implementation. And there was no compromise there, all sorts of Baltimore, Des Moines and Scharnhorsts were sufficiently armed, protected and fleet to solve the problems they faced.

            At this point in time, given the political conditions and constraints, the designers were given the conditions for designing. They tried to withstand them! So we got "Deutschlands" Or I said something differently ??? A couple of years passed, the ships were being built, the Germans began to play games further - the Scharnhorsts appeared ... What's the problem ??? This article discusses a ship of the "Deutschland" type - and we are discussing it. It is unethical to compare it with the later ones, because the later version will always be more perfect than the older one.In order to understand the motives for creating these ships, you need to understand the situation at that time in the country and the tasks that the Fleet Command is trying to solve with the realities of that time . Therefore, I consider all these show-off with comparisons insignificant. This is childhood. If you want to compare, then compare the "Spee" with the ships against which it was calculated to be used at that point in time, or with those that were projected simultaneously with it. Then everything will be correct. wink hi
            And I repeat once again - any ship is a compromise. And the most obvious example is the same "Spee" (read above in the first commentary) Because it was bordered by the displacement and the caliber of the main battery - all this is in history. Read carefully smile
          5. Vladislav 73
            Vladislav 73 21 December 2015 20: 31 New
            0
            Quote: BENNERT
            The only compromise was the Washington cruisers. The dimensions of the remaining ships were regulated only by the front tasks and the required performance characteristics for their implementation. And there was no compromise there,

            That is, in your opinion, that there were no Washington restrictions on displacement, gun caliber, total tonnage for each class of main warships, and the size of, for example, battleships of signatory countries was not limited by anything, except for objective reasons, but nothing not contractual? In general, I read your comments, your reasoning is strange ... request
        2. Kars
          Kars 21 December 2015 10: 02 New
          +6
          It's a shame that Landorsf did not dare to go to sea for battle. There would be an epic battle. And so the Germans were far from the Varangian.
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 21 December 2015 11: 24 New
            +1
            Quote: Kars
            It's a shame that Landorsf did not dare to go to sea for battle. An epic battle would have been

            Epic would not be enough there. Harwood had 2 damaged CRLs and a fresh Cumberland MCT that had come to replace the badly damaged Exeter. Moreover, "Cumberland" in 1935-1939. underwent a "post-Washington" upgrade, during which he received an armored belt 76-114 mm thick.

            Langsdorf has a damaged battleship with more than half its ammunition stockpiled (in the battle, Spee fired 414 shells, mostly high-explosive, with a standard ammunition shell of 720 shells).
            1. Per se.
              Per se. 21 December 2015 14: 04 New
              +3
              Quote: Alexey RA
              Langsdorf has a damaged battleship with more than half its ammunition stockpiled (in the battle, Spee fired 414 shells, mostly high-explosive, with a standard ammunition shell of 720 shells).
              It was worth the risk anyway. In one of the drawings (clickable) "Spee" with a fake pipe and tower, the Germans could be cunning if they wanted.
              1. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA 21 December 2015 15: 38 New
                +4
                Quote: Per se.
                It was worth the risk anyway. In one of the drawings (clickable) "Spee" with a fake pipe and tower, the Germans could be cunning if they wanted.

                The trick is until the ship is discovered and identified. And when a panzerchiffe with a halved BC is driven into the port and at the exit he is guarded by 3 CD limes - no trick will save here.

                Moreover, the trick is a double-edged thing ... Limes also spread a rumor that Rhynown and Arc Royal are already coming to help Harwood. And they didn’t lie — they only slightly anticipated the events. smile
    2. avt
      avt 21 December 2015 11: 00 New
      +1
      Quote: Rurikovich
      Like it or not, this is just a cruiser!

      No
      Quote: Rurikovich
      oh just a cruiser

      A natural
      "Battleship C"
      clogged with cruisers.
      Quote: Rurikovich
      This once again shows that a warship is a compromise when you don’t bend above the head within the allotted displacement and always have to sacrifice or neglect others to ensure some characteristics ... But always, the person is the main factor in making decisions or the outcome of a battle ! People are not fighting ships.

      Blasphemer! Oleg is not for you! laughing What kind of
      Quote: Rurikovich
      a warship is a compromise,

      Armor! The armor was not enough for life. Not enough ... not enough!
      1. Rurikovich
        Rurikovich 21 December 2015 19: 04 New
        +1
        Quote: avt
        Blasphemer! Oleg is not for you! What kind of

        laughing Nah, he’s probably now having another opus with a portion of evidence in favor of armor for modern ships, because no one has canceled psychology yet, but he needs to prove his superiority wink
        Quote: avt
        Armor! The armor was not enough for life. Not enough ... not enough!

        He has exactly as much armor as the allotted displacement and design framework allowed. You will not bend above your head. Now, if the armor was weight with polystyrene foam, and the price, like paper, was harder than titanium, then all the ships would be unsinkable lolAnd so there is, that is ... request
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 21 December 2015 08: 06 New
    +3
    Pocket, not pocket, but done things ... Thanks, Denis ...
  5. Miner
    Miner 21 December 2015 08: 36 New
    +2
    It always seemed to me that in vain Langsdorf made no attempt to leave the port and pile on the British ...

    From this note it follows that he had no choice - Hitler himself ordered.


    Although earlier, including back in Soviet times, it was read that the blame for the useless destruction of his own ship (still quite capable of standing up for itself with good chances of success) lies with Langsdorf, who allegedly was injured by his head during the battle and has not could think reasonably.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 21 December 2015 16: 58 New
      +1
      Quote: Miner
      It always seemed to me that in vain Langsdorf made no attempt to leave the port and pile on the British ...

      From this note it follows that he had no choice - Hitler himself ordered.

      Suppose that Langsdorf leaves the port after repairing the damage a couple of days later (December 16, 1939). And meets Harwood.
      Harwood with his 1 SRT and 2 KRL can either join the battle, or, taking advantage of the superiority in speed, watch the Spee, waiting for reinforcements. And significant reinforcements were sent to him.
      On December 13, Compound H was dispatched from Cape Town to Montevideo as part of the Sussex and Shropshire MCTs.
      On December 14, Compound I left Durban for the same destination - AV Eagle, KRT Cornwall, KRL Gloucester. True, it was quickly turned back - because "fast big pots" appeared on the stage.
      On December 17, 1939, LKR "Rinaun" and "AV" Ark Royal "entered Rio de Janeiro for refueling. On the same day they left the port and rushed to Montevideo. On the way, they were joined by KRL" Neptune "and EM" Hardy ", "Hirow" and "Hostile".

      So Harwood might not even go in. His job is not to miss the battleship. Because from the north there is already a LKR with 15 "guns and the latest high-speed aircraft carrier. And from the east - 2 MRT.
      1. Alex
        Alex 21 December 2015 18: 48 New
        +1
        Alexey RA, I agree with you. Lansdorf still had chances in the Battle of La Plata, but later on, all he could do was die. The Atlantic is the traditional "seafood" of the British, with one ship, no matter how strong it is, you can't break many pots there ("Bismarck" is another confirmation of this). But even if he did anything in this hypothetical battle (let's assume for a moment that Harwood, eager for revenge, does not shy away from the battle), the damage received is likely to be fatal. After that, not only the MCTs, even a simple destroyer will become deadly.
        1. Julio Jurenito
          Julio Jurenito 22 December 2015 10: 18 New
          +1
          Interestingly, but the option to intern was not considered?
        2. The comment was deleted.
      2. blog
        blog 22 December 2015 01: 06 New
        0
        Quote: Alexey RA
        using superior speed, keep an eye on the Spee, awaiting reinforcements.

        Sometimes night happens. This is not the best time for successful surveillance.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 22 December 2015 09: 57 New
          0
          Quote: blogg
          Sometimes night happens. This is not the best time for successful surveillance.

          Morning comes after night. Until 1942, 3 seaplanes were based on the Cumberland.

          This auxiliary CR could pretend to be ordinary trumps. And the Panzerschiffe with its characteristic silhouette and the location of the towers cannot be disguised as anyone.
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. blog
            blog 22 December 2015 10: 17 New
            +1
            Quote: Alexey RA
            Until 1942, 3 seaplanes were based on the Cumberland.

            This is not an option. The luck factor is too great. Count if the ships diverge at least with a total stroke of 20 knots. During the night, 120 miles will run. The British will need luck to discover Spee. And then, if you are lucky to find him, then you still have to catch up. And then night will fall again.
            Spee had chances to leave. But to repair somewhere later or get to Germany, none. And without this, he could no longer act normally. In addition, there were more than 1000 Germans on board. For self-respecting nations, this is a good argument. Having compared the chances, the German command decided not to risk their lives in this situation.
            The right decision, by the way. The question is different, why didn’t you dare to intern? Did not expect that the British would reckon with the Argentines and international law? Most likely, the way it is. It is doubtful that Germany so urgently needed these 1000 sailors in the Navy. Indeed, in the case of internment, they would have sat throughout the war in Argentina.
            1. tlauicol
              tlauicol 22 December 2015 14: 18 New
              0
              English radar and speed superiority. No chance to leave
              1. blog
                blog 22 December 2015 14: 39 New
                +2
                Quote: Tlauicol
                English radars and speed excellence

                Radars On Cumberland? In 1939? Where from?
                And speed is a double-edged sword. If you know where to go, this is an advantage. But you can go the opposite course ... Then, the opposite is true.
                1. tlauicol
                  tlauicol 22 December 2015 15: 15 New
                  0
                  to blame, then there was no radar

                  for the rest - they all stood at the start of the "Spee", they would not have missed. He cannot go up the river or into the jungle. Course one - towards the guard
                  1. blog
                    blog 22 December 2015 15: 40 New
                    0
                    Quote: Tlauicol
                    they all stood at the start of "Spee", they would not have missed

                    A good chance to leave was December 14 at dawn. With a margin of light cruisers on the night of December 14 to 15. But the Germans missed him. Then everything was more complicated.
                    But then again, it would be a road to nowhere.
                    1. Alexey RA
                      Alexey RA 22 December 2015 18: 09 New
                      0
                      Quote: blogg
                      A good chance to leave was December 14 at dawn. With a margin of light cruisers on the night of December 14 to 15.

                      Um ... actually, the Spee arrived in Montevideo on the night of December 13-14. Having 3 holes in the hull.
                      And on the evening of December 14, the Cumberland had already arrived from the Falklands. So we would have to break away from him too.
                      1. The comment was deleted.
                      2. blog
                        blog 22 December 2015 18: 39 New
                        0
                        Quote: Alexey RA
                        actually, "Spee" arrived in Montevideo on the night of December 13-14

                        Actually, the battle ended at 7:46 a.m. And Spee arrived at the port during the day, and not at night.
                        Quote: Alexey RA
                        Having 3 holes in the case.

                        Day, it's 24 hours. A very considerable amount of time. We would be able to deliver temporary patches. And at dawn on December 14, it was necessary to leave.
                        In general, it is not clear why Langsdorf at all came across the port. Links to night attacks are ridiculous. What are the night attacks at 7:46 a.m.? And if he was so afraid of night attacks, then it was not worth going out to sea. The British light cruisers in speed got it anyway. Those. according to the alleged logic of Dansdorf described in the article, going out to sea was tantamount to death. I don’t think he thought so.
                        Most likely, I just made a mistake with calling at the port and a long stop there. And then it was too late to correct anything.
                      3. Alexey RA
                        Alexey RA 22 December 2015 19: 06 New
                        0
                        Quote: blogg
                        Actually, the battle ended at 7:46 a.m. And Spee arrived at the port during the day, and not at night.

                        Uh-huh .. after the battle, "Spee" immediately went to rep. smile

                        Here is a chronology of events for a single time:
                        The fight ended at 07:40 on December 13th.
                        At 11:15 am, the Spee stumbled upon the British steamer Shakespeare, ordered it to stop and tried to distract the cruising ships pursuing it with a request to "pick up boats with a crew." KRL continued the pursuit.
                        At 19:15 and 20:55, Spee fired several volleys at the KRL pursuing him.
                        At 00:10 on December 14, the Spee dropped anchor in Montevideo.

                        At 22:00 on December 14, the Cumberland SRT joined the Harwood ROC.
                        Damage to ADMIRAL GRAF SPEE, both material and psychological, caused her captain to turn away and head for Montevideo for repairs in that port. Thirty seven crew had been killed and 57 wounded. She arrived in Montevideo very early on the 14th, followed closely by AJAX and ACHILLES which immediately took up blockade of that port against SPEE's departure.

                        Sources:
                        http://www.naval-history.net/xDKWW2-3912-09DEC01.htm
                        http://www.deutschland-class.dk/admiral_graf_spee/admiral_graf_spee_operation_hi

                        st.html
                        Quote: blogg
                        Day, it's 24 hours. A very considerable amount of time. We would be able to deliver temporary patches. And at dawn on December 14, it was necessary to leave.

                        It is necessary to leave in such a way as to break through Harwood's KRL before 18:00 on December 14. Otherwise, “Cumberland” will have time - he walked to Montevideo just 25 knots.
                        That is, Langsdorf has everything for everything about everything, only 18 hours. Some of which need to be spent on all kinds of approvals - call at the port and repair work.

                        By the way, Ajax also has a plane. smile
                        Quote: blogg
                        In general, it is not clear why Langsdorf at all came across the port. Links to night attacks are ridiculous. What are the night attacks at 7:46 a.m.?

                        Graf Spee: 36 dead, 60 wounded. Seventeen 6 inch hits causing minor damage, two 8 inch hits in nonvulnerable areas below armor deck, but oil purification and desalination plants destroyed, all kitchens wrecked. Ammunition stocks very low.

                        Plus 3 underwater holes.
                      4. blog
                        blog 22 December 2015 19: 15 New
                        0
                        Quote: Alexey RA
                        It is necessary to leave in such a way as to break through Harwood's KRL before 18:00 on December 14. Otherwise, “Cumberland” will have time - he walked to Montevideo just 25 knots.

                        Langsdorf could not know this. And to leave tactically more correct at dawn. And again I emphasize, but where to go? And for what?
                        Quote: Alexey RA
                        desalination plants destroyed

                        If this is true, then it is very serious. You can put up with holes. And without water, no way. And nowhere.
                      5. blog
                        blog 22 December 2015 19: 15 New
                        0
                        Quote: Alexey RA
                        It is necessary to leave in such a way as to break through Harwood's KRL before 18:00 on December 14. Otherwise, “Cumberland” will have time - he walked to Montevideo just 25 knots.

                        Langsdorf could not know this. And to leave tactically more correct at dawn. And again I emphasize, but where to go? And for what?
                        Quote: Alexey RA
                        desalination plants destroyed

                        If this is true, then it is very serious. You can put up with holes. And without water, no way. And nowhere.
        2. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 22 December 2015 17: 58 New
          0
          Quote: blogg
          This is not an option. The luck factor is too great. Count if the ships diverge at least with a total stroke of 20 knots. During the night, 120 miles will run.

          Sumptuously. We launch 2 hydros at a range of 120-150 miles with sectors of 90 degrees. Spee is not a Trump. It is a solitary battleship with a distinctive silhouette. There are no other such ships in the area.
          Harwood needs to hold out for 3 days - after which the "Compound H" and "Rhynown" MCTs with "Arc Royal" will come.

          And Langsdorf needs to remember about 3 holes in the hull. He will not have time to close them - it is necessary to leave urgently, otherwise "Rhinaun" will come.
          Quote: blogg
          The question is different, why didn’t you dare to intern?

          PMSM, because on "Admiral Spee" they remembered the fate of "Dresden" after Falklands-1914. Only 25 years have passed since the British in pursuit of the last cruiser of Admiral Spee were not stopped by some "territorial waters of a neutral state."

          And in 1939, the area was the same, and the name of the battleship evokes bad thoughts, and even rumors about the approach of the British battlecruiser go in full swing.
          1. blog
            blog 22 December 2015 18: 30 New
            0
            Quote: Alexey RA
            We launch 2 hydros at a range of 120-150 miles with sectors of 90 degrees.

            Where are we starting? In azimuth. There are as many as 360 degrees. Mistake after a blind night is not difficult. The British did not have radars.
            In addition, these same aircraft arrived only on December 14 in the evening. And I wrote that the most optimal option for a breakthrough is December 14 at dawn.
            1. tlauicol
              tlauicol 22 December 2015 18: 47 New
              0
              and where to break through? towards Antarctica, around Cape Horn or towards the British - nowhere else to go. He would have a blizzard or fog ..
              1. blog
                blog 22 December 2015 19: 07 New
                0
                Quote: Tlauicol
                He would have a blizzard or fog ..

                December is there, this is June in our hemisphere. Where is the blizzard coming from?
                Quote: Tlauicol
                and where to break through? towards Antarctica, around Cape Horn or towards the British - nowhere else to go.

                Well no. The ocean is big. Lost is not difficult. You need only a little luck at the very beginning. But what to do next? Where to fix it? Moreover, it was already late in the evening on the 14th.
                As a result, the Germans did the right thing that flooded Spee.
            2. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 22 December 2015 19: 08 New
              0
              Quote: blogg
              Where are we starting? In azimuth. There are as many as 360 degrees. Mistake after a blind night is not difficult. The British did not have radars.

              And if you think?
              "Spee" could not get far from the KRL in the nasal sectors during the night. This means that the main search should be carried out in sectors from the traverse to the stern. And for the bow sectors, one hydro at a distance of 50 miles is enough.
              Quote: blogg
              In addition, these same aircraft arrived only on December 14 in the evening. And I wrote that the most optimal option for a breakthrough is December 14 at dawn.

              These aircraft arrived 22 hours after the Spee dropped anchor.
              And Ajax has another hydro.
            3. The comment was deleted.
  • Alex
    Alex 21 December 2015 18: 41 New
    +1
    Quote: Miner
    Although earlier, including back in Soviet times, it was read that the blame for the useless destruction of his own ship (still quite capable of standing up for itself with good chances of success) lies with Langsdorf, who allegedly was injured by his head during the battle and has not could think reasonably.

    Well, apparently, we’ll never know about the damage in our minds, but the fact that he seriously changed his emotions after he was nearly killed on the bridge (before that he flaunted a cigar in his mouth) is a fact. And the subsequent political fuss and disinformation of the British finally completely broke the will: both resistance and life.
  • Bennert
    Bennert 21 December 2015 09: 22 New
    +1
    I wonder how about comparing the Graf Spee with the American large cruiser Alaska (CB-1)?

    Although, why go so far? There is a more competent example, the same age - the battle cruiser "SHARNHORST"
    Displacement and% share of load articles are nonlinear. Therefore, being twice as large, "Scharnhorst":

    - TWO times outnumbered the "Spee" power plant (159 against 57 thousand hp) and, accordingly, was faster: 31 knots. against 28

    - TWO times surpassed the "Spee" in the thickness of the citadel's armor (the front of the main battery turret: 140 against 360 mm, the belt 350 mm against 80 ... 100, and taking into account the length and height of the belts, it is not comparable at all)

    - at least TWICE superior to the "Spee" in firepower (1,5 times more main and medium caliber guns + 14 heavy anti-aircraft guns of 105 mm caliber)

    - and: massive tall superstructure, 4 armored "blisters" for fire control systems, a developed complex of radio-technical means and much more, about which the "pocket battleship" could not even dream

    That's the whole price of talking
    Quote: Rurikovich
    within the allotted displacement above the head you will not bend and always to ensure certain characteristics have to sacrifice or neglect others.

    If you want to build a serious ship - there is nothing to artificially limit its displacement, so that later you do not have to raise your arms infantically and neglect the necessary

    Scharnhorst (1936)
    1. Aleksandr72
      Aleksandr72 21 December 2015 09: 59 New
      +3
      The problem of the Kriegsmarine in the interwar years, as well as of Germany as a whole, was that, unable to catch up with the most probable enemy, Britain, the Germans were forced to rely not on the quantity, but on the quality of the fleet units under construction, and also to reconsider the tactics its application. Ships of the "Deutschland" class (which included the "Admiral Graf Spee", as well as "Admiral Scheer" and the "Deutschland" itself, later renamed "Lutzow") were created to replace the outdated battleships, which were allowed to be kept by Germany within the Versailles restrictions. These ships (which the Germans themselves attributed to the "Panzerschiff" class, that is, the battleship, and the British clickers dubbed "pocket battleships", and de facto they were still heavy cruisers, though very peculiar) were developed and built during the period of restrictions imposed at the London Maritime Conference. Before the Deutschlands, the Germans set the task of destroying merchant shipping (primarily British) and, accordingly, waging war on sea lanes - hence the economical diesel engines as a power plant. Plus, these ships were supposed to easily destroy the "London" heavy cruisers with their light armor and artillery of the main battery of 203-mm caliber (according to the apt expression of the same British - "tin cans armed with heavy hammers" or simply "tin-class" ie class cans) and at the same time should have been able to escape from collision to more powerful but slow-moving battleships (British LCs of the Queen Elizabeth and Rodney types had a parade course of no more than 23 knots). Therefore, the Deutschlands were armed with 28 cm cannons and had a speed of around 28 knots.
      In practice, skeptics' fears were confirmed - as the example of "Admiral Count Spee" showed for the Panzerschiff, any artillery battle with approximately equal or even inferior enemy in strength due to the risk of damage excluding the return of the ship to its home port from a distant raid turned out to be deadly. Probably this negative example stood before the eyes of the captain of the sister ship - "Admiral Scheer", who, after an unsuccessful battle with an enemy incomparable in strength - Soviet sailors and artillerymen (2 152-mm ML-20 howitzer-guns, installed right on the pier, several 76- mm guns installed both on the shore and on ships, the 130-mm coastal guns most dangerous for the Germans were dismantled and could not take part in the battle) in the port of Dixon, he decided to return back to Narvik, thereby disrupting the main task in Operation Wunderland - the search and destruction of a Soviet convoy consisting of warships transferred along the Northern Sea Route from the Pacific Ocean to Murmansk.
      And it is incorrect to compare the Doylands with the Alaska - these are ships of completely different classes, more precisely, outside of certain classes - for a battle cruiser, which, by definition, should have a main caliber artillery comparable to battleships, but the Alaska still carried a higher speed the wrong artillery (305-mm is not 406-mm on the Missouri), although formally both cruisers.
      I have the honor.
      1. Bennert
        Bennert 21 December 2015 11: 20 New
        -5
        Quote: Aleksandr72
        And it is incorrect to compare Doylands with Alaska - these are ships of completely different classes, more precisely, outside of certain classes

        They were created as "cruiser fighters". Spee even had a fight with British Washingtonians

        You can’t tell me why Alaska has twice the best weapons and security indicators, and it has the best mobility. No compromise!
        Quote: Aleksandr72
        I have the honor.

        Prove
        1. tlauicol
          tlauicol 21 December 2015 12: 42 New
          0
          fighters inferior in speed to their goals? nude
          1. Aleksandr72
            Aleksandr72 21 December 2015 12: 50 New
            +2
            And you did not think that the cruiser (in this case, the British heavy "Londoner"), accompanying the convoy of transports, would be forced to engage in battle with the raider, and not run away from him, throwing the escorted transports for slaughter - which, in fact, was required by the German raider ... The main target of the German raiders - the Deutschland-class panzerschiff (and later the Scharnhorst from the Gneisenau and other large Kriegsmarine surface ships with the necessary seaworthiness and cruising range, as well as numerous auxiliary cruisers) were precisely the "merchants" as loners , and as part of convoys. The Germans assumed that the convoys would be accompanied by a maximum of heavy cruisers, and therefore they needed a ship that, if necessary, could sink such a "Londoner" cruiser without much risk to itself. In practice, the British were forced to include even battleships in the long-range escort of convoys.
            I have the honor.
            1. tlauicol
              tlauicol 21 December 2015 13: 07 New
              0
              how many bucoffs. would write simply: "transport fighters"
              1. blog
                blog 22 December 2015 01: 14 New
                0
                Quote: Tlauicol
                would write simply: "transport fighters"

                So the classic cruiser, in the narrow sense of the word, this is a transport fighter. If in a word. A raider is the same transport fighter (cruiser). Only heavy. Designed to destroy not only transports, but also convoy ships. It is usually far from its operating area.
                1. tlauicol
                  tlauicol 22 December 2015 14: 24 New
                  0
                  Cruisers, raiders, privateers are designed to disrupt sea communications and build them to destroy transports and trade, not cruisers. "Spee" with its speed, too, does not pull on a cruiser fighter. The British immediately realized that this was their prey, even in the process of building "pickpockets"
                  1. blog
                    blog 22 December 2015 14: 47 New
                    0
                    Quote: Tlauicol
                    "Spee" with its speed, too, does not pull on a cruiser fighter.

                    And who called Scheer a "cruiser fighter"? And when was the raider a "cruiser fighter" at all?
                    Fighter cruisers in the RIF were called "scouts". Far and near. Large and small. And there were no raider fighters in it at all. Although to some extent Rurik II can be pulled there by the ears.
                    RKKF not considering. There is nothing to consider.
                    1. tlauicol
                      tlauicol 22 December 2015 15: 05 New
                      0
                      Bennert called them that. I answered him
                      1. blog
                        blog 22 December 2015 15: 14 New
                        0
                        Quote: Tlauicol
                        Bennert called them that. I answered him

                        By the structure of the branch, it seems to me. Maybe some kind of tech. a failure.
                  2. The comment was deleted.
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 21 December 2015 11: 49 New
        +1
        Quote: Aleksandr72
        Probably this negative example stood before the eyes of the captain of the sister ship - "Admiral Scheer", who after an unsuccessful battle with an enemy incomparable in strength - Soviet sailors and artillerymen (2 152-mm ML-20 howitzer-cannons, installed right on the pier, several 76- mm guns installed both on the shore and on ships, the 130-mm coastal guns most dangerous for the Germans were dismantled and could not take part in the battle) in the port of Dixon

        Heh heh heh ... in Dikson it was still sadder for the Germans. A coastal defense battery, which they identified as "long-term 130 mm", in fact had 2 152-mm army guns from the times of the last war.
        On Dikson there were not ML-20s, but her ancestor - Schneider’s guns of the 1910/30 model EMNIP, with a single-beam carriage (and corresponding GN angles). smile
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. Aleksandr72
          Aleksandr72 21 December 2015 13: 06 New
          +2
          I have read the following about this unequal battle:
          After the battle with the Sibiryakov, the commander of the Scheer, Captain Zur See Meendsen-Bolken, decided to strike at the port of Dikson. He counted on minimal resistance and was preparing to land an assault force of 180 sailors, who were to destroy all structures. Dixon remained virtually defenseless. All the batteries on it (130 mm, 45 mm and 152 mm) were dismantled by that time. They were just supposed to be taken to Novaya Zemlya by the patrol ship SKR-19. It arrived at the port of Dixon very on time - on the morning of August 26, 1942. The 130-mm guns most suitable for repelling an attack were on the barge and their quick return to the place was impossible. But they managed to unload two 152-mm howitzer-cannons of the 1937 model of battery No. 569 with a part of the ammunition. The battery, deprived of telephone and radio communications, any observation posts and even a rangefinder, with local residents who replaced the missing military (the shortage was more than half of the payroll), nevertheless, was ready to enter into a duel with the "pocket battleship".

          As you see, we are talking about the ML-20 (although it was possible these were more rare 152,4-mm guns of the model of 1934 - having almost the same performance characteristics). Information that in Dixon were 152-mm guns arr. 1910/1930 comes from Wikipedia, where the following is written:
          Later, battery No. 569 joined Dixon’s defense. It was equipped with two heavy 152 mm guns, 1910, which miraculously survived after two wars and revolutions, and were delivered from the military stocks of Arkhangelsk.

          But in the same article on Wik also says that:
          (In fact, the Dixon garrison had two 37 mm (?) Anti-tank guns, one 76 mm anti-aircraft gun, one 75 mm howitzer(?). The artillery platoon was commanded by the electric welder of the port I. G. Vorobyov, the commanders of the guns were A. A. Shchedrin and S. V. Kuznetsov. The garrison included not only border guards, but about 300 more militiamen armed with rifles, carbines and hunting rifles. However, it is obvious that all of these guns and rifles would not be enough to counter the fire of naval guns firing at point blank range, and indeed, it seems unlikely that after the shelling the garrison forces could provide any serious opposition to the German landing).
          This passage alone is enough for me not to perceive the article on Wik as a serious source that deserves attention.
          I have the honor.
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 21 December 2015 13: 56 New
            0
            Quote: Aleksandr72
            Information that in Dixon were 152-mm guns arr. 1910/1930 comes from Wikipedia, where the following is written:

            Hmm ... actually, this information does not come from Wikipedia, but from the article uv. Miroslava Morozova "Operation Wunderland":
            Later, battery No. 569 was added to them. It was armed with two 152-mm field howitzers received from the warehouses of the Arkhangelsk Military District of 1910/1930. It was they who fell the role of the main force of the defenders in the events that soon followed.

            The only 152-mm gun mod. The 1910/30 is a 152 mm Schneider gun with a 29-gauge barrel.
            Because the 152-mm howitzers were either 1909/30 or 1910/37.

            By the way, they write about the 37-mm guns of the Dixon militia that they were trophies of the Polish campaign in 1939.
            1. padded jacket
              padded jacket 21 December 2015 15: 33 New
              +3
              Despite all the bestial nature of German Nazism, it must be admitted that German designers have achieved outstanding success in all areas of designing military equipment and German soldiers were a very "tough nut to crack" for their opponents.
              The death of the battleship Admiral Count Spee
      3. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
        Andrei from Chelyabinsk 21 December 2015 16: 59 New
        0
        Definitely a plus, but if you allow
        Quote: Aleksandr72
        British LCs of the "Queen Elizabeth" and "Rodney" types had a parade of no more than 23 knots

        Strictly speaking, "Queens" sometimes managed to give out 24, but the "ugly sisters" of EMNIP did not go more than 18-19 bonds in everyday operation.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 21 December 2015 17: 21 New
          0
          Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
          Strictly speaking, "Queens" sometimes managed to give out 24

          The speed of the "queens" differed quite significantly. ABC, pomnitsa, always complained that the Barem and Malaya were slowing down his squadron.
          1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
            Andrei from Chelyabinsk 21 December 2015 20: 14 New
            0
            Quite right, that's why I write that "sometimes" and that "managed :))
      4. The comment was deleted.
    2. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      Andrei from Chelyabinsk 21 December 2015 16: 54 New
      0
      Quote: BENNERT
      If you need to build a serious ship - there is nothing to artificially limit its displacement

      I would agree with you, but here's the thing ... Of course, Scheer doesn't look very good against the background of Scharnhorst. But the trouble is that the Scharnhorst itself looks quite pale against the background of the Bismarck. Those. The Scharnhorst is a battleship with an almost battleship displacement, but at the same time is incapable of fighting practically any fast battleship in the world. But at the cost of 3 "Scharnhorst" corresponds to two "Bismarcks" ... Ie. again on the face of a clear loss in performance characteristics :)))
      However, the fleet cannot consist only of battleships of the most powerful type (by the way, having made a choice in favor of the Bismarck, we will face the fact that it is significantly weaker than the Yamato ...) The thing is that one ship, no matter how powerful it is cannot be in two places at the same time. Therefore, it makes no sense to equate the Scheer, which in essence was a form of a heavy cruiser, and the Scharnhorst, which was still a battleship (or a battle cruiser, if you like)
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 21 December 2015 17: 25 New
        0
        Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
        Those. The Scharnhorst is a battleship with an almost battleship displacement, but at the same time is incapable of fighting practically any fast battleship in the world. But at the cost of 3 "Scharnhorst" correspond to two "Bismarcks" ... Ie. again, there is a clear loss in performance characteristics :)))

        Giggle ... "Bismarck" is generally a cheating ship: it cost prohibitively little for the Kriegsmarine. Whether it was "Hippers": 2 "Ougens" cost as 1 "Bismarck". smile
        Their value rose steadily: from "Hipper" (85,9 million Reichsmarks) to "Prince Eugen" (104,5 million). Suffice it to compare these figures with the price of "pocket battleships" (80-90 million) and real battleships of the Scharnhorst type (about 175 million) and Bismarck (180-200 million).

        Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
        However, the fleet cannot consist only of battleships of the most powerful type (by the way, having made a choice in favor of the Bismarck, we will face the fact that it is significantly weaker than the Yamato ...)

        The Germans took this problem into account - and began to design the N-42, N-43 and N-44. smile
        1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
          Andrei from Chelyabinsk 21 December 2015 20: 29 New
          +1
          Quote: Alexey RA
          The Germans took this problem into account - and began to design the N-42, N-43 and N-44.

          N-44 ... "And what people can think of not to go to the Eastern Front!" laughing
        2. The comment was deleted.
  • Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 21 December 2015 17: 56 New
    +4
    I read it with pleasure! thanks to the author!
  • Denimax
    Denimax 21 December 2015 18: 20 New
    0
    I personally like these compact boats, but they have nothing outstanding. Is it just that the remote control allows you to quickly go to sea, i.e. no need to breed couples. And so if you send them somewhere, there will always be the thought that they can be quickly lost. As raiders, in the sense of price-effectiveness, the converted civilian vessels showed themselves better. If they had appeared in the Russo-Japanese war, they would have been a prodigy. smile
  • Robert Nevsky
    Robert Nevsky 21 December 2015 20: 33 New
    +1
    The Germans are our enemies. It’s good that their allies sank!
    1. blog
      blog 22 December 2015 01: 34 New
      +1
      Quote: Robert Nevsky
      The Germans are our enemies. It’s good that their allies sank!

      During the events described, Bulgaria was neutral. Those. the Germans were not her enemies, but the British were allies. But a little later, 01.03.41/13.12.41/XNUMX, Bulgaria joined the Axis countries. And the Germans somehow did not become her enemies at all. A XNUMXg. Bulgaria declared war on Britain. Those. the British became not allies to her at all.
      Who sank the allies of Bulgaria?
  • kvs207
    kvs207 21 December 2015 20: 51 New
    0
    Right now, I am reading Ruge, where he describes the actions of the "pocket" battleships.
    By the way, conceptually, these "battleships" remind me of the "Elswick" cruisers smile
  • kumaxa
    kumaxa 26 December 2015 12: 34 New
    0
    interesting article with a touch of irony! author +++++ 5 in turnips! and the captain is a real man. I didn’t survive the loss of a trusted ship! And in general, if the afftor does not burden, then you can sprinkle an article about Bismarck too, it was a funny thing. Well and at the end of the Pacific operations of the United States Navy during World War II. identity theme is funny.
  • kuz363
    kuz363 23 July 2017 19: 20 New
    0
    I was once again convinced that the real sea powers are not those that self-proclaim themselves (I mean Russia), but those who fought on the world's oceans - Germany, England, Japan, the USA. The Soviet Navy in the Baltic and the Black Sea were locked up by mines, the Pacific was practically inactive. Well, the Northern Fleet, yes, it seems, fought and accompanied the naval convoys of the allies. But there were no big battles. So at least the first, at least the second world wars for the Russian fleet were inglorious.
  • Stirlitz, Max Otto
    Stirlitz, Max Otto 16 June 2018 13: 33 New
    0
    Yes, very interesting!