Military Review

Yasnaya Polyana during the occupation period

15
A huge, irreparable damage caused by the fascists to the museums of our country. How many ills suffered the Russian Museum, the Hermitage, the Tretyakov Gallery, the Peterhof Museum-Reserve ... From the barbarian hands of the invaders, from the bombings, during a rush evacuation, shelling and fires affected about 160 museums in our country!


I heard from one of my peers: so in this figure most of the regional museums are not so important. But can a memory be regional or regional? After all, by and large, all events stories occur in cities and villages.

Today - the story of the military fate of the museum-estate of Leo Tolstoy "Yasnaya Polyana", in the Tula region. And we will start it with the memories of Lipchanin, a war correspondent and photographer, holder of the Order of the Patriotic War, Ivan Alexandrovich Narcissov, who had walked with a rifle and watering can all through the war and reached Berlin. Photos and memoirs of Ivan Alexandrovich entered the five-volume work "The Great Patriotic War in photographs and documents." And these lines are from his diary.

“... I remember how quickly the message about the desecration of Yasnaya Polyana by the Nazi barbarians spread by the“ soldier’s phone ”. The details were like that.

The museum of the great writer Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy was turned into barracks by the fascists, the cabinets were cracked, the furniture was disfigured, things were stolen. And when the enemies retreated, they set fires in three rooms. This news caused a wave of anger in the hearts of the warriors. The fighters avenged the Nazis for the brutal bombing of workers' settlements, for burnt huts, for the tears of their mothers, for the outraged Yasnaya Polyana, where Lev Nikolayevich lived for more than fifty years and created his largest works.

And when I now, in peacetime, re-read “War and Peace”, “Sevastopol Stories”, I always remember the roads of the past war. I heard one battery commander - by the way, after all, Tolstoy also served during the Caucasian war in artillery - launching a projectile at the enemy, each time exclaiming: "For Anna Karenina"! For "War and Peace"! ". Today, I proudly think of those with whom the soldiers' journalistic friendship brought me together, about the people, whose mighty spirit is embodied in the writer's works ... "

... In the autumn of 1941, it became clear that the fascists were about to occupy the estate territory. And the director of the museum, the granddaughter of Lev Nikolaevich Sofya Andreyevna Tolstaya-Yesenina, began preparations for the evacuation of those exhibits that were in the house of the writer. In a hurry, a lot of work was done in just a few days: the museum's valuables - 110 boxes were selected and carefully packed! They were loaded onto the train, which in mid-October brought the exhibits to Tomsk, until the end of the war they were kept in the scientific library of Tomsk State University.
And in Yasnaya Polyana, meanwhile, they were waiting for the enemy to advance. Red Army men settled in the manor. Explosions are heard, the voices of anti-aircraft guns, the noise of motors — the enemy was torn to Tula. But even in such a tense wait our fighters tried to take care of the museum, many asked the guides to tell about the life of the great writer, went to his grave.

... The 2nd tank Guderian's army. The Germans came close to Tula, took the city in a half ring. No matter how our soldiers fought, they had to retreat. October 29 (according to some sources - on the 30th) on October the invaders broke into the estate - for a long 47 days. In the book of reviews, where only good words, wishes, impressions “lived” before, barbaric lines appeared: “The first three Germans in the campaign against Russia” ... What were they, these “three first Germans” - silly or simply overflowing with their own significance and the desire to ruin everything around, since they managed to write this? But, as it turned out, this is only the beginning.
On November 1, Heinz Guderian himself entered the house of Tolstoy. He did not inspect anything, just went through the house. But the officers walking with him took two photographs of Lev Nikolayevich with them (in memory of Guderian). And the very next day the upper floor became an officer's hostel. In the house Volkonsky fascists staged a hospital. They housed the wounded in the Literary Museum. On the estate they practiced shooting: they beat goats, chickens and even cows. It also cut up carcasses.

In the room of Sergei Tolstoy, the writer's son, they did not stop to take off their underwear: it was cold, and the Fritz were very much afraid of the Russian winter. Maps, books, antique furniture, archival documents (Germans burned 64 large folders for 1932-1941 years) flew into the furnace. Burned and the table from the pantry, and hangers. The museum staff asked the soldiers not to burn it all said that the German command promised to preserve the estate, because this is the cultural heritage of the whole world, to which they were told: "The authorities allowed."



Here are the memories of the teacher and employee of the museum Solovyova: “Soldiers everywhere were scouring, they were rummaging around. They knew that this was the estate of the great Russian writer, many even said that they had read his books. And the more it was their dirty pleasure to impose here a barbaric regime, their own order. It seemed to them that they were given inexpressible pleasure to destroy and destroy. By this they seemed to assert their upper hand over Tolstoy. For them, he was not dead, but alive.
Meanwhile, the soldiers were all lousy, dirty. Everywhere fumbling eyes. Once at lunch time a fascist entered. Silently I sat down at the table and ate all of my meal, then I began to rummage through things, collected all sorts of rags. Things remaining in the house and the Literary Museum were allowed to be folded in the dining room. Subsequently, the invaders stuck on the door of the hall paper with a stamp: "Confiscated for the upper command."

Especially remember the case of chicken. She was released to run through the halls and shot, practicing accuracy. The poor bird darted from side to side, cackling. And the officers, laughing insanely, ran after her and fired ... "



One of the officers, a doctor by specialty, claimed that he was a big fan of Lev Nikolayevich and from the age of six he read his books. But he himself soon wanted to pick up the sofa on which Tolstoy was born. The museum keepers, risking their lives, did not allow it. But the Germans did damage the sofa: someone cut it with a knife - these scratches are preserved in memory of those days.

During the period of occupation, 99 objects disappeared without a trace. Among them are a saddle, a wall clock, a bookshelf in the study, library window curtains, a buffet counter, many photos.

In one of the rooms a barber shop was arranged, in the other a shoe shop. In the bedroom opened a casino. If you saw warm clothes on museum workers or local residents, they were immediately removed. Valenki were especially valued: the Germans believed that there was no other such warm footwear, arthritis and colds were treated with felt boots. If someone refused to give - they punished: they beat, choked.

... And under Tula in the meantime there were fights, more and more wounded arrived. On November 9 the fascists occupied the whole museum under the hospital. The museum staff, saving valuables, transferred things to the basement, to the veranda, to the courtyard.

A tank was driven to the house of Tolstoy, which required repair.

Here is an extract from the act of the Academy of Sciences, drawn up shortly after the liberation of Yasnaya Polyana: “... On October 31, the burial began near the grave of Tolstoy who died in the hospital of the Nazis. The place of Tolstoy’s grave for setting up a cemetery is very inconvenient: the grave is located in the forest, where there are many tree roots that prevent digging the ground. It is located at a distance of about one kilometer from the manor. On the way to the grave and around the house there are free fields. Nevertheless, the cemetery for the fascists who died in the "hospital" - the house of Leo Tolstoy, was arranged there, despite the protests of the museum staff, with the explicit aim of abusing the memory of the great writer. A pile of fascist corpses was left next to Tolstoy’s grave ... ”

Even in the period of the occupation, a chronicle was kept in the museum. The museum curator Sergey Shchyogolev and research associate Maria Shchyogoleva were engaged in this - they kept a diary. Here are some notes: “... Upon learning that the museum was under the jurisdiction of the Academy of Sciences, the fascists laughed, and one young veil asked the others with a scornful sneer:“ What kind of science is this in the Soviet Union? ”... in Yasnaya Polyana. They were very surprised that the children of the peasants, “these little fools” study in it ... The house of Tolstoy is a barracks with guns, machine guns ... All bushes, trees, hedges - everything is dented, broken ... Many trees are beaten by shells and explosions. From November 25, the manor turned into a courtyard. One part replaces the other. In the village cellars are devastated. There is unrestrained robbery ... "

The Nazis were preparing to spend the winter in the estate. But in early December, our troops launched an offensive near Moscow. And on December 10, the occupiers turned down their headquarters.

But, seeing that the time of domination was over, the Germans finally lost even a semblance of a human form. They burned down the nearby villages 14, committed brutal massacres there. I Yasnaya Polyana, too, flashed fires. First - in the rest home, then - in the hospital, school, teacher's house. And then the Nazis set fire to the library. All museum workers and people living in Yasnaya Polyana, including schoolchildren, rushed to fight the fire. And although on the same day the flames were extinguished, the manor suffered enormous damage.



... December 15 in Yasnaya Polyana is no fascists left. However, they didn’t undertake to tidy up at once: a documentary was on for several days. Many military newspapers then placed on their pages materials about the plundering of Yasnaya Polyana by the Germans - that was exactly what Ivan Alexandrovich Narcissus found out about.

December 16 Museum took the first tour. These were the soldiers of the Red Army, the soldiers of the reconnaissance detachment of Captain Dmitriev, who had acted in the enemy’s rear for several days. They passed through the burnt house of Tolstoy, stood around his grave. “Comrades,” said the squad leader. “We have seen a lot of bullying by the Germans over our culture, but we have not yet met such blasphemy ...”

Recovery was a little over four months. It is clear that in those years it was impossible to protect the estate from bombing and other wartime trials. But for this they did everything possible. Order No. XXUMX on the Tula garrison stated that it was strictly forbidden to deploy the headquarters of military units and to conduct exercises on the museum’s territory within a radius of five kilometers. But the front already went farther and farther ...

And May 1 of the museum again began to receive visitors (the decision on this was made on April 2). In the month of May alone, almost three thousand people visited him, mostly military men. Here is one of the entries that appeared in those days in the guest book: “I am glad to tears that these great places, sacred for us, have been won back from the barbarians, heroism and the sufferings of the Soviet people are saved. Updated and put in order. " And after our Victory evacuated exhibits returned from distant Tomsk. However, the final recovery continued for a long time.

I must say, the German Information Bureau denied the fact of robbery and robbery. This was the case in the Nuremberg trials. The fascists claimed that the Bolsheviks had taken the museum inventory, only the walls, paintings and wall decorations were left to the arrival of the Germans. It was even said that the Soviet soldiers themselves mined the park and the grave of Tolstoy. Guderian wrote in his memoirs (this book was published in 2007 year and in Russia, it is called “Memories of the German General”): We settled in the house, furniture and books were moved to two rooms and their doors were sealed. We used home-made furniture from simple boards, the stove was heated with wood from the forest. We did not burn any piece of furniture, did not touch any manuscript or book. All the Soviet claims of the post-war period are inventions. I myself visited the grave of Tolstoy. She was in good condition. No soldier touched her. When we left, everything remained in the same condition as before us. Postwar rough propaganda without any reason called on with the barbarians ... "
Without any reason, it means ...

However, all this is refuted by photographs and diary entries made by museum staff during the occupation and immediately after. And in the library on the second floor on the wall and now hangs a photo taken in this room in the middle of December 1941 ...

I have been to Yasnaya Polyana several times. Not a single guide has ever “forgotten” the period of the Great Patriotic War. But once, when they showed us the same sofa, pierced with a bayonet (or maybe a knife), behind me, there was a loud, dissatisfied voice: “It was a blown blown thing! People died - yes, grief. Atrocities, hangings, executions - grief. But this is just a house. We remember Tolstoy from the books - is that not enough? The country burned down, and you dismissed the nurse because of the manor! Well, they stole items. Sorry, but this is not grief. Well, the house was set on fire - vandals, but you don’t have to do a pump out of it, there were more troubles ”...

Then the argument broke out. People proved something to each other, interrupted, rustled. The guide somehow hesitated and everyone moved to another room. And now I'm thinking about what. Of course, there were atrocities during the war and worse. However, it is impossible to compare the death of people and the estate, these are incomparable events, because there will always be worse facts or - on the contrary. But one more thing is very important. In spite of any difficulties and hardships, the very structure of our country's life was such as if people knew for sure: the war will pass and we will begin to live in peace again. Open their doors to closed schools, institutes, museums. Children will grow up, and adults, no matter how difficult it is, will not interrupt their upbringing (even though the generation of children was called lost, but this is not true!). Therefore, the task is not only to defeat the enemy, but also to preserve everything that was before the war. That's why museums were evacuated, if they could, and not abandoned to the mercy of fate: they say, this is not the most important task. There was no such thing at all: a big task and no. Everything is important. Because after the war there is life.

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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 18 December 2015 07: 36
    +4
    It seemed to them an unspeakable pleasure to destroy and destroy. By this they seemed to assert their upper hand over Tolstoy.


    And someone else claims that the Germans are a civilized nation ... in the war against RUSSIA, a civilized gloss flew away from them very quickly.
    They are as civilized as I am the Chinese emperor of the Qing Dynasty.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 18 December 2015 07: 53
    +6
    That's why museums were evacuated, if they could, but were not left to their own devices: they say, this is not the most important task. There was no such thing at all: a big task and no...In our town, before the war, the museum had an excellent art gallery, as the museum staff say, there were works by Vereshchagin and Aivazovsky among them .. They didn’t have time to evacuate, they hid it .. but there was a traitor .. gave out .. those who hid were shot .. The fate of the collection is still unknown .. Thank you, wonderful article ..
  3. semirek
    semirek 18 December 2015 08: 02
    +4
    The article once again shows what the Soviet Union would expect if Hitler won - the Russian people would turn into livestock.
  4. Stas57
    Stas57 18 December 2015 08: 37
    +3
    (This book was published in 2007 and in Russia, it is called "Memoirs of a German General"):

    in general, this book is called differently, and it appeared in 50 years earlier, but not the point.

    on this topic:
    I talked with the Germans, participants in the events, all in a voice, this is not us,
    literally it was like this - "we practically did not stand in it at all - it was immediately occupied by the headquarters staff with a clear order not to touch or break anything."

    "and in general there was Guderian, ask him"
    however fact is fact
  5. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 18 December 2015 09: 56
    +2
    The invaders always inflicted irreparable damage to another country, people. They not only killed, physically tortured people, they also tried to kill the soul of the people, because otherwise it would not be conquered.
    Let us recall the Library of Alexandria, the Carthaginian Library, the codes of the Mexican Indians, the unknown writing of Peru, the writing of Crete destroyed by the Achaeans, of which only the Phaistos Disc remained, which died in the fire of 1812, the original "Words about Igor's Regiment", the Amber Room, the Ishtar Gate (where the beast is from. IRUH with a muzzle --- a typical Triceratops) ... Examples of the distant past cannot be counted. In our "enlightened" time, such actions of aggressors continue.
    But the worst thing is when the inhabitants of the country themselves destroy their past.
    1. Same lech
      Same lech 18 December 2015 09: 58
      +2
      In our "enlightened" time, similar actions of the aggressors continue.



      Of course .... how many artifacts were stolen in the museums of IRAQ and SYRIA and not without the help of civilized invaders from the WEST.
    2. Ivan Tartugai
      Ivan Tartugai 18 December 2015 14: 07
      +1
      “But the worst thing is when the people of the country themselves destroy their past.”
      Residents of the country is too broad a concept.
      It is necessary to write more specifically, for example, a resident of the country Stepashin, when he was Chairman of the FSB of the Russian Federation transferred from the KGB-FSB archive more than two hundred storage units to citizen Bonner EG, to the states. Then, by order of the same Stepashin, more than five hundred volumes of documents regarding the activities of the famous “human rights defenders” Sakharov and Bonner were destroyed (burned). Here is Stepashin, a concrete person destroying the history of the country.
      Another resident of the Pihoya RG country supervised the transfer of documents, about 1 million items, to France. These valuable archival documents, which were captured by the Red Army as trophies, were not familiar to non-Soviet, not Russian researchers.
      Pihoya RG is also a specific person destroying the history of the country.
      And so write indiscriminately "residents of the country", it makes no sense. Well, how can a lineman or even a head of a distance destroy history, and such an overwhelming majority of such inhabitants of the country, 99%.
  6. Ivan Tartugai
    Ivan Tartugai 18 December 2015 10: 24
    +5
    “... On December 15, there were no fascists left in Yasnaya Polyana. However, they didn’t immediately put things in order: documentary filming took several days. ”
    All materials on the examination of the condition of the museum "Yasnaya Polyana", i.e. photographs, protocols, acts, reports, if preserved, should be published in books in the open press, and also posted on the Internet.
    Sure was the mass of photographs of German soldiers and officers, where they recorded the stay of the estate. German soldiers and officers loved to be photographed. Of course, a lot of materials have already been lost and destroyed, but what remains should be posted on the Internet.
    Otherwise, more and more “memoirs of the German generals” will appear, where there will be allegations that the Nazis carefully treated the museum. They will write that German soldiers even took off their boots when they entered the museum. Even such “recollections of German soldiers, officers and generals” will appear, where it will be argued that in general only the Red Army caused all the destruction and damage to the museum with its bombing and shelling.
    1. Stas57
      Stas57 18 December 2015 11: 11
      +2
      Quote: Ivan Tartugay
      Sure was the mass of photographs of German soldiers and officers, where they recorded the stay of the estate. German soldiers and officers loved to be photographed. Of course, a lot of materials have already been lost and destroyed, but what remains should be posted on the Internet.

      recently there was an exhibition
      http://hranitel-slov.livejournal.com/75466.html
      1. Ivan Tartugai
        Ivan Tartugai 18 December 2015 14: 30
        0
        The exhibition is certainly good, but unfortunately disparagingly few.
        According to your link, unfortunately you can see only three uninformative photos.
        Now, if they posted all the photos of the exhibition. I suppose that the organizers of the exhibition have already scanned all the photos and put them on the Internet a lot of work and time would not take, and the benefit would be great. The posted photos would discourage the desire and desire of many scribes to compose their opuses, as supposedly “the memories of German soldiers, officers and generals”.
        If the original photographs and documents available to the museum are not scanned, then it is simply necessary to scan, otherwise they will be lost forever.
        But, unfortunately, these are only wishes and no forces.
  7. Seneca
    Seneca 18 December 2015 14: 11
    -4
    I have been to Yasnaya Polyana several times .. and I remember how it flashed at the gidsha (I didn’t listen too much) “even the Germans were very careful about the estate during the occupation”. The German cemetery was not near the grave ... but near the Voronka River, which is four kilometers from the grave.
    And perhaps this is the key ... and it is clear who the real marauders are "And in Yasnaya Polyana, meanwhile, they were waiting for the enemy to advance. The Red Army men settled in the estate."
    You have to understand .. it was 41 when the German had already crushed millions of Soviet troops .. and these small working peasant guys .. sat and waited for their same fate and they did not care that they defecated and broke furniture for heating in Tolstoy’s rooms. And those who allocated them a position for defense there, too, didn’t care .. because behind Moscow it was necessary to defend Stalin and fie for everything. So the words of Guderian are not in doubt.
    1. Lone wolf
      Lone wolf 18 December 2015 18: 48
      +2
      Quote: Seneca
      I have been to Yasnaya Polyana several times .. and I remember how it flashed at the gidsha (I didn’t listen too much) “even the Germans were very careful about the estate during the occupation”. The German cemetery was not near the grave ... but near the Voronka River, which is four kilometers from the grave.
      And perhaps this is the key ... and it is clear who the real marauders are "And in Yasnaya Polyana, meanwhile, they were waiting for the enemy to advance. The Red Army men settled in the estate."
      You have to understand .. it was 41 when the German had already crushed millions of Soviet troops .. and these small working peasant guys .. sat and waited for their same fate and they did not care that they defecated and broke furniture for heating in Tolstoy’s rooms. And those who allocated them a position for defense there, too, didn’t care .. because behind Moscow it was necessary to defend Stalin and fie for everything. So the words of Guderian are not in doubt.
      Well, well, this is your opinion ..... Seneca ... minus mine ... where did you come from under such a flag ?? As a child in 70, I saw a photo of a looted and desecrated estate ... and I don’t believe that my grandfathers a hand would rise to its history .. I admit that the article inaccuracy the German cemetery may have been where you say .... but otherwise knowing that we were considered Untermensch and how the Germans behaved with us .. the article is true .... and the veil of Guderian to listen, disrespect yourself!
  8. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 18 December 2015 16: 27
    +3
    Dear forum users! When I wrote about the actions of my contemporaries, I deliberately did not concretize them. I did not want to leave the topic of the article, I am also upset at what is happening now, in our time. Buddha statues in Afghanistan were lost, huge losses were Syria. Honestly, I didn’t know about Stepashin, but I had in mind the woeful events in Russian libraries. I also do not write details, because revelation of the current vandals (foreign and Russian) is sidetracking, and I myself love Books. It can be added that I often attend different lectures and have repeatedly heard that the greatest damages, destruction, loss of valuable objects of worship in our country occurred in relation to Orthodox churches and Buddhist temples (Datsans) in the 60s of the last century (and not shortly after the Revolution, as many people think and as I once thought).
    Sincerely.
    1. Ivan Tartugai
      Ivan Tartugai 18 December 2015 19: 21
      +1
      "... I deliberately did not specify them."
      Writing at all is an empty lesson. As for the woeful event in the library of the Russian Academy of Sciences, there is a specific person there, namely the director of the library of the INION RAS, doctor of political sciences, professor, academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Honorary President of the Russian Association of Political Science (RAPN) Pivovarov U.S. He is to blame for the fire, he is to blame for the loss of a huge mass of valuable books, research reports, historical documents of about five million units. Maybe he is not the only one to blame, there may still be those guilty, his assistants, but he is most to blame.
      And to say that the inhabitants of the country are to blame, it means smearing the guilt of specific people, of the same Stepashin, of the same Pikhoy, of the same Pivovarov, to all the inhabitants of the country.
  9. Seneca
    Seneca 18 December 2015 22: 26
    0
    Quote: Lone Wolf
    Quote: Seneca
    I have been to Yasnaya Polyana several times .. and I remember how it flashed at the gidsha (I didn’t listen too much) “even the Germans were very careful about the estate during the occupation”. The German cemetery was not near the grave ... but near the Voronka River, which is four kilometers from the grave.
    And perhaps this is the key ... and it is clear who the real marauders are "And in Yasnaya Polyana, meanwhile, they were waiting for the enemy to advance. The Red Army men settled in the estate."
    You have to understand .. it was 41 when the German had already crushed millions of Soviet troops .. and these small working peasant guys .. sat and waited for their same fate and they did not care that they defecated and broke furniture for heating in Tolstoy’s rooms. And those who allocated them a position for defense there, too, didn’t care .. because behind Moscow it was necessary to defend Stalin and fie for everything. So the words of Guderian are not in doubt.
    Well, well, this is your opinion ..... Seneca ... minus mine ... where did you come from under such a flag ?? As a child in 70, I saw a photo of a looted and desecrated estate ... and I don’t believe that my grandfathers a hand would rise to its history .. I admit that the article inaccuracy the German cemetery may have been where you say .... but otherwise knowing that we were considered Untermensch and how the Germans behaved with us .. the article is true .... and the veil of Guderian to listen, disrespect yourself!

    I emphasize again, it was 41 years old ... and there was no counteroffensive yet ... there were only one defeat and surrender of the territories. It is completely natural ... that the soldiers of the Red Army ... they thought it would all the same go to the Germans ... and the locals and employees of this but the estates also thought ... and acted accordingly. When the Germans arrived .. that they treated this museum as the property of Germany .. and accordingly why bust it (Moscow is about to fall and the war will end) .. So many have to do with the general pogrom of Yasnaya Polyana .. and write off everything Germans at least biased.
    1. Rivares
      Rivares 19 December 2015 01: 47
      +1
      Quote: Seneca
      . Quite naturally ... that the soldiers of the Red Army ... thought so, it would all the same go to the Germans ... and the locals and employees of the same estate also thought ... and acted accordingly

      Did you personally ask them what they thought?
      Quote: Seneca
      When the Germans came .. that they treated this museum as a property of Germany .. and accordingly why bust it

      You and the Germans also asked what they thought?
      You will not succeed in exposing the enemy here as highly cultured. Can you still try to wash the Germans from experiments on children from the captured families of Soviet officers and political workers?
    2. Ivan Tartugai
      Ivan Tartugai 19 December 2015 05: 24
      +2
      "When the Germans came ... they treated this museum as the property of Germany ... and, accordingly, why should it be ruined (Moscow is about to fall and the war will end)."
      The Yasnaya Polyana Museum is a museum of a Russian writer, a representative of Russian culture. According to the ideological principles of the fascists, vandals, scum of the 30rd Reich, Russian culture did not have the right to exist, as the culture of the lower race of inferior people, people of the second grade Untermensch. Therefore, the soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht were laid down, it was hammered into their brains that Russian culture should be destroyed. There should not be museums of Russian culture, there should not be Russian writers. The Germans would have destroyed the estate with all its contents unambiguously, would have razed it to the ground, just in that period of time from October 15 to December 1941, XNUMX they did not have the time or the strength. For these months and a half, they only needed a museum-estate as a room, a roof over their heads for temporary accommodation of any services, for recreation, barracks, a hospital, etc.