Among the residents of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, the name "Dziomgi" is primarily associated with the Leninsky urban district, as Komsomol residents call this area of the city among themselves. The very same word "Dzemgi" is of Nanai origin and is translated as "Birch Grove". Prior to the construction of the city in 1932, there was a camp for the native inhabitants of the Amur Region, the Nanais, in this area.
The purpose of building a new Far East city on the bank of the Amur was the creation of a large military-industrial center and the development of sparsely populated areas. At the design stage, in the area of the village of Permskoe, on the site of which the city began to be built, it was planned to build an aviation, shipbuilding and metallurgical works (Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association).
Initially, the site for the construction of aircraft plant number XXUMX, despite warnings from the local population, was chosen poorly. The high autumn flood of 126 of the year partially destroyed the stored building materials and flooded the foundation pit prepared for laying the foundation of the main building and the runway of the aerodrome under construction.
The management of the construction site made the appropriate conclusions and moved the new factory site and the runway to a higher place 5 km north of the previous location.
A great contribution to the construction of the plant, and the whole of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, was made by military builders. They began to arrive at the end of 1934, some of them, in the absence of a transport connection, in winter time reached the construction site on skis on the ice of Cupid. Anyone who is familiar with the Far Eastern climate will certainly appreciate this feat without exaggeration, moreover, the distance between Komsomolsk-on-Amur and Khabarovsk is approximately 400 km.
By the end of 1935, the builders erected several main and auxiliary workshops, after which the installation of the equipment began. Simultaneously, preparations were made for the assembly of aircraft. The first aircraft built in 1936 in Komsomolsk was the long-range reconnaissance aircraft P-6 (ANT-7), designed by A.N. Tupolev. This aircraft had a lot in common with the first Soviet all-metal twin-engined monoplane TB-1 bomber. By the standards of the end of the 30-s, the P-6 was certainly considered obsolete, but it allowed the Far Eastern aircraft manufacturers to accumulate the necessary experience. By the time of readiness for departure of the first P-6 built, the take-off factory line was not yet finished. Therefore, for testing, the plane was equipped with floats and took off from the water surface of the Amur River.
Unfortunately, we could not find exact data regarding the date of commissioning of the factory runway. Most likely this happened in the second half of 1936. In any case, most of the P-6 aircraft built in Komsomolsk had a wheeled chassis. In total, by the end of 1937, 20 machines were assembled at the factory. The few remaining at the factory P-6 in 1938 were used when performing regular flights between Komsomolsk-on-Amur and Khabarovsk. At the end of 30-x on Dzemgi he began acting Aero Club, where there were four aircraft On-2.
In May, the 1936 of the year the factory received instructions to start the production of long-range bombers designed by S.V. Ilyushin DB-3, in those times it was a fairly perfect aircraft, corresponding to the level of foreign analogues. Despite numerous objective and subjective difficulties in 1938, the factory team was able to deliver military aircraft 30. In 1939, the factory already built 100 bombers. In the first months of the year 1941 the construction of torpedo-3T DB and DB-3PT. In the future, there was a gradual transition to the production of DB-3F (IL-4).
Monument IL-4 on the territory of the plant
During the war years, the production capacity of the aircraft factory and labor productivity at the enterprise increased significantly. The annual volume of aircraft handed over during this period increased by more than 2,5 times, while the number of workers remained at the pre-war level. Total plant number 126 in Komsomolsk-on-Amur put the front of the 2757 IL-4 bombers.
In the middle of 1945 of the year, in connection with the transition to the “peaceful rails”, preparations began to master the serial production of the Li-2 aircraft. This aircraft was a Soviet licensed version of the American transport and passenger aircraft DC-3 (C-47) of the company "Douglas". The first batch of aircraft was released in 1947 year. In two years, a total built aircraft Lee 435-2, 15 of which - in the passenger version.
At the end of 1947, the MiG-15 jet fighter first flew into the air. This aircraft, which later became widely known, was created in the design bureau A.I. Mikoyan and M.I. Gurevich. In 1949, preparations for its construction began at the aircraft plant in Komsomolsk.
In 1952, the series launched a more advanced MiG-17. Establishing production of fighter jets required qualitative upgrade of production capacity aircraft factory, large-scale construction of new production facilities and reconstruction of existing ones. The delivery of MiG-17F fighters abroad has become the export debut of the plant.
By that time, the factory runway no longer met modern requirements. For testing and normal operation of modern jet-winged vehicles, a hard-surfaced runway was required. The construction of the concrete runway coincided in time with the beginning of the process of mastering the production of a new supersonic aircraft of the PO PO Design Bureau Dry.
In the spring of 1958, the first supersonic Su-7 was handed over to military acceptance. The commencement of the production of Su-brand combat vehicles came with great difficulties, which the factory’s team overcame with honor. During the mass production of the Su-7 developed 15 modifications of this aircraft. The most widespread fighter bomber Su-7B and Su-7BM. In 1964, their exports began.
Evolutionary line of development of the Su-7 has become a fighter-bomber with a variable geometry of the wing Su-17. The variable sweep wing made it possible to improve the landing characteristics and select the optimum sweep depending on the flight profile, but at the same time such a scheme significantly complicated the design of the aircraft.
Su-17 assembly line
Construction of various modifications of the Su-17 for the USSR Air Force and export variants of the Su-20, Su-22, Su-22M at the plant, which became known as Komsomolsky-on-Amur aviation plant them. Yu.A. Gagarin ”lasted until the beginning of the 90s. In parallel with the production of fighter-bombers, the plant was assembling anti-ship cruise missiles P-6 and Amethyst for arming submarines. By cooperation, the tail parts of the fuselage with plumage and the rotary parts of the wing for the Su-24 were delivered to Novosibirsk.
In 1984, deliveries of the serial Su-27 began. One of the first Su-27 fighters began to master the pilots of the 60-iap. This fighter air regiment, covering Komsomolsk-on-Amur for a long time, shared the runway with the plant.
The first I-16 fighters appeared on the Dzyomga in the 1939 year, then this fighter aviation unit was part of the 31 th aviation brigade. At the beginning of 1945, the regiment was completely re-equipped with Yak-9 fighters. During the Soviet-Japanese war, the pilots of the Dzerom air regiment took part in the Sungarii offensive and the South-Sakhalin operations.
In 1951, the regiment finally switched from piston fighters to jet MiG-15. In the first half of 1955, they were replaced by MiG-17 fighters, which soon added to the patrolling interceptor Yak-25 fighters with the Emerald radar.
In the 1969 year, the 60-iap was reequipped with supersonic Su-15 interceptors that had flown from Dzemgi airfield for about 20 years. In the 70-ies, the Yak-28P interceptors were based on the Dzomgi for a while, but it was not possible to establish whether they belonged to the 60-iap or other aviation units. In any case, at the beginning of the 90-x at the storage base, located at the airfield Khurba under Komsomolsk, there were Yak-28P.
Despite the fact that the 60 th iap switched to the Su-27 one of the first, the Su-15 fighter-interceptors on the Dzyomga were used as early as the 1990 year. Particularly impressive were the night flights, when the Su-15, taking off in the afterburner with jets of flame beating from jet engines, literally sank into the dark sky like rockets. Shortly before the decommissioning of the Su-15, it was possible to observe very complex aerobatic maneuvers that the pilots spun on vehicles suitable for conducting an agile air combat, not far from the airfield — over the Old Platform and the Amur River.
In August, 2001 of the year, during the regular reforming of the armed forces, the 60 th fighter regiment was merged with the 3rd-level Kutuzov Order III Fighter Regiment of 404. As a result of the unification, the 23 th "Tallinn" Fighter Aviation Order of the Kutuzov Third Class was formed, based on the Dzyomgi airfield. 23 th iap became the head for many new and upgraded cars brand "Su".
The aircraft Su-27 became the base for the whole family of single and double fighters such as Su-27SK, 27SKM Su-Su-33, 27SM Su-Su-30MK, 30MK2 Su-Su-30M2, Su-35S. Machines created on the basis of the Su-27, were widely exported and are currently the main fighter of the Russian Air Force. Specialists of the Komsomolsk aircraft factory made a great contribution to the establishment of Su-27SK production in the PRC, at an aircraft factory in Shenyang.
In 90-s at the Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aviation Plant named after Yu.A. Gagarin, in the framework of the defense industry conversion program, work began on civil aviation topics. Prior to that, combat aircraft were considered the main products of the enterprise, and for the population, Amur boats, bicycles and washing machines were produced.
In September 2001 of the year made the first flight of the Su-80. At the design stage, it was assumed that in the passenger version it would replace the Yak-40 and An-24 on local airlines, and in the An-26 cargo airline.
Advantages of the turboprop Su-80 are considered to be good take-off and landing characteristics and the ability to fly from unequipped airfields. This allowed to operate the Su-80 from unprepared airfields and short, including unpaved lanes. If necessary, it was possible to quickly convert from the passenger version to the cargo version. Su-80 was supposed to provide an acceptable by modern standards level of comfort for passengers and high transport efficiency of air transportation with minimal operating costs. If necessary, the aircraft could be used as a light military transport or patrol. The presence of a cargo ramp on the Su-80 allows for the transportation of automotive vehicles and standard aircraft containers.
The Su-80 aircraft passed factory acceptance tests at KnAAPO and was preparing for transfer to the OKB for development tests, but soon the program was stopped. According to the official version, this is due to the use of imported components and assemblies - American-made engines and French generators. But it seems that Su-80 has become uninteresting to the plant and developer due to the preparation for production, promising great benefits, the short-haul passenger aircraft Sukhoi Superjet 100.
The same fate befell the light amphibious aircraft Be-103. Its production continued from 1997 to 2004 year. Several cars of this type have been sold to the USA and Canada. At the moment, the release of the Be-103 is terminated, and all work on it is minimized. On the territory of the plant is still 16 amphibians, which did not find a buyer.
19 May 2008 of the year from the runway of the airfield Dzemgi for the first time took off the short-haul passenger aircraft Sukhoi Superjet 100. It was developed by Sukhoi Civil Aircraft (GSS) with the participation of foreign companies Thales, PowerJet and B / E Aerospace. The share of foreign components in this aircraft is very large.
Aircraft Sukhoi Superjet 100 at the Dzemgi airfield during the celebration of the aviation plant's 80 anniversary (photo of the author).
In 2011, deliveries of the airliner began to Russian and foreign customers. Currently, more than 100 Superjet-100 units have been produced.
In January 2013, the aircraft plant as a branch of the company entered into the company "Sukhoi" and became known as the branch of the company "Sukhoi" "Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aviation Plant named after Yu.A. Gagarin "(KnAAZ). Over the years, the plant has built more than 12 000 airplanes for various purposes on it. Since the beginning of 60-ies, the company has been the main producer of Su-brand combat aircraft. Along with the production of new equipment at KnAAZ, repairs and upgrading of previously produced vehicles, which were in service with the fighter aviation regiments of the Air Force and Russian Navy, are underway.
Over the past ten years, several dozen capitally repaired and modernized Su-27CMs have been transferred to the troops. Su-27CM3 fighters were built on the basis of export Su-27SK. Unlike the Su-27С and Su-27П fighters, which initially entered our Air Force, the upgraded Su-27СМ and Su-27СМ3 fighters have a more sophisticated weapon control system and new radar aiming system and an optical-electronic aiming system. These airplanes are equipped with multi-functional monitors, a display system on the windshield and a new helmet-mounted target designation system. Upgraded fighters are able to use air-to-surface guided weapons, including anti-ship missiles. Su-27M3 has a reinforced airframe design and new AL-31F-М1 engines with 13 500 kgf thrust. Before the advent of the Su-35S, the Su-27CM and Su-27CM3 fighters were the most advanced single-seat combat vehicles in the Russian Air Force.
Su-27SM fighter at the Dzemgi airfield (author photo)
Since 2002, KnAAZ underwent repair and modernization of nineteen Su-33 carrier-based fighter aircraft, which are part of the air group (279th kiap) of the currently only Russian aircraft carrier Admiral fleet Soviet Union Kuznetsov. " In the future, it is planned to modernize several more Su-33s.
By deep modernization on the basis of a combat training Su-27UB, a double fighter Su-30 was created. This aircraft, compared with the Su-27, has a greater flight range and more advanced avionics. The following modifications were made on KnAAZ: Su-30MK, Su-30МК2, Su-30МКК, Su-30МКВ, Su-30МК2-V, Su-30М2. All options, except the last, are export. As of the end of 2014, the X-NUMX of the Su-16-30 fighters was delivered to the Russian Air Force.
In October, the 2008 of the year, the Su-35С fighter, built on KnAAZ in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, took off the airfield of Dzyomgi. In 2009, the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation ordered the 48 Su-35С multifunctional fighter jets.
Largely repeated история thirty years ago with the commissioning and fine-tuning of the Su-27 fighter. The Fighter Aviation Regiment, based at the Dzyomgi airfield, again became the headquarters when the new fighter was commissioned. This is justified, given that the manufacturing plant is located within walking distance. If necessary, this makes it possible to repair and rework the still “raw” Su-35С in the factory, with the participation of representatives of the design bureau.
Su-35S fighters at the Dzemgi airfield (author photo)
The Su-35С fighters built by 2010-2013, which are in service with the 23-iap on Dzemgas, have a two-tone color scheme with a blue bottom and a dark gray top. Su-35C is a further development option for the Su-27 fighter. During its creation, the long-term operating experience of the Su-27 was taken into account and the combat capabilities were significantly increased. The glider of the Su-35С fighter compared to the Su-27 is enhanced and the volume of fuel tanks increased. The new fighter has an advanced information command system, a radar with a passive HEADLIGHT of the H035 Irbis, as well as new AL-41F1 engines with a plasma ignition system and thrust vector control.
At the end of January, the Dzomog 2010 for the first time took off a fifth-generation prototype of the PAK FA T-50 fighter built on the KnAAZ. At present, nine flight prototypes and two samples for passing ground and strength tests have been built for testing.
Satellite image of Google earth: aircraft T-50 on the territory of KnAAZ
Thus, the runway and infrastructure of the Dzemgi airfield are actively used by both the aircraft building plant and the fighter regiment. As part of the aviation park KnAAZ there are airplanes: Tu-154, An-12, Su-80, Be-103. Until recently, the plant operated explosives Su-17UM3, used for training purposes. A remarkable fact is that the Su-17 fighter-bombers of all modifications were officially decommissioned by the Russian Air Force at the end of the 90's. The maintenance of the Su-17UM3 in flight, the production of which was completed at the Komsomolsk aircraft factory more than 25 years ago, was possible due to the availability of qualified technical personnel and a large stock of spare parts.
Satellite image of Google earth: aircraft parking in KnAAZ
The 23-iap has fighters in service: Su-27CM, Su-30М2 and Su-35С. In November 2015, as part of the implementation of the state defense order, the next batch of Su-35С was transferred to the military. According to the plans of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation to the beginning of 2016, the 23 of the IAP at the Dzemgi airfield should be: 16 Su-27CM, 3 Su-30М2 and 24 Su-35С.
Satellite image of Google earth: 23 th iap airplanes at Dzomgi airfield
Aviation holidays are regularly held on the airfield, where various types of aircraft are shown and demonstration flights are conducted.
Exhibition of aviation technology during the celebration of the 80 anniversary of the aviation plant (photo of the author)
The last one is dedicated to the celebration of the 80 anniversary of the Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aviation Factory 16 August 2014 (Aviation celebration dedicated to the 80 anniversary of the Komsomolsk-on-Amur aviation plant).
During the demonstration flights there was an incident that could well end in an accident or even a disaster. Su-35S, belonging to the 23-iap b / n 08 "red", when landing due to an error, the pilot touched the tip of the wing of the concrete runway. Fortunately, everything went without serious consequences, and many viewers did not even understand what had happened.
Unfortunately, not all the aviation technology incidents at the Dzyomga aerodrome ended so well. October 19 The X-NUMX of the year An-1987BK, which belonged to KnAAPO, crashed while trying to take off in difficult weather conditions. As it was established by the commission that conducted the investigation, the main causes of the disaster were poor-quality cleaning of the runway from snow and overload of the aircraft. During takeoff, a strong fair wind was blowing, visibility due to the dark time of day was limited.
As a result, the plane, having broken away from the runway at the very end of it, touched the landing gear struts for the antennas of the radio engineering equipment of the airfield and, having collected the fence, crashed into the garage in which there were vehicles-tankers, and then exploded. The crash killed 5 crew members and passenger 4.
Relatively recently, 27 on April 2009, during taxiing and speedy jogging, left the band and encountered a prototype Su-35. As a result of the accident, the plane was completely destroyed and burned. The test pilot managed to eject and was not injured. Fortunately, this incident had no significant effect on the timing of the tests and the process of launching into mass production.
According to the register of the Federal Agency of Air Transport, Dzyomgi airfield is classified as international. It is equipped with two short-range navigation stations (RSBN), a course-heading system 1 category, surveillance radars, light-signal systems. The runway dimensions are 2480 × 80 m. The airfield can receive almost all types of aircraft up to the An-124 “Ruslan” inclusive.
The airfield of joint basing Dzomgi played, and will no doubt continue to play a large role in ensuring the defense capability of our country. Its value increased especially after the "reforming" and "giving a new look" to the armed forces were "optimized" a significant number of aviation units and eliminated about half of the military airfields in the Far East.