Military Review

Can Turkey close the straits: the word to the sea wolves

64
Can Turkey close the straits: the word to the sea wolves



The sharp exacerbation of Russian-Turkish relations, caused by the death of 24 on November 2015 of the Russian Su-24M front-line bomber from a Turkish fighter missile, caused the world media to start talking about the problem of the Black Sea straits again. The domestic mass media did not pass by the theme of the Bosporus with the Dardanelles.

“Turks can close the straits for Russia!”, “Ankara is conducting exercises to block the Bosporus!”, “The Ottomans blocked the way to the Mediterranean Sea!”, “Russian vessels that do not allow to enter the straits accumulated at the entrance to the Bosphorus!” a selection of headlines that have appeared on the pages of domestic newspapers and Internet resources for the last week.

The problems that await Russia in the event of a ban on the use of straits are obvious. First of all, it is the impossibility of transporting important cargoes from the Black Sea ports abroad - our grain, metal, fertilizers, oil, as well as a significant increase in the supply arm of the group of our videoconferencing in Syria.

Over these nuances, as well as over the very possibility of closing the straits for us, experts have been constantly breaking their spears for the past week with varying degrees of authority: from professional lawyers to so-called couch experts. Federal Agency News decided to ask questions about the straits not to theorists, but to practices. That is, to the sailors.

How our navy goes through the straits

- Is it possible to briefly comment on the significance for the Russian Federation of the Black Sea Straits and the procedure for the passage of our warships through them?

Pavel Vishnyakov, captain of the 1 rank of the reserve, in the past - the flagship navigator of the 130-th brigade of anti-submarine ships, deputy chief of staff of the 2-th division of anti-submarine ships in combat training:

- I think in our time the straits have already lost their strategic importance. But of course, they still lock the Black Sea Fleet in the Black Sea. Our ships walk through this narrowness in a notification order. This procedure provides for notification of the Turkish authorities about the passage of at least one day. At the headquarters of the Black Sea Fleet, they have already bypassed this matter a long time ago by submitting a daily notice of a standard pattern, including in it all ships of the first line of constant readiness and ships engaged in combat service in the Mediterranean. The application indicates the name and the side number of the ship.

- Under what circumstances can the straits, in accordance with the Convention on the Regime of the Black Sea Straits, be closed to the passage of Russian warships and civilian vessels?

- If we talk about merchant ships, then in accordance with articles 4, 5 of the Convention, this question arises when Turkey is a belligerent. In short, the courts of a country fighting with Turkey will not be allowed to pass through the straits. Ships of non-warring countries pass the straits only during the day and along the paths determined in each individual case.

There is an interesting formulation of the status of Turkey as a state “that considers itself under threat of military danger” (article 6). When this status is declared, the regime is tightened as follows: pilotage is obligatory, passage only along designated paths. How this relates to the courts of the country that is the source of the military threat is not defined by the Convention.

The restrictions imposed on the passage of warships also depend on the status of Turkey in the war. So, if Turkey is not a belligerent, then there are no obstacles to the passage of ships of the warring countries. Although vague language related to the obligations of Turkey under treaties on mutual assistance, may serve as a basis for toughening the passage of military ships.

In the event Turkey is a belligerent, Article 20 of the Convention gives it the right to regulate (prohibit) the passage of warships of any power, Black or non-Black Sea, at its own discretion without additional explanations and overtures. The same right arises in her case of "the threat of immediate military danger."

- This is about article 21 of the Convention. It says that Turkey can close the straits in case of the very “threat of immediate military danger” for itself. But if at the same time the ships of our Black Sea fleet If they are inside the straits or in the Mediterranean, then the Turks will be obliged to give them the opportunity to return to the Black Sea. More precisely, they will be obliged to do this if the UN Security Council votes for it. So?

- Yes sir.

- Accordingly, if the States at the same time impose a veto on the result of the vote, the Turks with a clear conscience on the article 21 spit?

- It turns out, so.

Is it possible to close the straits bypassing the Convention

- Does Turkey have the opportunity, without violating the Convention, but without declaring war on Russia, to close the straits for us for a sufficiently long time? For example, declaring a medical quarantine or staging a state of emergency on the fairway, the consequences of which will have to be eliminated for a long time: oil spills, environmental hazards, etc.?


Ivan Anisimov, in the past - a PDSS swimmer (anti-sabotage forces and means) and a steering signal-gunner atomic underwater "Pikes" of the 671-RTMK project:

- Quarantine, according to the Convention, is no reason to ban the passage of the straits. There, under article 3, there is simply a requirement to take on board the medical overseers during the passage. If we talk about the state of emergency ... In the case of an emergency, you will have to block the straits for everyone. Or you will have to admit that the abovementioned state of emergency is dangerous only for Russian courts, which is nonsense.

Yevgeny Irza, captain of the 1 reserve rank, in the past - the commander of the 2 th division of anti-submarine ships of the Northern Fleet:

- If desired, the Turks, of course, can do anything. Without declaring war, close the straits, come up with some kind of environmental disaster, etc. But we need a credible reason. If the “catastrophe”, then such that was “dangerous” for all, and not just for Russia. What does it mean to close the fairway? This means that no one will pass. And how then to be with the passage of NATO ships to the Black Sea? .. No, if they decide to close, then, rather, with the help of legal casuistry.

Pavel Vishnyakov:


- I would share the answer. On the one hand, merchant ships may be restricted in the passage in cases where it is necessary to stop at the sanitary station and take on board the medical overseer. It is easy to imagine a situation where there will be no such, which will be politely reported on the 16 channel. In case of doubts about the cleanliness of the sanitary patent or the validity of the sanitary declaration, the time can be prolonged indefinitely, despite the reference to the “maximum possible speed” of the sanitary inspection.

On the other hand, there are several conditions for the unimpeded passage of warships. We will not dwell on the limitations of the total tonnage and the number of ships that are simultaneously in the straits (up to nine) - with the current state of the Black Sea Fleet it is almost impossible to break these restrictions. The main condition, the fulfillment of which is strictly and strictly monitored by the Turks, is the timely and complete forewarning of the Turkish authorities. It is served diplomatically and contains information about the destination, names, type and number of ships, as well as the date of passage in the original direction, and if possible, on return. A change in the date of passage must be notified at least three days in advance.

The date of passage is valid for five days, that is, by announcing the date of passage on December 10, we can go through December 11, 12, 13, and 14. When approaching the straits, the squad leader without stopping notifies the station of the exact number of squad ships. When passing, ships are prohibited from using Aviation and exceed the passage time. In the case of the presence of plague, cholera, yellow fever, typhus and smallpox on board, the necessary preventive measures should be applied by ship's means, which exclude the possibility of infection of the straits.

It is obvious that the possibilities of the Turkish side to restrict the transit and navigation of the Russian side to the Russian side are limited by the provisions of the Montreux Convention.

And now about unconventional restrictions. Back in 1982, Turkey unilaterally announced the Regulations of the Port of Istanbul, extending it to the whole zone of the straits. After the objections of a number of countries, the Turks declared it valid only for Turkish ships and foreign ships entering Turkish ports located in the straits.

In 90, the Turkish government repeatedly tried to restrict the passage of oil tankers through the straits, forcing Russia and other countries in the region to accept the transportation of Caspian oil through pipelines laid across Turkey.

In 1994, Turkey submitted to the session of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) a document “Regulation of maritime navigation in the straits of Turkey and the Marmara Sea region” (Regulations on Navigation in the Straits). This document is based on the requirements of international conventions and the Istanbul 1994 Port Regulations. As a result of a wide discussion, he was voted out. However, this did not prevent Turkey from 1 July 1994. Unilaterally introduce new rules for regulating shipping in the Black Sea straits, according to the above-mentioned document.

These rules provide the right of the Turkish authorities to suspend navigation in the straits during construction work, including underwater drilling, fire fighting, research and sports activities, acts of rescue and assistance, measures to prevent and eliminate the pollution of the marine environment, operations to investigate crimes and accidents and in other similar cases, as well as the right of the Turkish authorities to introduce compulsory pilotage where they deem necessary.

Turkish innovations touched, firstly, ships longer than 200 m - they must pass the straits during daylight hours and always with the Turkish pilot (these are, as a rule, tankers or military ships of the Russian Navy). Secondly, the Turkish authorities had the right to inspect merchant ships, primarily tankers, for compliance with national and international operational and environmental standards. Thirdly, fines and other sanctions were imposed for non-compliance with these standards - up to sending the vessel back, parking restrictions (refueling) in the adjacent ports, etc. Fourth, for problem ships and cargo, the cost of pilotage and port parking was increased repeatedly.

In addition, in 1998, Turkey unilaterally introduced new rules for navigation in the straits, which provide for significant restrictions on the transit of large oil-loading vessels.

It should be noted that these rules reflect Turkey’s desire to revise the fundamental concept of “international straits” and replace it in relation to the Black Sea straits to the status of internal and even intra-port waters. In particular, instead of the names “Bosphorus Strait” and “Dardanelles Strait” in the Regulations the names “Strait of Istanbul” and “Strait of Canakkale” are used.

It should be noted that the ships and vessels of the Russian Navy never fulfilled the requirements of these unilateral documents regarding mandatory pilotage, but we had to agree with the requirement of passage of the straits during daylight — the reaction of the Turkish side to attempts to non-compliance was extremely acute ...

In October 2002, the Turkish authorities announced a new instruction on the application of the rules of navigation. The concept of “vessel with dangerous cargo” appeared and the need to notify about its passage in 72 hours, as well as the 9 rule of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 of the Year (sailing in narrowness), fully and completely corresponding to the theater of the Black Sea Strait Zone, was excluded from the navigation mode . In return, the Turkish side applied the 10 (b) rule - navigation in traffic separation systems, designed for circumstances that preclude navigational hazards (shoals, critical proximity to shores, etc.). In addition, it declares the possibility of restricting the movement of all ships and ships for reasons other than force majeure, for example, in connection with sports events.

Summarizing, we can say that the domestic legislation of Turkey allows the country's leadership to impede, and in some cases restrict the transit movement in the Black Sea straits of both the merchant ships of Russia and its warships. The abolition of these restrictions in each specific case will be associated with intense diplomatic and military-diplomatic activities, and this can be delayed for a very tangible time - up to several days. Violation of the requirements of the Montreux Convention will be condemned by the world community, but only that.

- Would it be correct to assume that Turkey mentioned regulations and other internal documents came into conflict with the UN Convention on International Law of the Sea?


- Yes, I did. But she did not sign it.

Possible provocations of the Turks


- So, Turkey has a hypothetical opportunity, without violating the Montreux Convention, but without declaring war on Russia, to make it difficult for our ships to move in the strait zone. And even these straits for us to close. Will Turkey, in your opinion, realize this opportunity in case of further aggravation of Russian-Turkish relations?

Ivan Anisimov:


- Of course. I believe that the media hype around this issue was inspired by the Turks, in order to test the public reaction to the possible closure of the straits.

Pavel Vishnyakov:


“I consider such actions of Turkey absolutely real. Even in the context of political rapprochement that began in the 90s after many years of confrontation in the Cold War, Turkey did not miss the opportunity to impede the passage of the Russian Navy ship, which I repeatedly witnessed. The former commander-in-chief of the Navy, Felix Gromov, paid an official visit to Turkey in 1993, one of the main goals of which was precisely consultations related to these difficulties. When he shared his personal impressions of this event, one could understand that the goals of these consultations were not achieved.

- Did the Turkish official representatives then stumble upon the cabin of our ship for a portrait of Admiral Ushakov, who had repeatedly beat the Turks, and were presented with a model of the Russian brig "Mercury", famous for, in battle with the Turks?

- I would not say that it was an otvetka ... Rather, a coincidence of random circumstances. But it was, yes.

- How great, in your opinion, is the probability of Turkish provocations against Russian warships and civilian ships passing the straits at the moment? If it is great, then what can these provocations be expressed in? Delay of permission to pass the straits, dangerous maneuvering with the threat of a collision, the requirement to take an inspection party on board a civilian vessel? ..

Ivan Anisimov:


- Very large. All the Turkish authorities you mentioned have already done before. Or tried to do. And not even in a period of strained relations, as it is now.

- Well yes. I remember that 10 on April 2003 of the year, when passing through the straits with our large landing ship "Caesar Kunikov", a boat of the Turkish coast guard blocked his path in front of Ataturk Bridge. After that, the Turks demanded from BDK to stop the course and present the ship for inspection. That is, the Ottomans aimed to conduct a search of a warship of a foreign state, which, of course, was already beyond the bounds ... The commander of the BDK captain 2 of the rank Sergey Sinkin played alarm. On deck lay down with weapons Our marines are at the ready, and the nasal 57-mm "Spark" took the boat on sight. After that, without changing the course, "Kunikov" went to the ram. Here the Turks' nerves could not stand it, and they fled, clearing the fairway. However, let's return to the question of possible Turkish provocations.

Pavel Vishnyakov:


- Separate the concept of "provocation" and "difficulties." The difficulties, as I have already said, will be organized on the basis of the above-mentioned norms of Turkish legislation, not recognized by IMO and the international community. This is expected and calculated. I think that certain compensating actions, which have both technical and organizational nature, have already been adopted and implemented. For example, the transfer of civilian dry cargo ships that are transported according to the plans of operation of the HQS in Syria falls under the category of auxiliary ships of the Navy, which, in accordance with Article 10 of the Convention, extends to them the legal status of a warship in terms of the passage rules of the pouring zone. Delay of permission to pass - this, apparently, should be attributed to “difficulties” as categories of violations of the legal regime of the straits established by the Montreux Convention. And it is the delay that is quite likely to be realized without explaining the reasons both at the stage of document flow, that is, upon receiving a formal notification of receipt of the advance notice / application for the passage of warships, and at the stage of approaching the straits and communication with the Turkish station.

Provocations do not have a legal basis, even such dubious, as the Regulations of the Port of Istanbul. Dangerous maneuvering, demands to stop, delay movement for receiving an inspection batch, including flying a helicopter, a drone at unacceptably low altitudes, their hanging on the ship’s course, detecting the work of firing radars of coastal missile and artillery complexes - all this is possible without a doubt. The ships of the Russian Navy have repeatedly encountered such things. There is a wealth of experience, handed down from generation to generation, which allows you to think in advance about the actions in these cases. This experience is realized both in orders, manuals, manuals, and in a verbal form - with briefings of commanders / captains, during shipboard exercises on navigation in narrowness, exercises of calculations "GKP-BIC-navigator".

For example, numerous stories of officers of the Soviet Navy about helicopter provocations by NATO forces, as a rule, ended with a description of a pictorial painting of a rocket launcher shot in the direction of a provocateur, followed by a rather quick retreat. Dangerous maneuvering is fully compensated by the watchful carrying of a signal watch and other activities stipulated in the 155 article of the Navy's Ship Charter, starting with the words “Floating in narrow places, near hazards ...”

Turkish flag on the Russian mast

- Judging by the photos, the ships of our Navy, previously regularly raising the national flag of the host country during the passage of the straits, have now stopped doing this. Is it up to the commander of our ship to lift when passing the straits of the Turkish flag is it voluntary or, according to international laws, mandatory?

Igor Ryabko, captain of rank 1, in the past - the commander of the Russian crew of the aircraft carrier Vikramaditya built in the Russian Federation for India:

- As for the flag, this is marine etiquette and ceremonial. The absence of the Turkish flag on the mast of our ships should be read like this: “You are nobody, and you can’t call you!”

Pavel Vishnyakov:


- Raising the flag of a foreign state by a warship when it is located in the territorial / internal waters of this state is not governed by international maritime law, but is a tradition, the observance of which is not necessary. In cases where the ship makes an official visit, this circumstance is specifically negotiated through military-diplomatic channels.

On alert # 1

- It is clear that during the passage of the straits on Russian warships the service is carried in a reinforced mode. What is this “gain” usually expressed in? Is the number of watches on the upper deck increasing? Is the number of signalers increasing? On the upper deck are exhibited posts from among the marines? Is a combat alert announced? In what? ..

Igor Ryabko:

- Strengthening the protection of the ship - this is the decision of each commander separately, depending on the threats in a particular period of time.

Pavel Vishnyakov:

- The passage of international torrential zones by the ships of the Russian Navy is carried out on alert # 1 in the variant of the ship schedule “Navigation in narrowness”. In accordance with this schedule, the signal watch is amplified, the watch is set up, the watch on the anchors recoil is carried, the reserve and emergency ship control devices are launched. In addition, the so-called "watch of vigilance" is exhibited - all hatches and doors leading to the upper deck from the interior are watch-keeping. Depending on the nature of the (friendly / unfriendly) zones, armed watch crews can be set up on the upper deck, observing the water area around the ship. This may be the Marines, if available on board, or sailors from naval combat units - as a rule, warhead-3 (mine-torpedo warhead). The nature of the alarm - combat or training - is determined by the ship’s commander or the senior on board. The combat service is the fulfillment of a combat mission, therefore the declaration of a combat alarm is quite logical and justified.

Our BDK and watch with MANPADS

- Let's return to the already famous "friendship" with the Turks "Kunikova". More recently, photographs of this BDK passing through the Bosphorus with a crew member armed with MANPADS are posted on the Internet. Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlüt авavusoglu has already declared this a provocation by Moscow and almost an act of aggression by Russia. As far as MANPADS on the superstructure of the ship fits into the regular mode of passage by our warships straits? Does this not violate the Convention on the Regime of the Black Sea Straits?

Ivan Anisimov:

- In the normal mode, it clearly does not fit. If only because earlier this was not noticed on our ships in the straits. But a direct violation of the Montreux Convention watch with MANPADS is also not.

Pavel Vishnyakov:

- The convention does not mention such actions. Directly there is a ban on the use of aircraft from warships. However, such an action (placing a watch on MANPADS) can be interpreted as a violation of generally accepted norms that define the legal status of a warship in the territorial / internal waters of a foreign state, and can be interpreted as a violation of the spirit of the Montreux Convention. It is assumed that the right of innocent passage, implemented, in particular, in the extremely simple order of the warships of the Russian Federation by the Black Sea Straits (under the Montreux Convention), excludes the lifting of the SAM / RK launchers, reversing artillery installations, changing the elevation angle of the guns, feeding bombs to the RBU guides etc. I think that the appearance of the watch with MANPADS in the open at the ready is an oversight of the first maid. He (watch air defense with MANPADS) is always - and not one - but must keep the watch out of the reach of prying eyes.

- The Federal News Agency thanks all the participants in this conversation and wishes you seven feet under the keel!
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64 comments
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  1. Dezinto
    Dezinto 10 December 2015 18: 13 New
    +2
    Turkey affigheet itself from the closure of the strait .....

    Although with this president ... he can also get out again .... request
    1. Uran
      Uran 10 December 2015 18: 13 New
      0
      I don’t see Turkey
      1. SRC P-15
        SRC P-15 10 December 2015 18: 28 New
        +3
        Can Turkey close the straits:

        It can close, but only its mouth on Russia! am
        It is very difficult to calculate the consequences of such a step by Turkey, so Erdogan must first weigh the pros and cons.
        1. SPACE
          SPACE 10 December 2015 19: 05 New
          +3
          Quote: СРЦ П-15
          The consequence of such a step by Turkey is very difficult to calculate,

          Something is possible, in this case the Black Sea will turn into a closed Russian sea.
          Quote: article
          After all, what does it mean to block the fairway? This means that no one will pass. But what about the passage of NATO ships to the Black Sea?

          Quote: DEZINTO
          Turkey affigheet itself from the closure of the strait .....

          Many ofigueyut, only Turkey may not have time ...
          1. _Vladislav_
            _Vladislav_ 10 December 2015 19: 16 New
            13
            Quote: SPACE
            Many ofigueyut, only Turkey may not have time ...

            Yes. Turkey is regionally stronger here. Putting Turkey down with conventional weapons will not work. But nuclear weapons are hardly considered an option at all. On this - this will certainly create a problem. As I understand it, Moscow was sent to the base for this, instead of it, the analogue of the Varyag is now in Syria.

            In any situation, the Varangian easily returns to his base in Primorye.
            We are preparing for this, we must understand.
            If the straits are closed, then the understandable business of the RF Ministry of Defense decided that the Black Sea Fleet should return to base in order to protect the entrusted water area. And I will deal with Turkey already by the forces of the Northern and Pacific fleets - the EU will be required.
            1. severniy
              severniy 10 December 2015 20: 42 New
              11
              extreme measures, but once we could say so ...
              1. bif
                bif 10 December 2015 23: 26 New
                +2
                Quote: severniy
                extreme measures, but once we could say so ...

                This is the question, will the current authorities of the Russian Federation be able to adequately answer in the spirit of Gromyko, or take some countermeasures ?! Or they will express a "strong protest" through the Foreign Ministry.
                1. Gor-1974
                  Gor-1974 11 December 2015 08: 50 New
                  +1
                  Such things are done right away, they shot down an airplane and immediately shot down two in exchange, and the conflict has been settled and ridiculous sanctions have not been introduced, recalling how a year ago, roughly speaking, they undermined European ones with the words “Sanctions are counter-productive and harm both sides of the conflict. In my opinion those who impose sanctions, as the United States and Europe are not going to implement an open aggressive policy, would rather wait for the weather by the sea.
              2. S_last
                S_last 11 December 2015 11: 50 New
                +1
                he never said that. A man whose motto was "Better 10 years of negotiations than one day of war" in principle could not make such statements.
                This supposedly statement first appeared on one of the LifeJournal accounts and the best answer is there ...

                This is all or the vile bourgeois slander to Comrade Gromyko or the Pioneer tale. If the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union were really such a complete idiot to threaten NATO member countries with rockets left and right, the Soviet Union would not be back in the 70s.
            2. Serg koma
              Serg koma 10 December 2015 21: 28 New
              -14
              Quote: _Vladislav_
              I’ll deal with Turkey already by the forces of the Northern and Pacific fleets
              laughing
              Turkey is a NATO member. "Strait of Gibraltar" (Gibraltar naval base) is a geographical concept, I hope you know. So during "showdowns" with Turkey, with a threat to the security of a NATO member, the strait for the passage of the Russian Navy will also most likely be closed / blocked. It remains only to hope that the Turkish fleet itself, to YOU ​​in Kamchatka will arrive for "showdowns", I hope TF will act on YOUR side hi
            3. Rus2012
              Rus2012 11 December 2015 00: 27 New
              -1
              Quote: _Vladislav_
              But nuclear weapons are hardly considered an option at all. On this - this will certainly create a problem. As I understand it, Moscow was sent to the base for this, instead of it, the analogue of the Varyag is now in Syria.

              TNW is not the least considered. "Moskva" has been on duty there since September 2015.
          2. ℳy ℒiƒℯ
            ℳy ℒiƒℯ 10 December 2015 20: 58 New
            -1
            Many ofigueyut, only Turkey may not have time ...


            No one is fucking awesome.
            As always - a strong protest, and go ahead, drive ships through Gibraltar.
        2. Roman 25
          Roman 25 10 December 2015 19: 10 New
          16
          And why should he weigh something?
          According to international law, of course it can’t. But did someone else not understand that when it comes to Russia and its interests, the rules of international law do not apply! For example, the IMF’s literally yesterday’s decision regarding lending to Ukraine (if you remove the word Russia from this multi-way loan, it will be a 1000% default, and if you leave that normal creditworthy state, with little difficulty and a controversial loan ...)
          Something like this am
          1. Aleksander
            Aleksander 10 December 2015 20: 30 New
            +3
            Quote: Roman 25
            And why should he weigh something? According to international law, of course it can’t.


            Exactly. And I’m talking about this, why consider the casuistry of treaties and the illegality of the closure of straits by Turkey? They just stupidly close and that's it! What, sue them? At the UN? Everyone laughs amicably. The situation is very scanty ....
          2. Aleksander
            Aleksander 10 December 2015 20: 30 New
            +1
            Quote: Roman 25
            And why should he weigh something? According to international law, of course it can’t.


            Exactly. And I’m talking about this, why consider the casuistry of treaties and the illegality of the closure of straits by Turkey? They just stupidly close and that's it! What, sue them? At the UN? Everyone laughs amicably. The situation is very scanty ....
      2. Wiruz
        Wiruz 10 December 2015 18: 34 New
        31
        I don’t see Turkey

        Another Russian teacher hanged herself crying
        1. Alexander_
          Alexander_ 10 December 2015 19: 19 New
          0
          Come on.

          Section 154 (not 155)

          154. Sailing in narrowness, near navigational hazards, ...

          According to the Charter, then ships sail.
          1. Aleksey_K
            Aleksey_K 10 December 2015 22: 21 New
            +3
            Quote: Alexander_
            According to the Charter, then ships sail.

            All the same, in Russian, the ships go through narrowness and, at the same time, the ships go sailing. Another thing is the translation of an official international document into Russian. It is possible that the British ships sail, not go. If the original document in English says that the ships are floating, then the exact translation should be - they are floating. Otherwise, when translating from Russian into English when passing through narrownesses, the Turks may not understand or miss you until they express themselves in accordance with the phraseology of the original document. And the passage of the ships will be stopped until you express yourself with the established international phrase.
      3. vladmetro
        vladmetro 11 December 2015 00: 56 New
        +2
        The word "hate" is spelled together.
        And if this post is read by our unloved "brothers" from Turkey?
        Shame on you, learn the Russian language !!!
    2. Denis Obukhov
      Denis Obukhov 10 December 2015 18: 50 New
      12
      And what a photo! a masterpiece of Turkish media thought)))))))))))))) Our servicemen are in a cassock smile
      1. Wiruz
        Wiruz 10 December 2015 19: 07 New
        19
        Our servicemen are in a cassock

        As in that joke: "A young man (to a bully), I'm an Orthodox father. I can even censer **** (embed) laughing
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    3. self-propelled
      self-propelled 10 December 2015 19: 26 New
      +1
      Quote: DEZINTO
      Turkey affigheet itself from the closure of the strait .....

      it all depends on the "+" and "-" when closing the straits.
      (read thesis smile )
      - it seems like there was talk that the Iraqi government asked for help from Russia in the fight against Daesh. it is logical to assume that Russia will not refuse (who will refuse + 10500 to influence in the region ???).
      - Turkish forces are now illegally in Iraq (again, based on statements by the Government of Iraq). and it’s like they’re not going to leave
      - from the above, sooner or later the armed forces of the Russian Federation will face the Turkish (and this will not be a "stab in the back", but a real clash)
      - Accordingly, Turkey will be "in a state of war" (regardless of who it will fight - with Russia (which is unlikely), with Iraq or Syria
      - Russia will de facto be an ally of Iraq (if it accepts Iraq's "invitation" to fight ISIS)
      - Turkey introduces an option with a "threat of imminent military danger" (In the event that Turkey is a belligerent, Article 20 of the Convention gives it the right to regulate (prohibit) the passage of warships of any power - the Black Sea or non-Black Sea - without any further explanation or reverence. The same right arises in case of a “threat of immediate military danger”)
      those. there are options to block the straits (albeit purely hypothetically) for the "Syrian Express". but...
      ... what does Turkey lose in the case of the above scenario?
      - NATO support (and so there is talk of expelling Turkey from the bloc). I don’t think that the United States will openly confront Russia
      - influence in the region (as a conclusion from the above thesis, because in itself (without support) Turkey will not be able (not enough forces) to keep West Asia under control)
      - its energy security (73% of natural gas to Turkey comes from Russia and Iran)

      what Russia loses and gains in the event of such a development of events is difficult to predict (for the Russians have always been strong in improvisation). again, it all depends on the "+" and "-" decisions made ...
    4. Maximars
      Maximars 10 December 2015 19: 58 New
      +1
      Dear forum users, how can Turkey physically close the strait?
      1. Aleksey_K
        Aleksey_K 10 December 2015 22: 28 New
        +4
        Quote: Maximars
        Dear forum users, how can Turkey physically close the strait?

        And how does the traffic police stop some cars on the tracks? A long ship is deployed across in a narrow place and there will be a traffic jam, which will then be very difficult to clear.
    5. dmi.pris
      dmi.pris 10 December 2015 20: 51 New
      0
      What does it affiget with? In any way, the Turks will have support, and all the UN there is no decree for them .. They are trying to bend us ... let's see whose hump grows ...
      Quote: DEZINTO
      Turkey affigheet itself from the closure of the strait .....

      Although with this president ... he can also get out again .... request
  2. MIKHALYCH1
    MIKHALYCH1 10 December 2015 18: 14 New
    46
    Gromyko, our comrade "no", said so modestly in the old days! The Turks immediately calmed down .. (The situation was similar in the Soviet era) Now Russia is more difficult of course, but we hold on!
    1. Vasya_Piterskiy
      Vasya_Piterskiy 10 December 2015 18: 22 New
      +7
      Thoughts converged ...))) I did not know that at one time Andrei Andreevich besieged the Turks.
    2. AlexTires
      AlexTires 10 December 2015 19: 35 New
      +1
      Eh, the days when Gromyko answered the Turks, and "Moscow" wore 0,5 megatons in each launcher ...
    3. Wolka
      Wolka 11 December 2015 05: 53 New
      0
      very opportune and Russia's timely response to the provocations of the Turks ...
  3. Vasya_Piterskiy
    Vasya_Piterskiy 10 December 2015 18: 16 New
    +4
    Turkey can close the strait for us, only we will make a new one for ourselves and it will go through Istanbul.)
    1. MIKHALYCH1
      MIKHALYCH1 10 December 2015 18: 56 New
      +3
      Quote: Vasya_Piterskiy
      Turkey can close the strait for us, only we will make a new one for ourselves and it will go through Istanbul.)

      Istanbul used to be Constantinople (the capital of Byzantium) .. Orthodoxy went from there, but the Ottomans destroyed everything .. And Russia is the followers! Well, something like this, I'm not a historian (they are usually afraid to raise this topic, but still))) hi
      1. Wiruz
        Wiruz 10 December 2015 19: 01 New
        +1
        Volfych had not yet promised that he would celebrate his 80th birthday in Constantinople? No? If promised - that’s all. Turkey sentence has already been signed laughing
        1. MIKHALYCH1
          MIKHALYCH1 10 December 2015 19: 15 New
          0
          Quote: Wiruz
          Volfych had not yet promised that he would celebrate his 80th birthday in Constantinople? No? If promised - that’s all. Turkey sentence has already been signed laughing

          Nearly!... laughing But seriously, the Turks will "shovel off" specifically ...)))) With their curators, everything is more complicated there ...
        2. cniza
          cniza 10 December 2015 20: 39 New
          +2
          Quote: Wiruz
          Volfych had not yet promised that he would celebrate his 80th birthday in Constantinople? No? If promised - that’s all. Turkey sentence has already been signed laughing


          He’s a man, he promised to do it.
        3. The comment was deleted.
        4. Serg koma
          Serg koma 10 December 2015 21: 49 New
          +1
          Quote: Wiruz
          80th anniversary will be celebrated in Constantinople

          For some reason, he no longer remembers about boots in the Indian Ocean ... repeat
          PS
          Bush Baghdad is your grave!
  4. vsoltan
    vsoltan 10 December 2015 18: 22 New
    -20
    From the article the impression was created that "sea wolves" and not wolves at all, and so, slimy seals ... did not like the article, perhaps a lot was simply pulled out and many statements were thrown out or distorted from the general context ... so ... some kind of impotence turns out, which in there is no reality ... ... Turkey, having blocked the straits for any reason, and thus, and priori, recognizing itself as a belligerent, risks getting it in the face ... in accordance with the convention or without it ... the intestines are still thin ... so I don't think that they will take the risk ... Erdogan is a bastard, but not a madman ... and the fact that Turkey's decision will support NATO ... with a pitchfork in the straits on the water is written ... so, about nothing ... our Fleet is quite worthy ... the author is a minus, I don't believe in this attitude of our naval officers ... nonsense ... the author is a land rat, paid for, ... the defeatist Syustov ... on the Varyag he does not serve IMHO am
    1. MIKHALYCH1
      MIKHALYCH1 10 December 2015 19: 20 New
      +7
      Quote: vsoltan
      that "sea wolves" and not wolves at all, and so, slimy seals ... did not like the article,

      We have Russian so .. hi We "humor" when it smells of blood and a specific battle ... And then we'll see!
    2. Boa kaa
      Boa kaa 10 December 2015 19: 29 New
      +9
      Vyacheslav, let me not talk with you!
      Quote: vsoltan
      The impression was created from the article,
      positive. The most solidly and thoroughly covered the problem of reserve stock P. P. Vishnyakov. A colleague, in terms of his professional activities in practice, dealt with these issues, so I have no questions about the problem.
      Quote: vsoltan
      the author is a land rat, paid, ...
      The author has something to do with it? The man collected the opinions of honored people on the problem, formalized an article, posted it on the site ... Maybe the rest of the "uninitiated" after the explanations of F-1 130 BRPLK will come to clarity, they will stop asking bad questions.
      Personally, I am satisfied with the article. yes
      PS. Just don't send me to serve on the Varyag! I have 43 years of service: they won't take it. laughing
    3. unsinkable
      unsinkable 10 December 2015 19: 46 New
      -1
      Quote: vsoltan
      some impotence

      Yes, my friend, now I know how couch experts write. This is probably due to the fact that you probably have impotence. My friend, crap. Buy Viagra and thoughts will flow in the right direction. (Don’t be angry, I’m without any anger) stop hi
    4. veksha50
      veksha50 10 December 2015 22: 13 New
      +2
      Quote: vsoltan
      From the article, the impression was created that "sea wolves" and not wolves at all, and so, slimy seals ...



      Hmm ... Why did the correspondent arrange this interview with the sailors ???

      Passing through the straits is not military operations, and everything there is associated precisely with diplomatic actions-overtures ...

      But the closure of the straits is already a political action that can trigger military action on our part in the form of a war, which is a continuation of politics ...

      So the sailors were asked - they answered the way they understand this situation ... It will not be they who will decide, but the politicians ... And if necessary, the same, as you called them, "slimy" sailors on the Turks and bang if they will order ...

      So in vain they came upon sailors, it’s not their competence what to do if the Turks close the same Bosphorus ...
      1. vsoltan
        vsoltan 10 December 2015 23: 46 New
        -1
        veksha50

        Guys, sick of ... like, I ran into the sailors? Have you read the comments, minus signers? I bumped into an autra that biased my quotes from the general context. Moreover, I wrote that I did not believe in such a nonsense of our fleet ... thank God, I had a chance to communicate ... and the public there abruptly expresses themselves than the shamans given in the article. You read, gentlemen of the military, have not forgotten how? Or just the first line? Well and Unsinkable for petty rudeness, a special hello ... such really ... don't drown ... nowhere ... wassat
    5. goblin xnumx
      goblin xnumx 10 December 2015 22: 41 New
      +1
      he would be silent, you’ll be the last one when they call the fleet :)
      1. vsoltan
        vsoltan 11 December 2015 00: 13 New
        0
        goblin xnumx

        And they won’t call me anymore ... they’re too old ... but you still read the comments, and before speaking, think at least sometimes ... or is there no such habit?
    6. Tusv
      Tusv 10 December 2015 22: 54 New
      0
      Quote: vsoltan
      From the article, the impression was created that "sea wolves" and not wolves at all, and so, slimy seals ...

      In this article, they hinted so much about the Turks:
      You are no one and call no how
      1. vsoltan
        vsoltan 11 December 2015 00: 11 New
        +2
        tusv

        I would advise you, sir, to learn some grammar ... in your comment "no one to call or what", you should write in a different way, namely "no one can call you anything" ... if you really allow yourself to speak on a Russian site, please do it right. ... tongue
  5. rasputin17
    rasputin17 10 December 2015 18: 24 New
    +4
    Close then do not close! But they will also drink blood and nerves will shake now BUT then they will pay the bills!
  6. The comment was deleted.
  7. The comment was deleted.
  8. Vladimir 1964
    Vladimir 1964 10 December 2015 18: 27 New
    13
    I liked the article, it is short, competent and quite understandable. And the information itself, to a certain extent, significantly increases the understanding of the "straits theme". Of course, not everything made me happy, but I really don't see any grounds for despondency. There is a hope that our sailors are ready for any action by the Turks. soldier
  9. onix757
    onix757 10 December 2015 18: 27 New
    -6
    Easy, get the indulgence from the states III and all. They didn’t give a damn about the sound of fists stomping their feet themselves you know who smile
    1. rasputin17
      rasputin17 10 December 2015 18: 39 New
      -1
      Quote: onix757
      Easy, get the indulgence from the states III and all. They didn’t give a damn about the sound of fists stomping their feet themselves you know who smile

      This indulgence is quoted only by those who gave it! And another question: what will be the actions against whom it is directed! Let's not rush things, but simply wait for specific results and reactions to their crazy actions! hi
  10. From Samara
    From Samara 10 December 2015 18: 31 New
    -2
    Will never close!
    1. Boa kaa
      Boa kaa 10 December 2015 19: 38 New
      +1
      Quote: From Samara
      Will never close!

      If the database starts - close ...
      But they are unlikely to be happy about it themselves: for a Shoygu canal parallel to the Bosphorus will be dug nearby (for example).
      Of all Constantinople, I personally will only feel sorry for Sophia ... Well, those few who do not knock on the drum of war, supporting Erdogan.
      Gray wolves - dog death!
      1. From Samara
        From Samara 10 December 2015 22: 45 New
        -2
        You yourself answered what will happen then ...
  11. 222222
    222222 10 December 2015 18: 33 New
    +4
    ..hooligan ..can everything ...

    "Turkish General Staff: Greek Air Force pursued F-16 over the Aegean Sea
    DECEMBER 10, 2015, 18:26

    Turkish General Staff: Greek Air Force chases F-16 over Aegean Sea
    Istanbul Bazaar Archive photo
    ANKARA, Dec 10 - RIA Novosti, Fedor Smirnov. Two Greek Air Force F-16 fighter jets held Turkish F-16 over the Aegean Sea as a target on a radar, said a statement by the Turkish General Staff on Thursday.

    “The Turkish F-16 fighter performed a training flight over the neutral waters of the Aegean. During this mission, two Greek Air Force F-16 aircraft began to pursue our fighter, holding it as a target on the radar for 3 minutes 40 seconds. Our pilots demonstrated the necessary reaction, ”the Turkish General Staff said.

    Turkey does not recognize Greece's 10-mile air zone around the islands, which leads to numerous incidents of the Greek Air Force pursuing Turkish warplanes invading the zone. According to the General Staff of the Greek Air Force, 2014 airspace violations were recorded in 1269, including 14 flights over the territory of Greece. For ten months of 2015, from January to October, 1233 violations were recorded. Including there were 31 flights over the territory of Greece.
    Source: RIA Novosti
  12. Sea Wolf
    Sea Wolf 10 December 2015 18: 43 New
    +8
    The closure of the straits for the passage of Russian ships and ships of the Russian Navy will definitely be interpreted as a state of war. In accordance with this, all necessary measures will be taken to unblock the straits. The right will be on our side. I am sure all the necessary activities and plans have long been ready and rehearsed.
    1. unsinkable
      unsinkable 10 December 2015 19: 56 New
      0
      Quote: Sea Wolf
      . I am sure all the necessary activities and plans have long been ready and rehearsed.

      Your lips and honey would drink. It would be good according to your scenario.
  13. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 10 December 2015 18: 48 New
    +3
    Anti-Russian hysteria is growing in Turkey. What was going on in the parliament-Svidomo rest. The feeling is that it was not the Turks who shot down our plane, but Russia landed troops in Constantinople, excuse me, Istanbul. I think ours have already figured out the options for action.
  14. Smailfantom
    Smailfantom 10 December 2015 18: 49 New
    +1
    from the point of view of politics, the issue is really complex, and everything that is described in the article is true of course, but it will not make a conclusion about the reaction of the Turks, the only thing that can be said is public opinion, regarding the Middle East, on our side, after the bombings in Paris already completely
  15. TVM - 75
    TVM - 75 10 December 2015 18: 59 New
    +4
    Great article. Reasonable and calm, without hysteria and hatred. The enemy is indicated and shown that there are means and methods of neutralizing it.
  16. Rostislav
    Rostislav 10 December 2015 19: 18 New
    0
    He (watch air defense with MANPADS) is always there - and not one,

    And rightly so.
  17. Igluxnumx
    Igluxnumx 10 December 2015 19: 23 New
    +1
    Turkey can close the straits in the event of a declaration of war (with us) and then - we had their permission to pass! But the opposite is also true: the closure of passages is a declaration of war and then .... (see paragraph 1)
  18. Gormenghast
    Gormenghast 10 December 2015 19: 33 New
    +2
    It is a pity, Comrade Stalin did not finish the question after the war.
  19. The comment was deleted.
  20. OlegV
    OlegV 10 December 2015 19: 41 New
    +2
    “Turks can close the straits for Russia!”
    vryatli ......

    near prospect of the Bosphorus
  21. tinibar
    tinibar 10 December 2015 19: 42 New
    -1
    Quote: Uranus
    I don’t see Turkey

    Hatred of the enemies of the motherland is not the worst quality in a person. A plus...
  22. sa-ag
    sa-ag 10 December 2015 19: 50 New
    +1
    A rusty trough in the strait can "sink" just fine, then they will say that the navigator was clean-shaven and slightly drunk :-)
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 10 December 2015 20: 35 New
      0
      You can still drop the Bosphorus Bridge, as in the Great Belt Strait.
  23. chunga-changa
    chunga-changa 10 December 2015 19: 57 New
    0
    Can Turkey close the straits

    Until 2017, most likely not, unless of course our geniuses from the Foreign Ministry and the Kremlin cease to blunt and bullish, but in 2017-18. - required, and the convention will be canceled.
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 10 December 2015 20: 33 New
      -1
      Denmark will close its own and impose a fee again? We can cancel the convention ourselves; it is more for the Turks on hand. In the 90s, when they brought the S-300 to Cyprus - they shut it down, Dances were in parliament abruptly current.
  24. hartlend
    hartlend 10 December 2015 20: 51 New
    0
    How long can Turkey procrastinate or not. The authors of such articles do not make such decisions. They remind me of literary critics who themselves are not capable of writing, but they teach others. The article has useful information that is not related to the main topic. In general - minus.
  25. TOR2
    TOR2 10 December 2015 21: 50 New
    +2
    One must always be prepared for the fact that NATO will not bother themselves with international obligations. Such a time now. It is worth reminding particularly stubborn Atlantists that anti-ship mines in their entire history have not lost a single battle. So in which case the straits will be closed to everyone. For skeptics, a little history.
    October 1950 The armada of American ships, which included battleships and aircraft carriers, moved to the North Korean port of Wonsan to land in the corps in order to surround the North Korean army. The Yankees stumbled upon mines that the Koreans fired from the fishing junks. The Americans began intensive trawling. Five minesweepers died in mines, several minesweepers and two destroyers received heavy damage.
    Modern landmines in which intelligence cannot be occupied using the current can drift to the desired square themselves, and upon arrival they dig into the ground.
    After the end of any war, it took several years for the former minefield area to be inaccessible to shipping.
    So, in which case the Turks will find adventure for themselves.
    1. clidon
      clidon 10 December 2015 22: 54 New
      +1
      A mine attack is actually a declaration of war, which removes restrictions on the use of similar weapons from the Turkish side. Because of the closure of the straits, no one will do this.
    2. spolo
      spolo 11 December 2015 04: 01 New
      0
      Bottom explosions of small power of 10 kilotons will perfectly clear the fairway of mines, after deepening it, then according to Comrade Gromyko.
      1. Mikhail Krapivin
        Mikhail Krapivin 11 December 2015 09: 03 New
        -2
        And the man-made tsunami will wash away everything superfluous from the shores, such as Istanbul :)
  26. Sea Wolf
    Sea Wolf 10 December 2015 21: 55 New
    +1
    There may not even be a military component more important, freight flows and not only Russia, try to slow down the Strait of Mandeb, Gibraltar, the Danish Straits, Suez, Panama, Kiel. The interests of the largest corporations and the largest states are tied here. After all, the oil that comes from Novorossiysk goes after all to the States and Europe and beyond everywhere. A large number of European river-sea vessels roam back and forth. I think Turkey itself warms up these moods as a trial balloon launches. It can be seen from the restrained reaction of the official bodies of Russia there is something to answer. Yes, and under the Soviet regime, this issue was studied repeatedly. Well, you still give the military experts, a captain of the first rank, an ordinary servant and a saboteur. After all, none of the retired admirals, at one time, admitted to strategic planning anywhere, did not even mention this. Look at the battle that is now beginning over the Northern Sea Route; I went there more than once. How much money has been invested and infrastructure is being restored. And this is a fight for cargo flows, it is a lot of money. Who will allow these Turks to open-close? No guys, this is not a gate in the country. At one time, in 1981, he underwent practical training in the 22nd brigade of the submarine, an assistant to the flagship navigator of the squadron in Libau. Here was one of the tasks: to come up and a torpedo with nuclear warheads according to Kiel. And all, silence.
  27. Vasily V
    Vasily V 10 December 2015 21: 58 New
    -1
    As Andrei Gromyko said, a new passage can always be arranged ...
  28. Victor-M
    Victor-M 10 December 2015 22: 31 New
    +1
    That's all the explanation.
  29. a housewife
    a housewife 10 December 2015 23: 31 New
    +3
    Swimming in the narrowness, near dangers,
    Forget the Turks and demand clarity!
    Get turks oh! - trouble
    Wait in the narrowness for the tail of dangers!
    The straits are necessary, but very narrow,
    Now Turkish, but will be Russian.
  30. Zomanus
    Zomanus 11 December 2015 06: 07 New
    +1
    We will act according to the circumstances.
    Starting from underwater narrowing by means of special warheads,
    ending with a change in the territorial affiliation of the straits.
  31. cergey51046
    cergey51046 11 December 2015 08: 57 New
    +1
    There was a comment on a previous article on this topic that a member of the USSR government said that there would be only two missiles and there would be three straits, but there would be no Istanbul.
  32. SeAl2014
    SeAl2014 11 December 2015 09: 49 New
    +1
    We shot down our Su-24, and at the MANPADS on the deck of a passing ship a tantrum. This is not an oversight of the starpom. The old man is right. Thanks to him.