Military Review

December 9 - Day of the Heroes of the Fatherland

16
December 9 in Russia celebrates a memorable date, which in the official calendar is called the Day of the Heroes of the Fatherland. In 2015, the Day of Heroes will be celebrated for the eighth time. For the first time this date appeared in the calendar as a memorable day in 2007, when the State Duma of the Russian Federation decided to revive the pre-revolutionary holiday - the Day of St. George Cavalier. It is for this reason that December 9 was chosen as the date for celebrating the Day of the Heroes of the Fatherland - the day when the Order of St. George the Victorious was established in the Russian Empire.


The establishment of the Order by Empress Catherine II took place on 9 (according to another version - 7) on December (November 26 old style) 1769 of the year. The Order of St. George the Victorious is the highest award of the Russian Empire, which was awarded to the soldiers of the Russian army for valor shown in battle, as well as for long service in military ranks.

December 9 - Day of the Heroes of the Fatherland


For all the years of its existence in the state awards register, the motto of which sounded like “For service and courage”, only four people have become gentlemen of all his 4 degrees. This is the Grand Duke Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov, the Prince Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay de Tolly, the Most High Prince Ivan Fedorovich Paskevich (Varshavsky), Count Ivan Ivanovich Dibich-Zabalkansky (Johann Karl Friedrich Anton von Dibich).

Historians believe that Catherine II herself became the first holder of the Order of St. George the Victorious. However, in the current historiographic “summaries”, the Empress is not mentioned as a gentleman of this order, and the first name is Fedor Ivanovich Fabrician (at the time of receiving the order - lieutenant colonel) - the hero of the Russian-Turkish war 1768-1774. Lieutenant Colonel Fabrizian was rewarded for having, with a consolidated detachment of about 1,6, thousands occupied the city of Galati, smashing the Turkish formation of 7 thousand.

From the decree:
For breaking with the detail entrusted to him in 1600, a man under the city of Galati, 15 in November 1769 of the year, very crowded against the number of enemy troops and the mastery of it.


The last time St. George Cavaliers (both officers, generals, and ordinary soldiers) were honored in pre-revolutionary Russia on November 26, 1916 of the year. As it then seemed to the people who were at the head of the revolution, the new country does not have any demand not only in the holiday, but also in the heroes themselves, because all those who opposed the previous government were actually recognized as heroes.

However, the cloudless, warless future than certain individuals in the new leadership of the state dreamed of in connection with the “impending victory of the world revolution” did not happen. Russia, and changing its name, has not ceased to be a target for those states that in recent years have been called “partners” and “friends” exclusively in quotes. As a result, the need for those people who are willing to sacrifice themselves for the inaccessibility of state borders, for what is called state sovereignty, without which Russia itself is unthinkable, was restored by itself. But the first award found the Hero in connection with his very different merits.

In April, the title Hero of the Soviet Union was established in the USSR 1934 with the additional distinction “Golden Star” (the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on the addition to the title of the Golden Star was signed only after 3 and more - in August 1939) .

From the decision of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR:
To establish the highest degree of distinction - the assignment for personal or collective merit to the state, associated with the accomplishment of a heroic feat, the title Hero of the Soviet Union.


And the first Hero of the Soviet Union becomes the pilot Anatoly Vasilyevich Lyapidevsky. He was awarded for the heroic rescue of passengers sandwiched in the ice of the Arctic Ocean, and then sunken, the ship Chelyuskin, making 29 search flights into an impenetrable blizzard. Lyapidevsky discovered the camp, landed on an ice floe and took people, including two children, on board the ANT-4 aircraft. It should be noted that Anatoly Vasilyevich performed the operation literally a few days after the disaster that the plane of another Soviet pilot, Sigismund Levanevsky, suffered at Cape Onman. Sigismund Levanevsky, by the way, was also presented to the rank of Hero of the Soviet Union for carrying out a flight to Alaska to deliver a doctor who carried out an emergency operation to one of the members of the Chelyuskin polar expedition.

4 November 1939, Anatoly Lyapidevsky was awarded the "Golden Star" for number one.

Anatoly Lyapidevsky died in 1983, and was buried in Moscow at the Novodevichy Cemetery. Streets in the capital, Grozny, Omsk, Yaroslavl, Artyom and other cities of the country are named after him. The name of the first Hero of the Soviet Union was named Flight Technical College in Omsk.

From Felix Chuev's poem:
... and meets in the doorway, smiling childishly,
Although there was a lot of gray hair added to childhood,
Anatoly Vasilyevich, Lyapidevsky himself,
Whose star is number one.




These days, the country mourns the Hero of the Russian Federation, Oleg Peshkov. Oleg Peshkov, lieutenant colonel of the Russian Space Forces of the Russian Federation, together with the navigator Konstantin Murakhtin, carried out military duty in the skies of Syria on the Su-24 with the tail number 83. 24 November 2015 of the year in the north of Syria bomber was shot down by the F-16 fighter of the Turkish Air Force. The pilots managed to eject. Lieutenant Colonel Oleg Peshkov received at least eight gunshot wounds during a parachute descent - militants, including representatives of the radical ultranationalist organization Gray Wolves, were already hunting the ground for Russian pilots.



Konstantin Murakhtin managed to escape, and a few hours later he was discovered by Russian and Syrian special forces, who took the captain to the Hmeymim airbase. The body of Lieutenant Colonel Peshkov on November 30 was delivered to Russia. A Russian pilot-hero was buried on the central avenue of the Lipetsk cemetery with all military honors. Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a decree awarding Lieutenant Colonel Oleg Peshkov the title of Hero of the Russian Federation posthumously. The same presidential decree says about the posthumous awarding of a private soldier (sailor) Alexander Pozychnich, who participated in the search and rescue operation, with the Order of Courage. The Order of Courage was awarded to the navigator of a Russian bomber brought down in the skies over Syria, Captain Konstantin Murakhtin, who, in an interview with journalists, promised to return to revenge and avenge his deceased commander.

On this day, "Military Review" low bows to all those who defended and defend their homeland, who, without caring to receive orders and other regalia, honestly performs their duty. All of you are real Heroes of the Fatherland, and today is your holiday!
Photos used:
http://stat.mil.ru
16 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. avvg
    avvg 9 December 2015 06: 21 New
    11
    Russia has always been famous for brave heroes! Glory to the Heroes of Russia !!!
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Alena Frolovna
      Alena Frolovna 9 December 2015 07: 57 New
      19
      9 December 1769 year, Catherine II established the Order of St. George - the highest military award.


      The St. George ribbon symbolically connected the heroes of different eras.
      On a winter day, St. George the Victorious, we honor the Heroes of the Soviet Union, Heroes of Russia, Knights of the Order of Glory and the Order of St. George.

      FROM THE STATUTE OF THE ORDER

      This order should never be removed, for it is acquired by its merits.


      CAVALERS OF THE ORDER OF ST. GEORGIA OF ALL 4-X DEGREES

      Full Knights of the Order of St. George, i.e. received signs of all degrees, in the history of Russia there were four:

      - Field Marshal Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov, Prince Smolensky

      In 14 years he graduated with honors from the Cadet Corps and was left with him as a teacher, in 16 years he was promoted to ensign. In 19 years, the first war with the Polish Confederates, then the Turkish 1768 of the year. In 1774, in the battle of Shumoy, he raised the banner that fell from the hands of the killed standard bearer and led the attack, where he was seriously wounded in the head (a bullet hit his temple), for this battle he was awarded George 4 degree. And then again wars, Turks, Tatars, Izmail, Finland, Napoleon, Austerlitz and Borodino. The last rank in the Russian army, General Field Marshal, Kutuzov, by the way, was fluent in French, English, German, Swedish, Polish and Turkish.

      - Field Marshal Count Michael Bogdanovich Barclay de Tolly

      He began his service at the age of 16 with the rank of army commander in the Pskov Carabiner Regiment, at the age of 17 he was cornet, he received the first order for personally leading the attack of his soldiers during the assault on Ochakov, and fought in subsequent wars, where there were injuries and rewards. About his company 1812 - 1814 of the year, I think it is unnecessary to talk. The last rank in the Russian army is General Field Marshal.

      - Field Marshal Count Ivan Fedorovich Paskevich-Erivansky

      In 18 he was promoted to lieutenant guard of the Preobrazhensky regiment and was appointed adjutant of Emperor Paul I. Then there was the Turkish war in 1806, which brought Paskevich Vladimir and the Golden Saber for Courage, and in 1807 Ivan Fedorovich successfully worked as a military diplomat and a little "scout. Under Brailov on 20 on April 1808, Paskevich was wounded by a bullet in the head, but in April he returned to duty. In 1810, as a regiment commander, he personally led a soldier in the attack. And then he fought with Napoleon, was the emperor’s personal representative for the peaceful organization of the provinces affected by Bonaparte, fought in the Caucasus with the Persians and Turks, in Poland with the Confederates, participated in the 1849 Hungarian campaign of the year when, unfortunately, he saved the Austrian Empire. The last rank in the Russian army is General Field Marshal.

      - Field Marshal Ivan Ivanovich Dibich-Zabalkansky

      He began his service in 16 years, as an ensign of the Life Guards of the Semenovsky Regiment. He participated in the battle of Austerlitz, Dresden, Kulm, Leipzig and others. But his main service was not advertised, as a resident of the military-political intelligence of Emperor Alexander, it was Dibich who brought Prussia out of an alliance with France and attracted Russia to the side. Then a brilliant operation to localize the Southern Society of the Decembrists and again the war with the Turks, where in 1829 under Külevç, Dibich defeated the Turks twice as superior and then politically decided the situation for the benefit of Russia. The last rank in the Russian army is General Field Marshal.

      The names of those awarded the Order of St. George are entered for perpetuation on marble plaques in the St. George Hall of the Grand Kremlin Palace in Moscow.

      And do not cancel the times
      Their valor and their merits.
  2. bad
    bad 9 December 2015 06: 21 New
    +8
    On this day, "Military Review" low bows to all those who defended and defend their homeland, who, without caring to receive orders and other regalia, honestly performs their duty. All of you are real Heroes of the Fatherland, and today is your holiday!
    "I join you! Eternal memory to the fallen Heroes, and Eternal Glory to the living!"
  3. Sergey Vladimirovich
    Sergey Vladimirovich 9 December 2015 06: 58 New
    +6
    GLORY AND ETERNAL MEMORY! To everyone! And the fallen and the living! .. And gratitude! ..
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 9 December 2015 07: 14 New
    +5
    A deep bow to you alive ... and the eternal memory of the dead ...
  5. ZU-23
    ZU-23 9 December 2015 07: 27 New
    +6
    Glory to the Heroes of the Fatherland !!!! You, a real example for all generations of Russia !!!
  6. cniza
    cniza 9 December 2015 07: 56 New
    +5
    Remember, honor and never forget. Thanks to all the heroes for Russia.
  7. Alexstrigin
    Alexstrigin 9 December 2015 10: 50 New
    +5
    Glory to the Heroes! Those who are no longer with us - eternal memory and respect! Heroes bow low to you !!!
  8. Kim Klimov
    Kim Klimov 9 December 2015 11: 19 New
    +4
    Glory and eternal memory to the heroes of Russia and its people!
  9. Georg Shep
    Georg Shep 9 December 2015 11: 22 New
    +6
    Glory to the heroes - sons of Russia! Motherland, the memory of you keeps!
  10. Alexey Lesogor
    Alexey Lesogor 9 December 2015 11: 32 New
    +2
    Quote: avvg
    Glory to the Heroes of Russia !!!


    It’s a pity that Ukrainians spoiled the greeting. But this does not beg for the valor and selfless devotion to the duty of these brave Heroes, including nameless ones.
  11. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 9 December 2015 14: 24 New
    +2
    low bow ........ for everything ..... yes Memory is Our Grateful!
  12. yuriy55
    yuriy55 9 December 2015 16: 32 New
    0
    I kneel before the Heroes ...
    Eternal memory to the dead and glory to the living !!!
    Thanks to you, our compatriots, we live on our Russian land ...
    Thanks and low bow ...
  13. Dad Uassia
    Dad Uassia 9 December 2015 16: 44 New
    0
    Glory to the true heroes! Thank you for living in peace now!
  14. su163
    su163 9 December 2015 20: 38 New
    0
    Low bow .... Eternal memory to the fallen and glory to the living!
  15. otto meer
    otto meer 10 December 2015 13: 03 New
    -1
    All who deserve it, alive - honor, departed - eternal glory. You have something to be proud of.
    But here's a moment, guys, what about these "heroes"? Personally, I regard this as Putin's spit towards all veterans - participants, living and gone.