Military Review

A unique exhibition "Nuclear shield of Russia" has opened in the Chelyabinsk Museum of Local Lore

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A unique exhibition "Nuclear shield of Russia" has opened in the Chelyabinsk Museum of Local Lore



What is inside an atomic bomb and how does an atomic reactor work? And what do the space "scars" look like on board the rocket, and what are you thinking about behind the control panel of the Ruslan reactor? The curator of the unique exhibition "Nuclear Shield of Russia" that opens on December 3, Deputy Director of the Chelyabinsk Museum of Local Lore for Science, candidate historical Nikolay Antipin.


For the first time, about half a thousand exhibits left the closed cities, which will be located on the museum square in 600 square meters.


The building of the Chelyabinsk Regional Museum. Address: st. Labor, 100


Central Museum Hall


One of the tasks is to prepare guides. The Atomic Energy Information Center (Rosatom structure) has been operating in Chelyabinsk for the fifth year. This is where the museum staff will be helped, as it is available and interesting to provide specific information. In the conditions of the museum, alas, you will not show the “Tsar-bomb” or almost 20-meter rockets of the Makeyev Center of Russian Culture. However, people who are far from military equipment will not only be incredibly impressed by the exhibits, but will also be reassured in a certain sense: if there are people who invent such missiles, and if they are in service, then our country is safe. It is known that in the Chelyabinsk region there was a clear military-industrial complex: from "Mayak" from its production of filling, designing in the scientific center of Snezhinsk - to serial assembly at the instrument-making plant in Trekhgorny. Plus Src Makeeva. The exhibition will present all four "prohibitions".

“A year ago, we turned to all four enterprises - in Snezhinsk, Ozersk, Trekhgorny and Makeev State Labor Center, at each of which we thought: how and what can be taken out of the city,” says Nikolay Antipin. - We have offered our concept to the defense industry: an emphasis on popularization, on the importance of the fight against radiophobia. Immediately agreed: do not talk about any environmental problems and accidents. The exhibition should show the defense value of the region. At our request, at Mayak, a Ruslan control panel was prepared for the exhibition. We have long and carefully studied, and in the secret enterprises themselves, and security services. Convinced of the seriousness of our intentions, they gave "Dobro", and then the preparation for the exhibition, which lasted for almost a year, started, and we didn’t even present all the scale of the problems.


It all starts with geology, with the depths. It is no coincidence that visitors of the exhibition will see beryl, graphite, niobium, tantalum, plutonium, radium, zircon on it ... All this is the raw materials for the atomic project. A huge zinc ingot has already been brought from the Chelyabinsk Zinc Plant: many will probably see what it looks like for the first time. Indium and cadmium were brought in - everything that is used in the nuclear industry (in reactors) and that is produced in the center of Chelyabinsk. The man in the street is surprised, but the atomic project in the Urals did not start yesterday or even from Snezhinsk and Ozersk, but more than a century ago, from 1912, when the first radium expedition, initiated by Academician Vernadsky with the participation of Professor Fersman, took place. Studied deposits throughout the empire, they arrived at the Ilmensky mountains, where the so-called Academic course, which was developed in search of radium, was preserved. And for 14 years before, the Curie couple discovered radium itself.

In the 1940 year, Vernadsky wrote a letter to the leadership of the USSR demanding: now is the moment when it is necessary to study the uranium deposit and extract it, otherwise tomorrow it will be too late. We will show 5-cent and 10-cent 1943-44 coins of the year, in which microfilm with secret drawings were taken out. There was a false opinion: everything was stolen from the West, and nothing of the kind was done in the USSR. It was much more complicated. The Soviet, like the American, sciences developed very closely, and few secrets came out, except a defeated Germany, from which both sides borrowed experience.

In 1942, Stalin put the question squarely: who will deal with the atomic bomb? They proposed candidates: Ioffe, Kapitsa. The first is already for 60, Kapitsa is in close contact with Europe, and he immediately honestly admitted: he will not be able to keep secrets, and that he is generally for open science. One of the two of them suggested a young, budding Kurchatov. The task was not only to construct a bomb, but also to create an entire industry, and the young Kurchatov became, in fact, a top manager at the very top of the pyramid, where Beria himself stood below him. Before Beria, by the way, the project was supervised by Molotov, who did not cope with the task. And Beria managed. What kind of methods is another question.

“The exhibition says a little about Kurchatov: his personal belongings, a suit, a hat, a camera, have already been brought from Shem,” says Nikolay Antipin. - In addition to “Beard”, as Kurchatov was called, 30 bomb makers were chosen for the exhibition.



Personal belongings of Academician Kurchatov Igor Vasilyevich


It is interesting that earlier the Snezhins themselves did not have the idea of ​​transferring to museums, for example, the personal belongings of famous nuclear scientists. And now they donated the tunic of academician and lieutenant general Zababakhin. By the way, in all encyclopedias it is said that he was awarded three or four orders of Lenin, and he, as we found out, has five of them.


Awards of academician Zababakhin Evgeny Ivanovich


More than half of all nuclear development is provided by the Snezhinsk Institute. They have sea-based missiles, cruise missiles and aerial bombs. Therefore, we will have here the monoblock part of the first intercontinental missile, which was put into service in the 1974 year. It was mounted on the R-29 missiles, which were assembled in the Makeyev SRC. This monoblock part will be presented in two versions - exhibition and working (from the Training Center of Rocket and Space Technology named after Academician V.P. Makeev of SUSU). Scientists have provided the head part, which flew into space.


The head of the ICBM submarines R-29


Flight Sample MBPB P-29


Also show a nuclear projectile used for industrial purposes. And this is also a special pride of Snezhinsk. Such shells were produced around 150, each of which was made clearly for specific purposes.


Industrial nuclear explosive device


Sample 1968 of the year. In Uzbekistan, the Pamuk gas field is burning. Lit 32 of the month! Not only does a colossal amount of energy burn out before our eyes, a real ecological catastrophe occurs. They extinguished them in various ways, but without success. Snezhintsy suggested to drill a well parallel to the burning one, but inclined. So that everything was hermetically sealed, it is concreted, a nuclear projectile is placed into it and blown up. Gigantic masses of earth are shifting, which simply cover the well, and the fire immediately goes out. Elementary! At the same time, the task of Snezhintsev was reduced to the fact that everything was ecologically clean. And they achieved what is called a “pure blast.” Seismic exploration is another direction in which such a charge was used. This is due to the oil and gas sector. Where to store the produced gas? To build a huge reservoir underground is very difficult. It will take trillions of cubic meters. Invented a way. A loose soil is found in the earth's crust, where the projectile is launched, it explodes and a cavity is formed, gas is launched into it and it is launched simply and efficiently!

Gigantomania Khrushchev spawned a monster - “Kuzkinu mother”, weighing 25 tons. But the philosophy of the Snezhinsky Institute saved: the point is not in size, but in quality, in compactness and efficiency. The first projectile Snezhintsev was more than 400 mm. Gradually, the smallest nuclear artillery shell 152 mm, launched in the 1981 year, was born. Pride of the Snezhinsk Institute! In contrast with the "Tsar Bomb", it can look very impressive.


The world's smallest nuclear artillery caliber 152 mm


And this is the creation of the Trekhgorny defense workers, 203 projectile mm.


The warhead of the 1977 anti-ship cruise missile of the year, which was based both on ships and on the ground, is a homing missile.


Nuclear warhead of a cruise anti-ship missile, mass 560 kg


Next is the nuclear warhead of the 1967 torpedo, which is being developed by the Dukhov Institute.


Nuclear warhead torpedo caliber 533mm


The largest exhibit at the exhibition will be the four-meter 1971 aerial bomb of the year, weighing 430 kg.


Naturally, all the shells will be without filling. November 23 brought the control panel of the reactor "Ruslan".
It is curious that the first reactor was named “Annushka”, after which “Ivany”, “Lyudmila” and “Ruslan” appeared.


The control panel of the industrial light-water reactor "Ruslan"


The RDS index was deciphered by the people: “Russia does it itself”, and the reactor “LB” - like “Lawrence Beria”. What is interesting exhibits? It will be possible to sit at the same control panel of the Ruslan reactor. True, museum workers will fail, perhaps, the main thing is to recreate the atmosphere of responsibility ... But then it will be possible to imagine WHAT is in your hands ...


Unique people arrived at the opening of the exposition, for many years forging a strong shield of the defense of our country.
Originator:
http://www.atomic-energy.ru/news/2015/11/20/61324?page=2
Photos used:
© AIF / Alexander FIRSOV Ozersk74.ru A. Leshkina
37 comments
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  1. Alex_Rarog
    Alex_Rarog 6 December 2015 06: 50
    +5
    I'll go to the museum on Monday)
    1. Rus2012
      6 December 2015 11: 15
      +1
      Quote: Alex_Rarog
      I'll go to the museum on Monday)

      ... the museum's exposition also has a "wonderful device", the purpose of which is known only to the initiated bully At the stand - nothing is written about him - http://www.chel.aif.ru/society/army/yadernyy_shchit_rossii#id=7469652
      1. vostok68
        vostok68 6 December 2015 11: 31
        +1
        Is this by chance not a source of some heavy neutral particles? Once included in the exhibition, then you can know? Tell me, interesting!
        1. Bayonet
          Bayonet 6 December 2015 13: 27
          +4
          Quote: vostok68
          Is this by chance not a source of some heavy neutral particles? Once included in the exhibition, then you can know? Tell me, interesting!

          This is a powerful source of x-ray radiation - an x-ray tube.
          1. vostok68
            vostok68 7 December 2015 12: 35
            0
            Thank! There was such a thought, but thought, why at the exhibition?
  2. Andrey Yuryevich
    Andrey Yuryevich 6 December 2015 06: 52
    +5
    the achievements of Soviet scientists are impressive, the museum is good, you still need to organize a tour around the district: Karabash, Kyshtym, Techa ... it will be unforgettable.
    1. Alex_Rarog
      Alex_Rarog 6 December 2015 07: 29
      +3
      Pervouralsk, the plant "Russian Chrome" the same landscapes .... Even more beautiful)
    2. evil partisan
      evil partisan 6 December 2015 07: 45
      12
      Quote: Andrey Yurievich
      Karabash, Kyshtym, Techa ... it will be unforgettable.
      Andrew! Despite the urgency and complexity of the tasks that our first nuclear scientists faced, costs, such as Father Karachay, the River Techa and the EURT, were simply inevitable. The following generations should have been engaged in their liquidation. It’s another matter that for many, many years they simply scored questions of environmental support for the production of nuclear components, which is akin to a crime against their own people. But these are already questions to Khrushchev and Brezhnev ... Now Karachay is falling asleep at an accelerated pace. They promised to fall asleep this year completely (http://ria.ru/atomtec/20151110/1318252742.html). People from the floodplain r. Techa was also promised to be completely resettled in a year or two. A heavy inheritance went to the GDP ...
      Hi spiteful! drinks
      1. Andrey Yuryevich
        Andrey Yuryevich 6 December 2015 07: 56
        +3
        Quote: Angry Guerrilla
        Hi spiteful!

        and here is not a "spiteful critic"! I just paint the whole picture, so that they know how and what, independence was given! Hey Ya! hi but apparently urapatrioty minus born in pink glasses, well, or just hate the truth ...
        1. Bayonet
          Bayonet 6 December 2015 13: 34
          +1
          Quote: Andrey Yurievich
          but apparently urapatrioty minus born in pink glasses, well, or just hate the truth ...

          To bathe them in that lake, maybe dope and decrease! hi
      2. Bayonet
        Bayonet 6 December 2015 13: 32
        +2
        Quote: Angry Guerrilla
        . Another thing is that for many, many years they simply scored questions of environmental issues related to the production of nuclear components,

        One former Ural resident works for us, just from that region. It says everything is poisoned, no wonder that "Kyshtym dwarfs" appear! smile
        1. evil partisan
          evil partisan 6 December 2015 16: 30
          +2
          Quote: Bayonet
          everything is poisoned

          It turns out there are a lot of videos on the subject on the web.
      3. Prometey
        Prometey 6 December 2015 17: 51
        +4
        Quote: Angry Guerrilla
        Despite the urgency and complexity of the tasks that our first nuclear scientists faced, costs, such as Father Karachay, the River Techa and the EURT, were simply inevitable.

        We can agree about Techa and Karachai, but the 1957 accident and the formation of the EURT are the result of disorder.
    3. Prometey
      Prometey 6 December 2015 17: 45
      0
      And what is wrong in the area of ​​Techa and Kyshtym? Normal South Ural landscape. And in Tech only swimming and fishing is impossible, but you can walk as much as you like.
      1. Bayonet
        Bayonet 6 December 2015 18: 52
        +1
        Quote: Prometey
        And in Tech only swimming and fishing is impossible, but you can walk as much as you like.

        Can I go for a walk? And then joy! smile
  3. horoh
    horoh 6 December 2015 06: 52
    +5
    I’ll be in Chelyabinsk, I’ll go to the museum for sure.
    1. Prometey
      Prometey 6 December 2015 17: 49
      0
      Quote: horoh
      I’ll be in Chelyabinsk, I’ll go to the museum for sure.

      Be sure to come in wink
  4. Federal
    Federal 6 December 2015 06: 56
    +7
    Unique people arrived at the opening of the exposition, for many years forging a strong shield of the defense of our country.

    A deep bow to the people who created all this. Thanks to them, the USSR and Russia did not succeed and will not succeed in kneeling.
  5. avvg
    avvg 6 December 2015 06: 59
    +3
    This is a good tribute to the people, the creators of the USSR-Russia Nuclear Shield!
  6. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 6 December 2015 07: 02
    +2
    Thanks for the article and the photo.
    Indeed, you need to hurry to go to museums. It seems --- they are constant. But maloli that .... This has already happened. I’ll go to my native, Artillery. I don’t get to Chelyabinsk.
  7. bad
    bad 6 December 2015 07: 35
    +2
    excellent and revealing article + .. I’ll go to the museum as soon as possible .. good
    1. ICT
      ICT 6 December 2015 08: 06
      +2
      Quote: bad
      excellent and revealing article + .. I’ll go to the museum as soon as possible ..

      The smallest nuclear artillery in the world


      for clarity, put a pack of cigarettes on top like here
  8. dchegrinec
    dchegrinec 6 December 2015 07: 56
    +3
    I would love to shake hands with each creator of such creations!
  9. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 6 December 2015 08: 18
    +3
    Patriotism is brought up just like that. It begins with pride in their ancestors, who were able to create such a shield, behind which we still hide. In Sarov, there’s a better museum, but you won’t just go there.
  10. Old26
    Old26 6 December 2015 08: 42
    +1
    There was material on the web before, I don't know if there is now. "An interactive tour of the museum in Sarov. Weight is about 500 MB. Almost all the exhibits of the museum.
  11. rotmistr60
    rotmistr60 6 December 2015 08: 57
    +2
    Judging by the photographs of the central hall, they reacted with a soul and creativity to the design of the museum. Here are the lessons of history for the younger generation.
  12. Windy
    Windy 6 December 2015 09: 55
    +1
    Amazed by the information on the use of nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes. Did not know. Quietly crap (in a good sense of the word) smile
  13. Old26
    Old26 6 December 2015 10: 42
    +3
    Quote: Windy
    Amazed by the information on the use of nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes. Did not know. Quietly crap (in a good sense of the word) smile

    Only one case is described. And there was something about 70
    1. evil partisan
      evil partisan 6 December 2015 11: 02
      +1
      Quote: Old26
      there were about 70 of them

      I read about more than 100 ...
    2. Rus2012
      6 December 2015 11: 19
      +2
      Quote: Old26
      Only one case is described. And there was something about 70

      ... in truth - 124!
      From Wiki -
      Peaceful nuclear explosions in the USSR were carried out between 1965 and 1988 in the framework of the secret "Program No. 7." In total, the USSR carried out 124 peaceful nuclear explosions in the interests of the national economy (including 117 - outside the borders of nuclear testing grounds).
  14. Boa kaa
    Boa kaa 6 December 2015 11: 09
    +8
    I had to "live" to communicate with some samples (not museum ones!). They taught everything by heart, it was strictly forbidden to make notes and to talk (even in a dream with oneself) - too!
    And then suddenly such an abundance! Just gasped when I saw all this national treasure! Wow! Devotees - low bow and respect! Well it is necessary to raise such a mountain !!!
    1. Rus2012
      6 December 2015 11: 36
      +5
      Quote: Boa constrictor KAA
      Just gasped when I saw all this national treasure! Wow! Devotees - low bow and respect! Well it is necessary to raise such a mountain !!!


      ... of course, only the tip of the iceberg!
      Everything is much more magnificent and impressive ...

      Yes, and the Great Selflessness of the people. Indeed, of all who participated, especially at the beginning, many left untimely ... Imagine: manually raking "" (sintering blocks), the work of young laboratory assistants with open materials ...
      Eternal memory to them and a bow to the earth!
  15. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 6 December 2015 11: 10
    +3
    For the museum of local lore - cool exhibits!
  16. tinibar
    tinibar 6 December 2015 11: 35
    +3
    Quote: Alex_Rarog
    I'll go to the museum on Monday)

    I envy, I live far away. And so he would go and take his son! Children should be proud of their country!
  17. Vikxnumx
    Vikxnumx 6 December 2015 12: 02
    +2
    Thank you for the excursion!
    It is a pity that not everyone will be able to visit this temple of memory and achievements of the people!
    More often than children, drive to such museums and talk about the homeland!
    1. Prometey
      Prometey 6 December 2015 17: 48
      +2
      Quote: VIK1711
      More often than children, drive to such museums and talk about the homeland!

      The Chelyabinsk Museum of Local Lore, in fact, is very interesting. Who will travel and, if there is time, be sure to check out - you won’t regret it.
  18. Ze Kot
    Ze Kot 6 December 2015 15: 09
    +3
    Somehow easy dude in the photo holds the projectile. From paper mache or what?
  19. Old26
    Old26 6 December 2015 20: 06
    +2
    Quote: Angry Guerrilla
    I read about more than 100 ...

    You are absolutely right. The number 70 was postponed for me - now I looked, these are explosions associated with the intensification of oil and gas production and seismic sensing for the purpose of mineral exploration.
    In reality, 124 explosions were carried out.
  20. Tektor
    Tektor 6 December 2015 20: 10
    +2
    Strange ... Like a museum, but little information. Each product has its own name, or nickname, but here - silence. There are also performance characteristics, but, of course, they are secret, although one could cite "well-known" ones. For example, the mass of a 152 caliber projectile is more than 100 kg, and one person, unless he is Yuri Vlasov, cannot lift it ...