During its heyday, the Soviet airborne troops (the last two decades of the existence of the USSR) were an impressive force. The then adopted military doctrine provided for the use of the Airborne Forces as a means of anticipating enemy actions during strategic offensive operations. Six airborne divisions, more than ten separate airborne brigades and regiments, separate brigades and special-purpose battalions could make a rustle in any corner of the globe. An example of this is the lightning capture of Prague in 1968 by the 7th and 98th Guards Airborne Divisions and even faster capture of the 103rd Guards Airborne Division in Kabul in 1979. Large-scale combat operations of “winged infantry” on enemy territory - namely, it was planned to use the Airborne Forces - they required considerable firepower. It could be provided only by artillery, acting together with the paratroopers. The airborne self-propelled artillery ASU-57 and ASU-85, which were in service with the landing forces in the 60s, had the main task to combat tanks. But the landing of a relatively heavy ASU-85 was carried out only by landing a transport aircraft on the runway, which limited the main tactical advantage of the landing - surprise. Therefore, in the mid 60-ies. in the USSR began the design of a fundamentally new combat vehicle BMD-1. On its basis, they decided to develop a self-propelled gun, called 2C2 "Violet".
But the use of a rather powerful 122-mm artillery gun, borrowed from the Gvozdika self-propelled guns, led to the fact that the BMD-1 chassis did not withstand overloads when firing. In addition to Violets, also based on the BMD-1, a self-propelled 120-mm breech-loading mortar 2-8 "Lily of the Valley" was developed for the Airborne Forces. But he was not adopted. By the middle of the 70-x, two light tanks (“934 object” and “685 object”) were created on a competitive basis on the Volgograd tractor and Kurgan machine-building plants, also for the Airborne Forces weapons which was a long-barreled 100-mm gun. However, for a number of reasons, they too were not adopted. The task of creating a powerful self-propelled fire weapons to support the actions of paratroopers continued to remain very acute. At about the same time, the BTR-D tracked amphibious armored personnel carrier was adopted by the Airborne Forces. Its main difference from the BMD-1, on the basis of which it was created, was the absence of a rotary tower and an elongated chassis for one roller, which increased the load capacity. At the same time, under the direction of Doctor of Technical Sciences Abner Novozhilov, designers from the Central Research Institute of Precision Engineering, in Klimovsk near Moscow, together with experts from the famous Motovilikha in Perm, created a fundamentally new 120-mm rifled 2-X51 gun to directly support ground forces. This made it possible to develop in 1981 an armed artillery system, which combines the functions of a cannon, a howitzer and a mortar.
Self-propelled artillery gun (SAO) was called 2C9 "NONA-S". According to one of the legends that always arise when creating a new weapon, “NONA” is not the name of a woman, but an abbreviated abbreviation of the name - “The New Ground Artillery Tool”. Even for today, the NONA-S is a unique artillery system that combines the properties of various types of guns and is intended for direct fire support of the airborne units on the battlefield. The capabilities of the CAO allow it to be used not only to defeat manpower and destroy enemy defenses, but also to fight against tanks, for which various ammunition is included in the ammunition. First of all, these are special high-explosive fragmentation artillery shells with ready-made cuts on the leading belt; Such projectiles can be fired at a distance of up to 8,7 km, and their low initial speed (367 m / s) allows firing with a large steep trajectory. The effectiveness of the fragmentation of such projectiles is close to the effectiveness of conventional 152-mm high-explosive fragmentation projectiles of domestic and foreign howitzers. An important characteristic of the weapon directly supporting the troops on the battlefield is its smallest firing range: for a projectile it is 1,7 km, and for a mine is 400 m. Therefore, self-propelled ammunition can include ordinary 120-mm mortar mines - high-explosive, lighting, smoke and incendiary. Sighting range of high-explosive fragmentation mine - 7,1 km.
Since it is not always possible to count on timely delivery of ammunition during operations in the rear of the enemy, the self-propelled gun provides for the possibility of using 120-mm high-explosive fragmentation mines from mortars of armies of other countries. This allows us to support our troops from firing positions in the battle formations of infantry. In addition to shells and mines, the CAO's ammunition includes active-rocket projectiles. They have a special jet engine that allows you to increase the firing range to 13 km. Recent developments of domestic designers allowed the creation of guided (self-guided and corrected on the trajectory) projectiles for artillery, which are aimed at the target using a laser pointer, attacking it in the most unprotected place, from above, and hit the tank with probability 0,8-0,9. Such shells called "Kitolov-2" can be used in the CAO "NONA".
Shooting range "Kitolov" - to 9 km. To combat armored vehicles can be used not only precision munitions, but also conventional cumulative projectiles. The relatively high initial speed of such a projectile (560 m / s) provides him with high accuracy of firing at armored targets at a distance of up to 1000 m, and the ability to penetrate more than 600 mm steel armor allows, if necessary, to fight with the main tanks of the enemy. Since loading such a weapon at high angles of elevation, especially characteristic of a “mortar” firing, is a rather laborious exercise, it was equipped with a special pneumatic discharging mechanism. Compressed air is also used to purge the barrel after each shot, which significantly reduces the pollution of the crew compartment. The need to parachute the CAO required to make the self-propelled gun easy. Therefore, the armored hull of the CAO is made of aluminum alloys, but nevertheless it protects the crew and equipment from rifle-and-machine-gun fire. Powerful diesel engine in 240 l. with. and hydropneumatic suspension provide self-propelled gun greater mobility - the maximum speed on the highway to 60 km / h, and afloat to 9 km / h. The controlled suspension provides not only smoothness, but also makes it possible to change the amount of ground clearance: if necessary, the height of self-propelled guns can be reduced by 35, see the experience of combat use of this installation, including in Afghanistan, showed its high reliability: "NONA-S" its fire more than once rescued our paratroopers. Raised almost to the zenith barrel, it was possible to solve such tasks in the mountains that howitzers and guns could not cope with. The high effectiveness of the combat use of the new gun proved the need to have it not only in the airborne troops, but also in the ground forces. Therefore, especially for equipping motorized infantry battalions of ground forces, the towed 1986B2 NONA-K was developed and adopted in 16.
SAU 2C31 "Vienna"
2С31 "Vienna" - Russian 120-mm self-propelled artillery gun. The CAO 2C31 was created on the BMP-3 chassis. 2С31 “Vienna” was developed in the city of Perm at the Motovilikhinsky plant. The first copy was made in 1996 year. Currently (2008) exists in single copies.
First presented at the IDEX-97 exhibition in the United Arab Emirates.
Vienna is designed to suppress manpower, artillery and mortar batteries, rocket launchers, armored targets, fire weapons and command posts at a distance of 13 km, while it is able to automatically adjust its fire according to the results of the notch breaks, and is able to independently reconnoiter the targets day and night. Able to conduct aimed fire from closed positions and direct fire without prior preparation of the firing position.