FROM ALERT TO LOST
The air defense of the troops includes forces and means of reconnaissance of the enemy’s air, warning of covered troops about its approach, formation and formation of anti-aircraft and anti-aircraft missile artillery, units and electronic warfare units. Forces and means of military air defense destroy aircraft, helicopters, cruise and operational-tactical ballistic missiles, UAVs and other means of air attack. The most modern means of military air defense can, to a limited extent, solve the missile defense tasks in the theater of operations.
Over the past ten to fifteen years, China has achieved significant success in expanding the combat capabilities of air defense, including its military component. Were developed and put into service modern highly effective means of combating the air enemy, capable of destroying maneuvering air targets flying at medium, low and ultra-low altitudes. At the present time, in addition to the barrel-based anti-aircraft artillery, recruiting more than 7376 artillery systems and MANPADS, small-scale, medium-range and long-range anti-aircraft missile systems (systems), which reach more than 296 units, are currently in service with the PLA Ground Forces Air Defense Forces.
At the end of the 90 of the last century, the troops received the Crotal anti-aircraft missile systems produced under a French license, which received the Chinese designation “Hunzi-7” (HQ-7). In service now is 200 units of air defense missile systems of this type of various modifications. At the same time, China purchased the self-propelled air defense system of the divisional link 9КХNUMX Tor-М331 from Russia and subsequently created its analogue of this fairly advanced air defense system, which received the Chinese designation Hongqi-1 (HQ-17). Anti-aircraft missile systems of the “Thor” family are specifically designed to combat modern means of air attack, including high-precision weapon: anti-radar missiles, guided planning bombs, maneuvering, manned and unmanned high-speed aerodynamic objects, etc. Armed with the defense of the ground forces of the PLA there are 24 units of such complexes.
The HQ-17 anti-aircraft missile system includes combat vehicles on a special high-tracked crawler chassis. They are equipped with eight missiles, placed in two four-charge launch transport containers, as well as reconnaissance and guidance radars, detecting and identifying an air enemy with target designation for capturing and tracking the target and transmitting coordinates to the launcher’s command and control system, and also has optical means . This radar can perform target and missile illumination with continuous radiation. The reconnaissance and guidance radar integrated into the complex makes it possible to detect aircraft at a distance of up to 27 km, flying in the altitude range from 30 to 6000 m, helicopters at a distance of up to 20 km, and unmanned aerial vehicles, including a small aircraft, at a distance up to 15 km The probability of destruction of aerodynamic targets at a distance of up to 15 km is on average 0,8. The combat capabilities of the complex make it possible to effectively cover extended and pinpoint objects located at a distance of 8 – 10 km from the combat position of the air defense system.
ON THE BASIS OF THE COMPLEX "STYLE" AND C-300
In 2011, the medium-range air defense missile system was adopted for arming the air defense of the Chinese Armed Forces with the designation Huntsi-16A (HQ-16A) and is essentially a land version of the HHQ-16 ship complex. The latter, in turn, is a further development of the Soviet sea-mount Shtil anti-aircraft missile system. At the armament of the Air Defense Forces of the Ground Forces of the People's Liberation Army of Uzbekistan, 24 of such a complex is currently located.
The rocket of the HQ-16A anti-aircraft missile complex is launched vertically from the transport and launch container. At the same time, this type of air defense system is capable of striking aerodynamic targets at both high and low altitudes at a distance of up to 40 km. In terms of its combat capabilities, it occupies an intermediate position between short-range HQ-7 short-range anti-aircraft missile systems and long-range HQ-9. The HQ-16A division includes a command and control station, a radar detection and three fire batteries. Each battery has a radar for illumination and guidance, and four launchers, each of which is located on an automobile chassis with the 6x6 wheel formula and is equipped with six missiles.
Зенитный ракетный комплекс HQ-16A способен поражать цели типа «самолет» на дальности 3,5–40 км, а цели «крылатая ракета» – на дальности 3,5–12 км. Минимальная высота поражения цели составляет 15 м, максимальная – 15 000 м. Вероятность поражения цели типа «самолет» – более 0,6. Согласно китайским источникам, РЛС комплекса подсвечивает цели периодически, что затрудняет применение противником противорадиолокационных aviation ракет. Она имеет высокую помехозащищенность и может наводить ЗУР на четыре цели одновременно, используя инерциальное наведение на начальном участке полета и полуактивную радиолокационную головку самонаведения (ГСН) на конечном участке траектории в условиях активного применения противником средств радиоэлектронной борьбы. Благодаря этому значительно увеличилась зона поражения аэродинамических целей.
The most modern and most effective air defense systems of the PLA Ground Forces are front-line self-propelled self-propelled anti-aircraft missile systems C-300В (9К81) acquired from Russia. These complexes, as well as their unlicensed copies, received the Chinese designation "Hunzi-18" (HQ-18). The combat capabilities of this system make it possible to effectively solve tasks not only to cover groups of troops (forces), as well as important military and rear facilities, but also centers of state and military control, administrative and industrial facilities at the national level, complementing and interacting with the HQ-15 system ( C-300 PMU1), part of the PLA Air Force Air Defense System, which is essentially the country's air defense / missile defense system. These systems were purchased in Russia. Subsequently, Chinese unlicensed counterparts were created, which, according to some sources, are inferior to the original in many respects. This, in particular, is evidenced by the fact that the air defense / missile defense system of the Chinese capital is still equipped with Russian-made systems.
The composition of the combat means of the anti-aircraft missile system HQ-15 includes:
- two quadruple launchers with light anti-aircraft guided missiles, twin launchers, launchers with heavy anti-aircraft guided missiles;
- All-round radar with the detection range of airplanes up to 240 km, ballistic missiles of the Scud type to 150 km (ballistic missiles of the Lance type - up to 95 km) in the conditions of electronic countermeasures;
- radar software review capable of detecting high-speed aerodynamic targets in the conditions of electronic countermeasures at a distance of up to 175 km;
- Multichannel guidance radars providing guidance for 12 missiles at six targets with an aircraft detection range of up to 150 km, ballistic missiles - up to 60 km;
- mobile control point.
The system kit includes four anti-aircraft missile systems with six launchers and six launchers and a missile guidance station each.
FOR THE FIGHT AGAINST HYPERSONIC THREAT
Chinese experts have been doing research for a long time to develop tools to combat hypersonic rocket systems and have made significant progress in this direction.
An important achievement of the Chinese developers was the introduction of the special passive direction finding mode of the active jammer and homing director to the homing head of the latest ZRS modifications. The introduction of such a mode significantly increases the combat capabilities of the air defense system, allowing you to receive additional target designation data in the case of active interference from the manned aircraft and the enemy's UAV, since the interference itself becomes a source of additional information for more accurate missile guidance.
Chinese specialists are actively searching for and developing innovative forms and methods of using air defense / missile defense systems in network-centric hostilities. In particular, in order to improve the effectiveness and combat stability of air defense / missile defense, they are studying the possibility of creating modular groups of air defense / missile defense forces and weapons consisting of heterogeneous systems and complexes combined into a common information system with a single command and control center. According to Chinese experts, the use of a modular system allows you to create a highly reliable, multi-layered, layered air defense / missile defense system that provides the ability to detect and use, on a time scale as close as possible to real, exactly those tools that are intended to combat specific aerodynamic goals. defeat heights and distance, to respond as flexibly as possible to changes both in the nature of the aerospace threat, and in the specific combat situation.