Military Review

Umbrella for the troops in Chinese

Umbrella for the troops in ChineseAccording to Chinese sources, military anti-aircraft defense (AA) is designed to conduct combat operations in the interests of covering troop groups and rear facilities from air strikes and, if possible, the space attack of the enemy. It is organized during operations of any scale and type in all types of combat operations, with the movement of troops and their location in places of deployment.


The air defense of the troops includes forces and means of reconnaissance of the enemy’s air, warning of covered troops about its approach, formation and formation of anti-aircraft and anti-aircraft missile artillery, units and electronic warfare units. Forces and means of military air defense destroy aircraft, helicopters, cruise and operational-tactical ballistic missiles, UAVs and other means of air attack. The most modern means of military air defense can, to a limited extent, solve the missile defense tasks in the theater of operations.

Over the past ten to fifteen years, China has achieved significant success in expanding the combat capabilities of air defense, including its military component. Were developed and put into service modern highly effective means of combating the air enemy, capable of destroying maneuvering air targets flying at medium, low and ultra-low altitudes. At the present time, in addition to the barrel-based anti-aircraft artillery, recruiting more than 7376 artillery systems and MANPADS, small-scale, medium-range and long-range anti-aircraft missile systems (systems), which reach more than 296 units, are currently in service with the PLA Ground Forces Air Defense Forces.

At the end of the 90 of the last century, the troops received the Crotal anti-aircraft missile systems produced under a French license, which received the Chinese designation “Hunzi-7” (HQ-7). In service now is 200 units of air defense missile systems of this type of various modifications. At the same time, China purchased the self-propelled air defense system of the divisional link 9КХNUMX Tor-М331 from Russia and subsequently created its analogue of this fairly advanced air defense system, which received the Chinese designation Hongqi-1 (HQ-17). Anti-aircraft missile systems of the “Thor” family are specifically designed to combat modern means of air attack, including high-precision weapon: anti-radar missiles, guided planning bombs, maneuvering, manned and unmanned high-speed aerodynamic objects, etc. Armed with the defense of the ground forces of the PLA there are 24 units of such complexes.

The HQ-17 anti-aircraft missile system includes combat vehicles on a special high-tracked crawler chassis. They are equipped with eight missiles, placed in two four-charge launch transport containers, as well as reconnaissance and guidance radars, detecting and identifying an air enemy with target designation for capturing and tracking the target and transmitting coordinates to the launcher’s command and control system, and also has optical means . This radar can perform target and missile illumination with continuous radiation. The reconnaissance and guidance radar integrated into the complex makes it possible to detect aircraft at a distance of up to 27 km, flying in the altitude range from 30 to 6000 m, helicopters at a distance of up to 20 km, and unmanned aerial vehicles, including a small aircraft, at a distance up to 15 km The probability of destruction of aerodynamic targets at a distance of up to 15 km is on average 0,8. The combat capabilities of the complex make it possible to effectively cover extended and pinpoint objects located at a distance of 8 – 10 km from the combat position of the air defense system.


In 2011, the medium-range air defense missile system was adopted for arming the air defense of the Chinese Armed Forces with the designation Huntsi-16A (HQ-16A) and is essentially a land version of the HHQ-16 ship complex. The latter, in turn, is a further development of the Soviet sea-mount Shtil anti-aircraft missile system. At the armament of the Air Defense Forces of the Ground Forces of the People's Liberation Army of Uzbekistan, 24 of such a complex is currently located.

The rocket of the HQ-16A anti-aircraft missile complex is launched vertically from the transport and launch container. At the same time, this type of air defense system is capable of striking aerodynamic targets at both high and low altitudes at a distance of up to 40 km. In terms of its combat capabilities, it occupies an intermediate position between short-range HQ-7 short-range anti-aircraft missile systems and long-range HQ-9. The HQ-16A division includes a command and control station, a radar detection and three fire batteries. Each battery has a radar for illumination and guidance, and four launchers, each of which is located on an automobile chassis with the 6x6 wheel formula and is equipped with six missiles.

The HQ-16A anti-aircraft missile system is capable of striking aircraft-type targets at a range of 3,5–40 km, and cruise missile targets at a range of 3,5–12 km. The minimum target hitting altitude is 15 m, the maximum - 15 m. The probability of hitting an airplane-type target is more than 000. According to Chinese sources, the complex's radar illuminates targets periodically, which makes it difficult for the enemy to use anti-radar aviation missiles. It has high noise immunity and can direct missiles to four targets simultaneously, using inertial guidance in the initial phase of flight and a semi-active radar homing head (GOS) in the final segment of the trajectory in conditions of active use of electronic warfare by the enemy. Thanks to this, the area of ​​destruction of aerodynamic targets has significantly increased.

The most modern and most effective air defense systems of the PLA Ground Forces are front-line self-propelled self-propelled anti-aircraft missile systems C-300В (9К81) acquired from Russia. These complexes, as well as their unlicensed copies, received the Chinese designation "Hunzi-18" (HQ-18). The combat capabilities of this system make it possible to effectively solve tasks not only to cover groups of troops (forces), as well as important military and rear facilities, but also centers of state and military control, administrative and industrial facilities at the national level, complementing and interacting with the HQ-15 system ( C-300 PMU1), part of the PLA Air Force Air Defense System, which is essentially the country's air defense / missile defense system. These systems were purchased in Russia. Subsequently, Chinese unlicensed counterparts were created, which, according to some sources, are inferior to the original in many respects. This, in particular, is evidenced by the fact that the air defense / missile defense system of the Chinese capital is still equipped with Russian-made systems.

The composition of the combat means of the anti-aircraft missile system HQ-15 includes:

- two quadruple launchers with light anti-aircraft guided missiles, twin launchers, launchers with heavy anti-aircraft guided missiles;

- All-round radar with the detection range of airplanes up to 240 km, ballistic missiles of the Scud type to 150 km (ballistic missiles of the Lance type - up to 95 km) in the conditions of electronic countermeasures;

- radar software review capable of detecting high-speed aerodynamic targets in the conditions of electronic countermeasures at a distance of up to 175 km;

- Multichannel guidance radars providing guidance for 12 missiles at six targets with an aircraft detection range of up to 150 km, ballistic missiles - up to 60 km;

- mobile control point.

The system kit includes four anti-aircraft missile systems with six launchers and six launchers and a missile guidance station each.


Chinese experts have been doing research for a long time to develop tools to combat hypersonic rocket systems and have made significant progress in this direction.

An important achievement of the Chinese developers was the introduction of the special passive direction finding mode of the active jammer and homing director to the homing head of the latest ZRS modifications. The introduction of such a mode significantly increases the combat capabilities of the air defense system, allowing you to receive additional target designation data in the case of active interference from the manned aircraft and the enemy's UAV, since the interference itself becomes a source of additional information for more accurate missile guidance.

Chinese specialists are actively searching for and developing innovative forms and methods of using air defense / missile defense systems in network-centric hostilities. In particular, in order to improve the effectiveness and combat stability of air defense / missile defense, they are studying the possibility of creating modular groups of air defense / missile defense forces and weapons consisting of heterogeneous systems and complexes combined into a common information system with a single command and control center. According to Chinese experts, the use of a modular system allows you to create a highly reliable, multi-layered, layered air defense / missile defense system that provides the ability to detect and use, on a time scale as close as possible to real, exactly those tools that are intended to combat specific aerodynamic goals. defeat heights and distance, to respond as flexibly as possible to changes both in the nature of the aerospace threat, and in the specific combat situation.
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  1. Magic archer
    Magic archer 6 December 2015 07: 23
    The end of the article was interesting. What kind of niokr are we talking about?! The Chinese are not coming up with anything, they are stupidly copying! Now they are just waiting for C-400 deliveries from us.
    1. afdjhbn67
      afdjhbn67 6 December 2015 07: 54
      Quote: Magic Archer
      The Chinese do not come up with anything, they stupidly copy!

      No, they are not stupidly copying, but the best, and improving as much as possible - no need to keep a billion for idiots ...
      1. Magic archer
        Magic archer 6 December 2015 07: 59
        Didn’t I call them idiots ?! This is not about that at all. We sell our weapons to China, which subsequently not only steals technology, but also sells it to others, and at the same time it greatly reduces the price! And let's not forget that China goes its own way. in a way that we may not like much in the future soldier
        1. afdjhbn67
          afdjhbn67 6 December 2015 09: 07
          Quote: Magic Archer
          ! It's not about that at all.

          we are talking about the fact that of all the ways they choose the most rational and less costly ..
          And what will happen next is unknown to us - I will not vang ..
      2. Amurets
        Amurets 6 December 2015 11: 56
        Quote: afdjhbn67
        No, they are not stupidly copying, but the best, and improving as much as possible - no need to keep a billion for idiots ...

        For interest, look at the Beetle Revolvers, pistols, rifles, assault rifles, in short, torture to list all small arms. But that’s not the point. The fact is that for centuries the Chinese have copied everything that is beneficial for industries, including weapons. So, not only we have Chinese I’ve brought the Beetle’s book as confirmation that not only the Chinese copy successful weapons, the Japanese and Koreans and even the United States were involved in it. They are all messy in one world. And the Chinese are not guilty of observing the license agreement, since the weapons created in Russia and C CP never patentovalos.Posmotrite neighboring post of missile weapons, nuclear shield of Russia.
        1. afdjhbn67
          afdjhbn67 6 December 2015 16: 17
          Quote: Amurets
          For interest, see Beetle

          But what is there to conceal - we borrowed the atomic bomb from the Americans, figs exchanged for trifles ..
    2. alekc73
      alekc73 6 December 2015 09: 43
      Completely and completely agree. Delivering to "Chinese friends" S-400 and Su-35 is silly. They will copy and sell all over the world. The history of S-300 and Su-27 did not teach our statesmen anything. The Chinese do not comply with licensing agreements.
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 6 December 2015 09: 11
    Do I have a question for the author about passive self-guidance heads? Tell me, can I use these heads for jammers, just like anti-radar missiles? I mean for electronic warfare systems in the active mode? The article is interesting, but the fact that China copies the most successful weapons are the practice of the whole world.
  3. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 6 December 2015 11: 42
    China is copying, but so far not too good. They have problems with understanding. Many of my friends in Siberian universities teach Chinese students.
    So, they say that the student is not the same. The understanding did not increase, but the diligence and hard work that they had previously distinguished themselves was significantly less. And arrogant steel. Straight, representatives of the highest race. I had to get acquainted with a number of works (dissertations) of these "specialists".
    Sleep well, gentlemen. They can copy - parrots also speak the human language - but ... In short, you can sell them anything. While they have such specialists - it’s safe.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 6 December 2015 16: 52
      "Sleep well, gentlemen." ////

      I wouldn’t sleep peacefully. Israel works with China.
      So here are the reviews on software and electronics: the Chinese "grasp
      on the fly ", delve deeply into complex systems, do not just copy,
      but improve. We have competition with China in the most advanced technologies
      growing every year (and not in our favor).

      Maybe in Siberia they send specially not the smartest guys to study, so that
      Russians "relaxed and dozed off"?
  4. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 6 December 2015 15: 10
    You cannot copy R&D. They copied the principle of starting a system interaction scheme. And gunpowder, and rocket fuel, and electronics, and software? This must first be individually copied, and then linked into a single system. It’s the same as Americans say that we copied the atomic bomb from them. We copied the concept and scheme, and without nuclear physicists we would not have done it. So it is here.
  5. mvg
    mvg 6 December 2015 23: 24
    Anything. Just do not underestimate China. The diversity of air defense in China, the most developed countries, in this regard, can envy. And they are developing more and more new complexes. Taking the best from Patriot, Aster, S-300 ..
    According to R&D. Has China already introduced 2 flight variants of a 5th generation fighter? Plus an unconfirmed bomber. And hypersonic tests? What about an aircraft carrier? And the destroyer 055? A bunch of tactical and ballistic missiles? And let's say they put their tanks above ours .. and the BMP / BTR there too ..
    And they have no problems with electronic stuffing, unlike us .. Their electronics also "flies" on the F-22. And we have "Elbrus" 4-nuclear, and produced in Taiwan. (Intel recently announced the 72-core Xeon).
    PS: Roskomnadzor published a full list of “pirated” sites ... Thank you !!! And then I'm tired of looking for them all over the Internet.