Since 1947, the OKB of the Gorky Automobile Plant has been developing the development of a light-wheeled armored vehicle “Object 141” (the future BTR-40). In parallel with the Gorky engineers, the Muscovites of the Design Bureau of the Engineering Committee of the Soviet Army, a group of designers under the leadership of A.F. Kravtsov.
K-75 in the Armored Museum in Kubinka
They worked quite productively: in addition to the BTR, they also developed a amphibious tank, self-propelled guns and an armored personnel carrier (another one). But first things first. By 1949, the model of an experienced tracked armored personnel carrier was manufactured by the Military Repair Plant No. XXUMX GBTU. The project was approved for manufacturing by a commission under the leadership of Marshal of the Engineering Troops M.P. Vorobyov, which highlighted the advantages and disadvantages of a combat vehicle.
As the base of the BTR, the engineers used a sufficient number of previously used equipment samples: T-70, YaAZ-200, M2 Half-Track. The chassis was an advanced tank chassis, the machine was driven by a two-stroke four-cylinder engine YAZ-204B liquid cooling with a capacity of 140 l / s (a copy of the American GMC 4-71, placed on the M2). The transmission was borrowed from the YAZ-200. MTO armored car was located on the starboard side of the front of the armored car. Fuel tanks with a capacity of 220 liters provided a range of about 170 km. The control department, where the combat crew was located (the driver and the gunner-radio operator who operated the SG-43 machine gun and the 10RT-12 radio station), was located on the port side of the front of the hull.
The troop compartment of an experienced, built sample, located in the rear part of the vehicle, contained the 16 landing force people, who were located on folding benches. The infantry was dismounted / landed through two stern doors and an open vehicle frame. In case the seats were removed for the landing, the K-75 turned into a cargo conveyor weighing up to 2 tons. Armament - 7.62 mm SG-43, which is installed in the slots that were available throughout the body of the machine; Ammunition - 1 000 ammunition, 4 curb ribbons for 250 ammunition, and 12 grenades F-1. The welded body of the armored personnel carrier was sheathed with armor plates up to 13 mm thick. Frontal armor - mm 13 at an angle of 50 degrees; sides and feed of the machine - 12 and 10 mm, respectively, mounted vertically; bottom - 3 mm.
The K-75 BTR could overcome a wall up to 0.7 meters in height, a 2.25 meter level
In September, the 1950, the machine was factory tested. The armored personnel carrier made a mileage of the order of 2000 km, in particular, 800 km - at night. The commission is led by Colonel-General P.P. Poluboyarova highlighted the following machine benefits: rational angles of booking slopes; the use of components and assemblies of existing models of equipment; low machine silhouette (1 550 mm); small width, therefore, turning radius; the ability to overcome water obstacles (albeit with the installation of a separate water jet); small weight of the machine (empty - 7 820 kg).
Were also noted and disadvantages of the machine: poor permeability, small capacity of the machine and insufficient power density. K-75 was not put into service, but the commission did not finally reject the project - sent it for revision, expressing a desire to see corrections in the car, including: changing the capacity of the car to 24-s, increasing the speed of movement, the ability to independently overcome water obstacles. It was planned to produce two prototypes, but the development in OKB IC SA was discontinued. The only sample of the car is stored in the Armored Museum in Kubinka.
Designed back in 1938, a four-wheel drive biaxial truck of the Gorky Automobile Plant was not put into production because of the war. Only 31 August 1948, the car, called GAZ-63, was put into series.
It was this truck that passed the state tests and surprised the leadership of the Main Automobile and Tractor Office, which has an impressive maneuverability, served as the basis for the creation of the future BTR-40, before being put into service - the 141 Object. Two design features provided the car with such record-breaking road performance: equal front and rear wheel ruts; lean-to tires of rear wheels. The performance characteristics for the armored personnel carrier were set by the military in 1947, i.e. a year before the release of GAZ - 63. A four-wheel-drive wheeled armored personnel carrier with a capacity of up to 8 airborne men - that was what the leadership required.
Simultaneously with the design and refinement of a civilian truck, an armored personnel carrier was being developed on the basis of the same truck. Developed by OKB GAZ under the leadership of Vsevolod Konstantinovich Rubtsov. Already by the 1949, two prototypes were ready, differing only in installation on one of them with a pair of KPVT and SGMB machine guns, on the other - one SGMB. The rest of the samples did not differ.
The 5 300 kg open type armored personnel carrier had a classic layout: the front part was the engine compartment, the central part was the control unit, and the aft part was the amphibious unit. The wheelbase of GAZ-63 was reduced by 600 mm, becoming equal to 2 700 mm. In addition, the suspension was reinforced by four, later - eight hydraulic shock absorbers. Since the engine compartment was booked, the designers had to arrange the engine units a little differently. The armored vehicle engine was a four-stroke gasoline GAS-78 forced to 3 l / s at 100 40 rpm. Power reserve of the car - 285 km. The body is welded, sheathed with armor plates 7-15 mm thick. The front of the armored vehicle had the thickest armor - 11-15 mm, sides - 8-9 mm, feed - 7-8 mm. Initially, the sides of the machine in the lower part had large tilt angles, but the serial BTR-40 had vertical sides. There were two crew members in the control compartment — the driver and the commander. Both surveyed through glazed hatches, which in the event of a threat were closed. The commander of the vehicle also performed the function of a radio operator, for this there was a short-wave tank radio station P-113. The crew could carry out the exit and landing of the car through the doors in the lower part of the control compartment.
BTR-40 in "natural habitat"
The troop compartment contained a 8 man who could dismount through a stern double door or through the sides. In the troop compartment for each infantry there was a seat, two clips for fastening the AK, ZIP, first aid kit and gas tank under the starboard. The armored personnel carrier was armed with one SGMB (Easel Goryunova Upgraded Armored Personnel Carrier) with ammunition in 1 250 cartridges loaded with 5 cartridges with cartridge tapes. There was a special bracket for the installation of PDM. Infantrymen could fire from individual rifle weapons through the loopholes.
A prototype of an armored personnel carrier (with one SGMB) went to state tests in the 1949 year. The car showed high throughput, could overcome the ford to a depth of 0.9 m and climb the slope of steepness to 30 degrees. 17 April 1949 of the Year The 141 object was adopted by the Soviet Army under the designation BTR-40. In 1950, the mass production of armored vehicles was set up at the GAZ named after Molotov. Produced from 1950 to 1960 of the year. The BTR-40 armored personnel carrier, released in a variety of modifications and number of 8 500 vehicles, was in service with the Soviet, and later the Russian army, up to the 1993 of the year after which it was removed from service.
In parallel with the development of an armored troop-carrier in the OKB "Serial car bureau" (the secret name of the Design Bureau at the GAZ plant), the BTR-40 modification, special for the air defense forces, was also developed. The car differed from the basic installation of the two 14.5 two-caliber machine guns of Vladimirova. The ammunition of such an anti-aircraft gun was 1 200 cartridges equipped with 24 tapes. Due to the change in the size of the fighting compartment, the crew of the vehicle increased to 4-x people (+ 2 loaders), the transport of the landing force became impossible. Machine weight increased from 5 300 kg to 5 600 kg. BTR-40А was adopted by the SA in 1951 year, in the same year was put into production.
In 1956, the developers created an experienced BTR-40 with a centralized pressure control system (by adding special tubes to the wheels, which pumped air in the event of wheel penetration, leaving the pressure constant) in tires and with a ventilation system to ensure safety from chemical and bacteriological weapons. According to some information, the car was put into service and made in 1957 year, according to other data it was not accepted for service.
The first baptism of fire BTR-40 is the suppression of the uprising in Hungary in the year 1956. The car was tested by fight, its advantages and disadvantages were determined. One important design feature, namely the open top of the car, was both a strength and a disadvantage. On the one hand, with the defeat of an armored personnel carrier, the landing force could be evacuated from the vehicles as quickly as possible. On the other hand, the infantryman is vulnerable to attack from a height.
In the same year, 1956, Gorky engineers modified the BTR-40. The machine, in addition to increasing the height of the 130 mm, received a welded roof with 4-me landing hatches, closing the troop and combat compartment.
Troop compartment 40B
The number of paratroopers was reduced to 6 people, instead of 8. Brackets for the installation of machine guns on the sides had to be removed. The armored personnel carrier completely lost its weapons, in return for receiving additional loopholes in inclined sides. Adopted in 1957 year under the designation BTR-40B. Produced from 1957 to 1960 of the year.
BTR-40 railway (railway)
Basic BTR-40, which was equipped with flanges for movement by rail. The machine was not serial, however, this kind of modification could be carried out and carried out in the army workshops.
BTR-112 (112 Object)
In 1949, in the city of Sverdlovsk, an armored personnel carrier based on a tank, or rather, an ACS - SU-100P, was developed at the Ural Transport Engineering Plant. The group of Sverdlovsk engineers was led by Lev Izrailevich Gorlitsky, the legendary designer, the creator of the SU-85 / 100 / 122 machines.
Object 112, Cuba
BTR was developed and released in a short time - in the same 1949 year. The car differed from the “donor” (SU-100P) in an elongated base (6 460 mm + 640 mm = 7 100 mm) and in addition to the rollers - they became 7 instead of 6. The body of the machine is welded, open type, made of armor steel with a thickness of 15 mm, therefore, the booking is anti-bullet / splinterproof. The layout of the machine was almost unchanged: in the front of the case there was a logistics and control compartment. The BTR was set in motion by a V-shaped diesel engine B-105-V with a maximum power of 400 l / s at 2 000 revolutions per minute. The engine allowed the car to weigh in 18 200 kg accelerated to the maximum 65 km / h. Power reserve - 300 km. The object did not know how to swim, but it overcame a ford up to a meter deep.
A huge troop compartment occupied the rest of the body. Crew - 3 person: driver, commander of the machine, gunner-radio operator. The landing party is a 25 man, the landing and landing of which was carried out through a special aft door. It should be noted that the large capacity of the machine was due to one of the test concepts in the development of armored personnel carrier - "platoon". That is, each country designing and producing BTRs tried to reduce the number of already expensive cars by increasing capacity.
As a prime example, the American Doughboy's Friend, M-44, for up to 27 people
The Soviet 112 Object was armed with two machine guns - the 14.5KPVT in an open turret with ammunition in 500 cartridges and 7.62 SG-43 mounted on a special bracket on the right side of the machine and having 500 ammunition ammunition.
The only made sample of the machine did not even reach the factory tests. The 112 object is kept in the Kubinka Armored Museum.
The fate of this project was closely linked with the fate of amphibious tanks. In the same year, 1947, OKB IK SA led the development of a number of amphibious vehicles (indicated by K-75, amphibious transporters and amphibious tank). At the same time, with competitors in the “place” of the Soviet armored carrier, there was a “battle for life and death” between two projects of amphibious tanks: the 740 object (a joint development of engineers from the VNII-100 Chelyabinsk and Leningrad) and K-90 (developed by the same engineers under the leadership of A.F. Kravtsov, OKB IC of the Soviet Army). In the event of a "victory" in this "race" of floating tanks, the opponent immediately provided a place in the niche of armored personnel carriers to his "fellow" - a project of a floating armored carrier based on a "winner" tank. It so happened that won the Leningrad-Chelyabinsk Object 740, adopted as PT-76. On the basis of this machine will be created 750 Object.
The machine, which developed on the basis of the floating tank K-90 from 1949 to 1950, was made in metal in 1950. The armored personnel carrier, which has much in common with the tank, inherited almost all of the design features of the “donor” and the previous project, K-75. Armored vehicle chassis - modified tank, engine and transmission - from YAAZ-200. Power reserve - up to 250 km. MTO occupied the entire front part of the starboard. The department of management, in which the mechanic – driver was located, was located to the left of the logistics and maintenance department. Behind the mechanic was the seat of the machine commander, equipped with a radio station 10РТ-12 and СГ-43. Ammunition was 1 000 ammunition in four curb ribbons.
Landing in an armored personnel carrier
The troop compartment contained the 22 man, the landing / landing of which was carried out through a special hinged door in the stern or through the open top. On the sides of the car there were two special brackets for mounting machine guns. The troop compartment turned into a cargo compartment when the seats were folded. In this department there was everything to convert the K-78 into a conventional conveyor: winches for fixing artillery, shelves for transporting boxes of ammunition. The payload for the BTR was about 2 500 kg, while the machine did not lose buoyancy. In turn, the armored vehicle was set in motion by water with two special propellers located in the feeding tunnels. The stability of the machine afloat was provided by a special hull that has more in common with the ship than with a ground vehicle. The design of the machine was reinforced by two power frames, which provided the proper rigidity. Anti-bullet / anti-fragmentation booking K-78 provided armor with a thickness of up to 15 mm. The largest thickness of armor in the frontal part is 15 mm, the hull is 10 mm, the bottom is 6 mm.
From May 19 to June 26, the BTR began military tests. The test commission decided to continue the improvement of the armored vehicle and correct the shortcomings inherent in K-78, including: inconvenient placement of the landing force, smoke control section. Constructively modified BTRs went to the test sites in 1952, by October the works on the machine were curtailed due to the adoption of the PT-76 and the development of the 750 Object. The only surviving copy of K-78 is stored in Kubinka.
At a time when Gorky workers were working on their “141 Object” on the basis of GAZ-63, work on the creation of a heavier armored personnel carrier “140 Object” was carried out at the Stalin Plant. The OKB ZiS, under the direction of Boris Mikhailovich Fitterman, designed her armored vehicle based on her own truck, the ZiS-151.
The 4 three-axle vehicle with huge payloads was perfectly suited for building a heavy armored personnel carrier. Developers who are not constrained in any means, nor in the desire to create a successful machine, began work in the 1947 year. The machine, as well as its base, had three axles, but with the exception that the rear wheels were single-pitch, unlike the ZIS-151. Initially, the designers were tasked to create two standardized heavy armored personnel carriers.
One was to be based on the 3 and С-152 chassis (the base with single rear wheels), the second - on the ZIS-153 chassis (the base with the wheel-tracked propulsion). But, later, on the tests, the wheeled version of the armored personnel carrier will show the best indicators of patency than its rival with the wheel-tracked propulsion, therefore only the wheeled armored personnel carrier will go into the series. The basis of the 8.7-ton armored personnel carrier, in contrast to most of the "C" armored vehicles, was not the frame, but the armored hull itself. It was attached to all the main units of the machine. The hull was made of armor steel with a thickness from 4 to 13 mm, i.e. Provided anti-bullet and anti-fragmentation booking. The front of the hull carried 13 mm steel, beads - 8-10 mm, feed - 9 mm, bottom - 4 mm. The layout is classic: front - MTO, in the middle - the department of management and the fighting compartment, rear - landing. The engine is a six-cylinder petrol ZIL -123B hp 110 with 3 000 rpm. Coupled with the 6-speed gearbox, the car could reach a maximum speed of 65 km / h. The crew housed the entire crew: the driver and the commander of the car. The base radio station of the car was 10PT-12. Exit the car for the crew through the side doors. The troop compartment on the 17 man. The landing was located on the 2-x longitudinal (along the sides) benches. The landing / dismounting of the landing force could be accomplished through the aft door or by “jumping over” the sides of the hull. Armament - 7.62 mm SGMB with ammunition in 1 250 cartridges (5 boxes with ribbons for 250 cartridges, one curb).
The car went to the test at the beginning of 1950, which it was successful. 24 March 1950, an armored personnel carrier. The 140 object was adopted by the Soviet Army under the name of the BTR-152.
A modification of the heavy armored personnel carrier for the air defense forces was developed in the 1951 year. It differed from the base machine by installing a pairing 14.5 mm KPV with ammunition in 1 200 cartridges. Unlike its “younger brother”, the BTR-40А did not gain such popularity in the Soviet Army, but due to its large size it could carry troops. The crew of the car has increased to 3-x people: the driver, the commander of the car, loader.
The landing force was reduced to 6 people. Otherwise, the armored personnel carrier had the characteristics of the base machine. Adopted in 1952 year, produced at the Stalin Plant before 1955 year.
Modification for air defense troops. The machine is completely identical to the BTR-152A, differed only in the installation of a quad-mounted ZPTU-4 machine guns KPV. The armored personnel carrier, developed in the 1952 year, did not go into the series, and was released in the 4 series with machines.
An attempt to apply a tire pressure control system was made back in 1953 by OKB ZiS engineers under the supervision of chief engineer Vitaly Andreevich Grachev. An experimental version of the car was ready for the 1954 year, when in June the car was shown in motion through the marsh personally to the Minister of Defense of the USSR - G.К. Zhukov. The armored vehicle, which was regulated tire pressure, easily passed this test, so the developers have received approval for production. The first batch of 20 machines by order of G.K. Zhukova participated in the exercises of the Belarusian Military District, where she showed excellent patency. Therefore, the machine was put into mass production in 1955, at ZiS, where it was produced until the end of 1959.
It is worth noting that this was the world's first production car with tire inflation. The experience of using the BTR-152V showed that the tire pressure control system is a vital function for any wheeled vehicle.
A car similar to the “B” model, equipped with a TVN-2 night vision device and an improved tire pressure adjustment system. Improved by ZiL Design Bureau under the guidance of V.A. Grachev in 1957 year. The BTR was launched into the Likhachev plant (1957-1959 year), later it was produced at the BAZ (1960-1962) facilities of the year.
After the events in Hungary, 56 of the year, not only GAZ engineers were forced to urgently work on modifying their offspring with the roof closed. In the shortest possible time, in less than 3 a month, already by 1957, the ZiS released a batch of the BTR-152 with a closed hull. The BTR-152K received a roof made of steel with a thickness of 8 mm, in which there were 3 folding covers for the landing of troops. The number of troops carried decreased to 13 people. This modification received additional loopholes and an 4 bracket for attaching the SGMB machine gun to the hatchways. The machine was put into service in the spring of the year 1957 under the designation BTR-152K. The release of an armored personnel carrier was arranged at the Likhachev Plant (1957-1959), later moved to the power of the Bryansk Automobile Plant (1960-1962).
Serial BTR-152 proved to be reliable and good car. Over the years, many deficiencies and design flaws have been eliminated. But, nevertheless, the military was not satisfied with the situation with the vehicle’s permeability, as well as the impossibility of overcoming the enemy’s trenches more than 0.9 m wide. Wheel swapping system, introduced in modification B, and later B1, corrected the situation with maneuverability . Then in 1957 the designers of the OKB ZiL (formerly ZiS, renamed to ZiL after the 1956 of the year) under the direction of V.А. Grachev (the creator of the 152В modification) approached the solution of the problems more than originally.
The first Object received three equally spaced axes. The car received excessive controllability, therefore, in the constructed model of the BTR-E152B, only the first two axles were made manageable. Also installed on the armored vehicle was a pneumatic booster steering wheel and special wide tires (wider rim) and wheel inflation system (through the wheel hub). In addition to these structural changes, the base of the armored car received a significant increase in length (from 3 880 m to 4 526 mm). Overall length reduced by 240 mm. The total capacity of the amphibious compartment has also decreased: to 14 people.
On the test machine went in the same year 1957. At the landfill in Bronnitsy, the BTR-E152B underwent comparative tests with such vehicles as the BTR-152B, ZIL-157 (truck). The armored personnel carrier showed itself from the best side: the overcrowded moat increased to 2.5 meters (instead of 0.9 meters), the total cross-country ability (especially in wetlands) increased due to lower ground pressure. However, a good and successful model turned out to be not so reliable: the hinges of equal angular velocities of the middle bridge "gave slackness" and often broke. Also, when driving at a speed of more than 40 km / h, the prototype became unmanaged.
The next prototype had already as leading and, at the same time, controlled front and rear axles. The CV joints were also replaced, which, coupled with the change in the steering bridges, somewhat increased the reliability of the machine. However, an experienced armored personnel carrier did not immediately become a reliable machine: the main gear teeth were now broken. After correcting the defects, the object again went to the tests. Now, in addition to overcoming the trenches and off-road, as a test, "the swamp" was added. Overcoming the marshland for any car, especially a wheeled vehicle, is an almost impossible task. It was a triumph not only for the developers, but also for the BTR-E152B. The armored personnel carrier, in contrast to the competitor in the face of the BTR-152В, was not an elm and did not even slip.
The car, overcoming the swamp, and leaving behind a rut, returned to the start in the same way. As a fact of the phenomenal cross-country ability of this armored personnel carrier, it can be added that a car weighing almost 9 tons, “equipped” with special four-layer tires when adjusting the pressure to 1 kgf / cm2, left 5 in depth on the snow, see
All data innovations and record figures were not given nothing. An armored personnel carrier with its 110-strong 123В was beyond its power not only to show the previous maximum 65 km / h, but also to work normally. The torque was not enough, the engine is constantly heated. Speed dropped to 52 km / h. In view of the lack of power and the impossibility of installing another engine without completely changing the vehicle, the three-axle armored personnel carrier was not adopted by the Soviet Army.
At the same time, the Soviet Union, in view of the growing threat of NATO, was forced to adapt to the possible European theater of operations with its many rivers. In addition to the USSR, a new theater had to adapt to the technology: now it was also required to be able to overcome water obstacles on its own. Alas, none of the Soviet armored personnel carriers, in particular the BTR-152 and its modifications, did not satisfy this requirement.
BTR-152 and its modifications became one of the most massive BTR in the world and the Soviet army. The machine served the motherland to 1993 year, after which it was removed from service.