Poland recalls Volyn Massacre
The new president of Poland, Andrzej Duda, who was elected to this post in the spring of 2015, repeatedly raised in his speeches the question of the need to de-prime the Ukrainian insurgent army. It is no secret that it is precisely the ideology and practice of the UPA and the OUN, the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, that Kiev is today used to build Ukrainian national identity. It is the OUN-UPA militants who are considered by the Kiev authorities as new national heroes of Ukraine, who should become an example for modern Ukrainians. Appealing to the period of the Second World War, when UPA detachments fought against the Soviet troops liberating Europe from Hitler’s Nazism, the Ukrainian authorities are trying to use the image of “Bandera’s” to consolidate the country's population and propagate Russophobic sentiments. Thus, in the ideology of modern Ukraine, "Banderovites" play an important and almost irreplaceable role. They are considered national heroes, and in the cities of Galicia their ideological followers march under the same banners and with the same slogans. But the Poles are extremely disagree with the “banderization” of Ukraine. The nearest western neighbors can not forget the famous Volyn massacre of Galicians - a terrible war crime during the Second World War.
- Andrzej Duda, President of Poland
Recall that in March 1943, the formation of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army - the Organization of Ukrainian nationalists (Bandera) began a real genocide of the Polish civilian population in the territory of Volyn. For a long time, an impressive Polish population lived in this region of Western Ukraine. After all, these lands were once part of the Commonwealth. Ukrainian nationalists cultivated anti-Polish sentiments because they viewed the Poles as enemies of the Ukrainian “separatist” and sought to avenge them over the centuries of finding the Galician lands under Polish rule. Back in 1942, the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (Bandera) decided to evict Poles living there from the Volyn lands. First, the OUN militants attacked the Poles, who were on the Nazi service and were engaged in the protection and management of state estates and forests. The next target of attacks from Bandera became the Poles, who moved to Volyn after the end of the First World War. Then came the turn and the indigenous Poles, who lived for centuries in the countryside in Volyn. 11 July 1943. Bandera detachments simultaneously attacked more than 150 Polish settlements. The entire civilian population of Polish nationality was cut out, including women, old people and children. "Under the hot hand," Bandera fell and nepolyaki. Modern historians estimate the total number of victims of the Volyn Massacre at tens of thousands of people - from 30-40 to 50-70 thousand. Only by the end of the summer did the Polish formations of the Home Army and the Soviet partisan detachments begin to carry out retaliatory actions against the Ukrainian villages where the units of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army were based. Sometimes divisions of the Home Army came to kill Ukrainian civilians, but the scale of the victims of the Poles and Bandera’s actions are still incomparable.
For Poland, the issue of recognizing the Volyn massacre has always been of fundamental importance. Of course, a significant part of the Polish population has always very negatively perceived the celebration of Bandera in Ukraine. It is noteworthy that dissatisfaction with the "banderization" of Ukraine was not accompanied by adequate political assessments of the events taking place in Ukraine. So, the Poles preferred to be friends with Yushchenko, although it was he who proclaimed Stepan Bandera the hero of Ukraine. Viktor Yanukovych canceled the decree on assigning Bandera the title of hero of Ukraine. But sympathy from the Polish leadership did not deserve. Similarly, today Warsaw seems to demonstrate full support for the actions of the Kiev regime, which heroized Bandera. The fact that many Poles ancestors died during the Volyn massacre, the Polish government does not take into account. They continue to cooperate with Kiev - current policy is more important historical memory. However, on July 15, 2009, the Sejm of Poland adopted a resolution emphasizing that the OUN and UPA carried out mass killings that were of the nature of ethnic cleansing and possessed signs of genocide. Four years later, on July 15, 2013, the Polish Sejm again adopted a special resolution dedicated to the seventieth anniversary of the tragic events in Volyn. It also emphasized that the Volyn massacre was carried out according to ethnicity and bore the features of the genocide of the Polish population. The number of those killed in 1942-1945 was named. Poles of Volyn and Eastern Galicia - about 100 thousand people. At the same time, in the 2013 declaration, gratitude was expressed to those Ukrainians who risked their lives protecting the “Polish brothers” from terror from the Ukrainian Insurgent Army - the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists.
Will Kiev restitution wait?
Another important issue for modern Poland is the restitution of Polish property in Ukraine. We are talking about making claims of a property nature from a number of Polish citizens whose ancestors before Galicia joined the USSR owned land in the territory of modern Ukraine. Of course, making claims for the return of land or compensation became possible only after the pro-Western regime came to power in Ukraine. It turns out that the Ukrainian nationalists - russophobes have fallen on the "gratitude" from the Polish nationalists. Polish nationalists are always ready to support Kiev against Russia, but they do not forget about their own interests, including property. In Poland, the Restitution of the Kresov organization operates, which has already collected 600 packages of documents with a view to going to court on the issue of the return of Polish property in Ukraine. According to a representative of the organization, 1,2 has collected thousands of statements from Polish citizens who are counting on returning property belonging to their ancestors. In Warsaw, Krakow, Lublin, Chelme, Przemysl, Szczecin, meetings with local residents are held in order to collect applications from those who want to return their property. The organization threatens that in case of evasion of the Ukrainian courts from making decisions on restitution, it will appeal to the courts of the United States and Europe.
By the way, the Restitution of the Cresses organization itself is very young, it appeared only in April of the current 2015 of the year. That is, it was the change of power in Ukraine and the subsequent weakening of the Ukrainian state and its transformation into a complete puppet of the European Union and the United States that led to the revival of revanchist ideas in Poland, including the idea of restitution of Polish property. The Association of Ukraine with the European Union is possible if there are no complaints against Ukraine from the countries - participants of the European Union. The Poles, in this case, successfully seized the moment - it is quite likely that the Kiev government would have no choice but to proceed with the return of the land to Polish citizens. It is interesting only how this process will occur. Indeed, at least 100 of thousands of people live in Poland who possess evidence that they owned property on the territory of modern Western Ukraine. In the case of claims to Ukraine, we can talk about property worth billions of dollars. For Ukrainian citizens and the Ukrainian authorities, the need to return real estate to the previous owners may entail many problems - after all, in the mansions of the Polish gentry have long been public institutions, including government bodies, many houses are divided into apartments and are owned by citizens. However, in Poland itself not all politicians adhere to the idea of the need for restitution. Those who doubt the benefits of this event for the Polish state have a weighty argument - if the Poles demand that Ukraine return their property, which they owned before the Second World War, then the Germans would not be able to come up with similar demands to Poland, which included included a number of German lands? Finally, by no means all Polish politicians are inclined to spoil relations with Kiev, especially since the United States of America looms behind the back of the Ukrainian authorities, and they are also the “senior partner” of Poland.
Territorial claims. "Lviv - Polish city"
However, if Ukraine returns the land or pays compensation for them to Polish citizens, Ukraine is still theoretically able, then the prospect of Poland making specific territorial claims on Kiev becomes a much more problematic issue for her. The fact is that Poland views the lands of Western Ukraine as illegally alienated from her in 1939, and then, after the Second World War, remaining in the Soviet Union. In the period between the two world wars, as is known, the territory of most of Western Ukraine (except for Transcarpathia and Bukovina) was part of Poland. It is quite natural that Polish nationalists raise the issue of the return of lands. When in a veiled form, and when-and quite frankly. As did the newly elected Polish Senator Jan Zharyn. He, in particular, stated that "without Lviv, a city that is always loyal to Poland, there is no Polish people." Also, the senator turned to the eternal theme of the Volyn Massacre and other actions of the OUN-UPA, saying that if Ukraine seeks to become a European state and join the Latin civilization family, it will not be able to achieve these goals, while justifying and supporting the activities of the UPA and OUN during World War II. According to Jaryn, the Ukrainians ’justification of the actions of the OUN-UPA shows that they are not ready to join the“ European family ”, since they consider genocide as an acceptable means of solving political issues and contradictions. Interestingly, Senator Zharyn represents the ruling Polish party, Law and Justice, which adheres to pro-American positions and, in theory, should act as a strategic ally of Kiev.
The complexity of the situation lies in the fact that for Poland and Ukraine, the historical memory of the Volyn massacre is of fundamental importance. For Poles, “turning a blind eye” to the rehabilitation of Bandera in modern Ukraine and their official proclamation as national heroes is tantamount to a betrayal of the memory of the victims of the Volyn tragedy. Roughly this would look similar if Hitler’s revival and Hitler’s rehabilitation took place in Germany, and Israel would turn a blind eye and continue to work closely with Germany, send government delegations and agree on integration processes. That is, in reality, such a situation is almost impossible. The Volyn massacre has symbolic meaning for the Poles, and here even the pro-American aspirations of modern Polish leaders may not overpower the national memory. Even more difficult for the Ukrainian regime. After all, the formation of modern Ukraine took place only through the exploitation of the images of “UPA heroes”. Bandera has become an integral and fundamental component of modern Ukrainian national ideology. If Kiev remove the OUN-UPA and Bandera, then there will be practically nothing to build the ideology of "Ukrainians" on. Ukrainian politicians are well aware of this, so they simply cannot go towards Poland and begin the process of degeneration of the UPA. Moreover, in Ukraine, after Euromaidan, the positions of right-wing radicals are especially strong. It is nationalists who form the basis of the most aggressive units of the national guard and the armed forces of Ukraine. They will never agree that official Kiev "betray" the "national heroes of Ukraine." Therefore, even the threat of worsening relations with Poland is unlikely in this case to affect the Kiev regime - after all, by degenerating the UPA, it will destroy the ephemeral mythology that it has created and cherished for a long time, contrasting it with the history of Little Russia and Soviet Ukraine.
The concept of "five Ukrain"
Among the Polish nationalists, nostalgic moods at the times of the Commonwealth are quite common. Revanchist sentiment increased especially after the events of 2013-2014. in Ukraine, when it became clear that post-Soviet Ukraine suffered a complete fiasco as a statement as an independent state and in the long run Poland could regain some of the land that it had torn off during World War II. Many Polish politicians have never concealed their true attitude towards Ukraine - as a Polish colony. Back in 2004, during the first Orange Revolution in Kiev, Poland supported the idea that Ukraine should not follow Russia, but should be together with Poland. Poland is regarded as the only country capable of patronizing Ukraine and “civilizing” it, bringing it to the Western world. On the eve of the 2014 events of the year, the opinion of the existence of the “five Ukrainians” was widespread among the Polish elite. The “Five Ukrainians” is an approximate scenario of the division of this failed Eastern European state in the event of a further deterioration in the situation of the country and certain agreements on the part of its neighbors. First, it is the Crimea. Actually, the Crimea has never been Ukrainian, and in Poland it is well understood. And they have no claims on the peninsula, since it was not part of Poland. Therefore, the Polish authorities calmly reacted to the reunification of the Crimea with Russia. Although Poland formally expressed sharp indignation about the reunification that had taken place and joined the sanctions against the Russian state, in reality the fact of the reunification of Crimea with Russia also gives the Polish nationalists hope for the possibility of reunification of Galicia with Poland. Secondly, these are the lands of Donbass and New Russia, where historically the positions of Russia, the Russian language and culture were strong. Poland has never put forward any claims to this part of Ukraine either - it is impossible to include the Russian population of Novorossia into Poland, and the Poles do not want to live in a polyethnic state. Thirdly, it is Central Ukraine with Kiev - Little Russia. For the Poles, it is also of no particular interest, since it is inhabited by Little Russia. The fourth part of Ukraine is Transcarpathia and Bucovina.
Historically Transcarpathian lands belonged to Hungary, then Czechoslovakia. Bukovina belonged to Romania. On the territory of the Transcarpathian region of Ukraine lives a very impressive Hungarian minority, which is closely associated with the neighboring Hungary. In many localities of Transcarpathia, even street signs are in Hungarian. In addition, the Slovaks live in Transcarpathia - they are to Slovakia. In the Chernivtsi region of Ukraine, the stratum of the Romanian population is significant. After the destabilization of the political situation in Ukraine, the Romanian leadership has repeatedly declared its readiness to stand up for its fellow tribesmen in Bukovina and Southern Bessarabia. Therefore, Poland, not wanting to spoil relations with Hungary and Romania, is not going to consider these territories as the object of its expansion.
The fifth part of Ukraine remains - Galicia and Volyn. Lviv, Ternopil, Ivano-Frankivsk, Volyn, Rivne regions of Ukraine have always been of strategic interest to Poland, since they were part of the Polish state before World War II. Lviv has long been a Polish city. Modern Polish nationalists do not get tired of constantly emphasizing this, with a corresponding hint to the Ukrainian government. Indeed, according to the census conducted at the beginning of 1930, two thirds of the population of Lviv were ethnic Poles. About a third of the population were Jews. And only 8% of the inhabitants of the “most Ukrainian” city were Ukrainians proper. A similar picture was observed in other cities of Western Ukraine. The Ukrainian population lived in rural areas, and the cities were Polish-Jewish in composition (in Bukovina under Romanian rule, German-Jewish). Naturally, the very fact of such a cardinal change in the ethnic composition of the population of Lviv and other Western Ukrainian cities leaves many questions, including regarding the facts of the genocide of the Polish and Jewish populations in the territory of Ukraine during the Second World War.
If Galicia and Volyn were incorporated into Poland, modern Polish leaders would remain in the history of their country as “restores of the state”. Moreover, ideas about the return of borders up to 1939 are very popular in Poland. Thus, in the current situation, the disintegration of Ukraine as a single state is extremely beneficial for Poland. In the event of the disconnection of Western Ukraine, which has no access to the sea and does not represent any political or economic competition to the Polish state, the regions of Galicia and Volyn will be doomed to the role of a full satellite of Warsaw - even if they retain some symbolic independence and statehood. What is Western Ukraine for Poland? Source of cheap labor and the market for the sale of Polish goods. But its subordination to Polish government, or at least influence, is a matter of restoring “historical justice,” as many Polish nationalists believe. At the same time, the existence of sovereign Ukraine as an artificial buffer between Russia and Poland is also important for Poland. In order not to come into contact with the borders of Russia, Poland is ready to support the independence of Ukraine, but at somewhat different borders. The fact is that the presence in Ukraine of numerous Russian and Russian-speaking population, among whom pro-Russian sentiments have always been strong, leaves behind the risk of Russia's subsequent domination in sovereign Ukraine. Therefore, one of the strategic objectives of Poland can be the final distancing of Ukraine from Russia, which can be achieved only by reducing the number of Russian and Russian-speaking population in Ukraine.
The most peaceful and optimal line for Poland to achieve this goal is the banal division of Ukraine. Poland expects to take away the old Polish lands in Galicia and Volyn, Donbass and Novorossia may remain in the sphere of Russian influence, and Ukraine will exist "around Kiev". In this scenario, the logical result will be the return of Bucovina Romania, and Transcarpathia - Hungary. In 2005, ten years ago, when it was difficult to imagine a civil war in the territory of Ukraine at that time, Polish MEP Marek Sivets emphasized that the existence of Ukraine as a buffer state is in the interests of the Polish side. But the borders of Ukraine should, at the same time, be different from the modern ones. As Sivets then asserted, Poland should stand for the division of Ukraine and bring it closer by all possible forces, since if the “Russian-Ukrainian” Ukraine is preserved, Russia will always have a chance to return its positions in this country again.
"Map of the Pole" and the course on the "polonization" of Galicians
Among the political decisions aimed at increasing Polish influence in Western Ukraine, we can mention the statements of the Polish Sejm on the Volyn Massacre considered earlier, as well as the statement on the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact adopted in 2009, according to which the lands of Western Ukraine included in the USSR. This also includes the restitution of Polish property in Ukraine. If Polish nationalist organizations succeed in getting the lands back in Western Ukraine, then vast territories will be owned by Polish citizens. Indeed, in the pre-Soviet Galicia and Volyn Ukrainians — the Galicians were peasants, and the Poles — landowners. In addition, Poland seeks to extend its political influence on the Poles remaining on the territory of Ukraine, as well as on that part of Ukrainians - Galicians, who do not have a clear Ukrainian identity and, with due “attention” from Poland, are able to “polonize” rapidly and perceive Polish identity. . Back in 2007, the “Map of the Pole” was adopted, which is available only to Poles living in the east of Poland. According to this card, it is possible to carry out labor and entrepreneurial activities, to receive education in Poland, if it is documented that there were at least one great-grandfather or great-grandmother of Polish nationality in the clan. However, a citizen who is not related to the Polish nation but who participates in the activities of Polish public organizations can also receive the Pole's Card. Thus, there remains a loophole for "polishing" of many Galicians, who can focus on getting the "Card of the Pole" for reasons of social and economic nature. Despite the fact that Poland is far from being the richest country in Europe, the standard of living of the population of Poland is still not comparable with the Ukrainian, especially after Euromaidan and the total political and economic collapse in Ukraine. Naturally, among Ukrainian citizens with Polish roots, the idea of obtaining a "Pole's Card" meets with great approval. After all, many residents of Western Ukraine have Polish relatives, but rather than living in a poor “independent power”, it is better to correct identity a little and turn into a Pole. It is known that Ukraine can live up to 1 million Poles. The number of Catholic population in Ukraine reaches 2 million.
It should also be borne in mind that Poland is an important supporter of the United States in Eastern Europe. Since the collapse of the socialist camp, it has demonstrated pro-American sentiments, and the considerable size and ethnic homogeneity of the population make Poland a very strong nut in the future, which can be used to assert US interests in the region. Of course, that in the 1990-th - the beginning of the 2000-s. The United States envisaged the possibility of the return of Russian influence in Ukraine and made a bet on Poland as the main tool in the conduct of anti-Russian policy. To this end, the United States in every way undertakes measures to strengthen Poland’s defense capability, working to increase the level of combat training and combat readiness of the Polish armed forces. Of course, the use of the Polish army on the territory of Ukraine has been repeatedly discussed, but so far there is no need for that. Today both Warsaw and Kiev are American satellites, which means they have to reckon with what the Washington Regional Committee will say to them. If the American leadership decides on the need to transfer part of the Ukrainian lands to Poland, Kiev will be in a difficult situation. But this will happen only if Ukraine finally demonstrates a complete inability to build an independent state. Otherwise, Ukraine will become a component in the US-built anti-Russian "ring", which also includes Poland, Romania and Turkey. Naturally, it is more profitable for the USA to have satellites both in Warsaw and in Kiev than to allow Kiev to return under the influence of Russia.
However, pro-American Ukrainian regimes already have a tradition of returning territories to neighboring countries. So, back in April, 2009. The International Court of Justice of the United Nations resolved a territorial dispute between Ukraine and Romania over the ownership of Snake Island in favor of Romania. Conditions for the transfer of the island, by the way rich in hydrocarbon resources, in favor of Romania were provided by Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko. It was Yushchenko who agreed to the consideration of the case of Zmein Island in the International Court of Justice, where there were no chances to win. Yushchenko also assured his Romanian colleague Traian Basescu that the decision made by the court would be surely implemented - regardless of which side the court would take. When Romania won the trial, real euphoria began in Bucharest. Romanian nationalists began to seriously talk about the prospects for the return of the lands of Northern Bukovina and Southern Bessarabia, which are part of Ukraine. In order to prepare the subsequent annexation of the Bukovina and Bessarabian territories, Romania began the process of issuing Romanian passports to Ukrainian citizens living in the Odessa and Chernivtsi regions. Like Poland, Romania has simplified the procedure for obtaining citizenship - with the expectation that many Ukrainians who are tired of living in impoverished Ukraine will decide to change their identity and, having discovered the Romanian or Moldovan ancestors, will apply for Romanian citizenship. Obviously, this is done precisely for the purpose of the promising annexation of the Ukrainian territories - otherwise the procedure for simplifying the acquisition of citizenship is not explained, since Romania and its citizens are abundant, and the standard of living of the population by European (but not by Ukrainian) standards is very low and many Romanians go to work in Western Europe. After the destabilization of the political situation in Ukraine, the question of the possible interference of Romania to protect its citizens and fellow tribesmen in Bukovina and Bessarabia was discussed in Romanian political circles much more often.
Variants of events
However, will Poland take a course on the partition of Ukraine in the current political situation? So far, the United States has been able to “crush” practically the entire territory of post-Soviet Ukraine under its influence, with the exception of the Crimea reunited with Russia and the Donbass fighting for its self-determination. Naturally, for the United States it is beneficial, but, at the same time, very burdensome. After all, Ukraine remains a subsidized state, in which its own economy is practically destroyed. The Ukrainian authorities are practically incapable of constructive activities and are typical “temporary workers”. At one time, such figures were staged in a number of countries where pro-American “color revolutions” occurred. The appearance of Mikhail Saakashvili, Maria Gaidar and a number of other people in Ukraine’s policy, who had practically no relation to Ukraine before, testifies, first, to the complete subordination of Kiev to Washington, and second, to the absence of their own bright cadres. In the conditions of the collapse of power in Ukraine, the United States, of course, will never rule out the possibility of the return of pro-Russian forces. The only region of Ukraine where the pro-Russian forces are guaranteed not to come to power is Western Ukraine (and even then, with the exception of Transcarpathia). Therefore, in the event of a change in the political situation in the country, Poland may well play a card with the return of the lands that had been torn away from her during World War II. On the other hand, Poland will have to introduce, if anything, its armed forces into the territory of Ukraine. Of the Eastern European allies of the United States, Poland is the most powerful state, and the Polish armed forces are much more capable than the same Romanian army, not to mention the armed forces of modern Ukraine. Therefore, Poland is assigned the role of the main "colonial troops" of the United States in Eastern Europe, including in Ukraine. Of course, Poland will not endure a confrontation with Russia, but the Polish army is quite capable of carrying out operations to maintain order in the occupied Western Ukrainian territories. Especially, if we take into account the funds invested in its equipment and training in recent years by the American and NATO military commanders.
Pro-American sentiments in modern Poland are associated with a very skeptical attitude of a large part of Polish politicians to the activities of the European Union. Especially scary Polish nationalists idea of providing quotas for migrants from the countries of the Middle East and Africa, rushing to the territory of the European Union. The fact is that Poland for the last decades has been practically a mono-ethnic state. After World War II, lands with the Ukrainian population were “withdrawn” from Poland. As for the many former Jews, those who were lucky enough to survive the Nazi occupation, most of them emigrated to Israel, the United States and other countries. Thus, in Poland, the absolute majority of the population are Poles. Naturally, the very possibility of the emergence in the country of migrants belonging to cultural worlds completely alien to Poland for the majority of the country's inhabitants seems simply wild. The right-wing right-and-justice party, which won the parliamentary elections in the country, gained popularity among Polish voters, including because it shows a principled position on the possibility of Poland accepting Asian and African refugees. Catholic Poland sees a direct danger to the ethnic and confessional unity of the country in accepting the citizens of Iraq, Syria, Somalia, Eritrea or Afghanistan, who overwhelmingly profess Islam and are carriers of very distant and unfamiliar modern Poles value and behavioral attitudes. But the question of granting quotas for migrants is of fundamental importance for the European Union. And pushes him Germany - a neighbor of Poland, until recently trying to "patronize" her. Justifying its reluctance to accept Asian and African migrants, the Polish leadership claims that Poland already plays the role of “defender of Europe” against the alleged potential Russian aggression, and also “insures” Europe against the likely flows of Ukrainian refugees - indeed, to Poland’s territory in the event of further destabilization life in Ukraine will flood the bulk of Ukrainian citizens. In this role - the defender of the European world from Russia and from Ukrainian refugees, as well as from migrants from the countries of the former Soviet Union - Poland is trying to defend its own "exclusivity" in the European space, counting on support from the United States.
The situation in Ukraine is currently worrying most of the countries of Western Europe, although it is already less than the events in Syria. In this context, Europe can “give the go-ahead” to Poland to take back the “European” part of Ukraine — that is, the western regions inhabited by the Catholic and Uniate population. This will help to avoid the costs of restoring the destroyed economy of all Ukraine and shift the responsibility for the further fate of this problematic state to Russia. Quite recently, the world media quoted the words of the new Polish President, Andrzej Duda, sufficiently characterizing the current political position of the Polish elite: “I urge all citizens of the Polish Republic to be ready to fight for the return of the former Polish lands, where our compatriots continue to be persecuted and humiliated by the already new Ukrainian leadership. If modern Ukraine condemns the actions of the USSR — and she condemns them — then this state should voluntarily return the lands of Poland that belonged to it before the 1939 year. We are already doing some work to return Polesia, Galicia and Volyn, and we need the support of the entire population of the Republic of Poland. Every resident of the country must be ready for a righteous struggle for the return of Polish territories, where a great number of ethnic Poles live, who need our protection ”(quoted in: http://www.aif.ru/). Naturally, in Ukraine, such speeches of the Polish president can not but cause suspicion. On the other hand, given the degree of subordination of Warsaw to Washington, it is unlikely that Andrzej Duda would begin to utter similar tirades without the latent permission of the United States. The very possibility of such statements by a Polish politician of the highest level indicates that the partition of Ukraine is considered as one of the most probable and promising options for further developments in the east of Europe.