Military Review

Messerschmitt Bf 109. Difficult start. H. 2

Messerschmitt Bf 109. Difficult start. H. 2

In accordance with the aircraft designation system adopted in Germany, the first Messerschmitt prototype was officially named Bf 109 V1 (V from Versuchs - experimental), at the same time it was assigned the civil code D-IABI, which was immediately written on its sides and wing. 15 October 1935 Propulsion Knoch overtook the aircraft in the Luftwaffe Test Center in Rechlin (Rechlin), where the prototype competition was to take place. Arriving at Rechlin, Knoche set up a spectacular show over the airfield, demonstrating the aerobatic properties of the car. However, an embarrassing accident occurred during the landing, which lubricated Knech's all efforts, the right landing gear cracked, and the plane received minor damage. Analysis of the causes of the accident revealed a tendency to disrupt the flow of air from the planes of the wing at high angles of attack, which took place at the “one hundred and ninth” landing - this was the first time when the large parking angle of the aircraft made itself felt. The car was quickly repaired, but the unpleasant residue remained.

Messerschmitt had to long and patiently prove to the members of the commission that nothing catastrophic had happened, that the normal process of finishing the experimental machine was going on, that such a large parking angle was chosen to ensure a landing approach with a large attack angle to reduce the landing speed, that slats retain aileron efficiency and loss of speed. The high ranks listened attentively to Messerschmitt, nodding knowingly in response, but it was clear to everyone that at the start of the tests the “one hundred and ninth” suddenly turned into an outsider ...

Meanwhile, competitors began to arrive at Rechlin: Ar 80, Fw 159 and He 112. For their aircraft, the designers of the company Arado chose a monocoque fuselage, which promised decent weight savings, a familiar open cockpit, a gull-wing with straight leading and trailing edges of the center section and a retractable landing gear. The prototype made its first flight in the spring of 1935, but it was soon lost as a result of the accident. Hope for a monocoque fuselage, the idea of ​​which was proposed by Walter Rethel, who worked at that company at that time, did not materialize and its design turned out to be overweight. Rethel had to resign, but he was immediately taken to Messerschmitt. Chassis cleaning turned into a very acute problem - the racks were constantly jammed in a semi-dismounted position. All attempts to solve this unexpected problem for competitive tests were unsuccessful. I had to make the chassis non-retractable, which immediately affected the speed characteristics. The machine could not stand the competition and quickly fizzled out. Flight technical characteristics of Ar 80 V2: crew - 1 people; engine - one twelve-cylinder in-line engine with liquid cooling Junkers Jumo 210C 640 l. with. at a height of 2700 meters; span - 10,89 m; length - 10,30 m; height - 2,65 m; wing area - 21,0 m²; empty weight - 1642 kg; take-off weight - 2125 kg; maximum speed at an altitude of 2700 meters - 415 km / h; rate of climb - 9,5 m / s; range - 800 km; ceiling - 9800; armament - 2 × 7,92-mm MG17 machine gun.

The Fokke-Wulf Fw 159 looked like a real relic of the past. The design of a parasol-type aircraft with a wing has been known since the First World War and was not widely popular among the creators aviation technicians, however, the chief designer of the company, Kurt Tank, was sure that the reserves of such an arrangement had not yet been exhausted. The fuselage of the monocoque type aircraft had an oval section and was made of light alloy. The strut wing was mounted on short racks and had a rectangular shape in plan. The cabin was closed by a movable lamp. Chassis ... There were big problems with the chassis and this plane. The harvesting-release mechanism was unique, the chassis was retracted by turning the racks back, followed by lifting the turning units up into the fuselage. The prototype crashed due to incomplete landing gear landing gear in the first flight. Further tests showed that the speed characteristics, climb rate and turn time of the aircraft were clearly lower than required. In Rechlin, the car looked pale and was soon removed from the competition. Flight performance Fw 159V2: crew - 1 people .; engine - one twelve-cylinder in-line liquid-cooled engine Junkers Jumo 210Da with a capacity of 680 liters. with.; span - 12,40 m; length - 10,00 m; height - 3,70 m; wing area - 19,50 m²; empty weight - 1877 kg; take-off weight - 2250 kg; maximum speed - 382 km / h; ceiling - 7200; armament - 2 × 7,92 mm MG17 machine gun.

Clean aerodynamic shape and retractable landing gear made the Heinkel He 112 machine a worthy rival of the “one hundred and ninth.” The commission was also impressed by the overall solidity of the aircraft’s forms, which indicated the inheritance of traditions in a well-known company. According to many experts, the open cockpit created good conditions for the review, and a smaller load on the wing and a wide gauge of the chassis spoke of high take-off and landing characteristics. Were visible and disadvantages - the plane was heavier, had an insufficient rate of climb and a smaller ceiling. Flight technical characteristics of He 112V4: crew - 1 people; engine - one twelve-cylinder in-line engine with liquid cooling Junkers Jumo 210Da with power 680 l. with.; span - 15,50 m; length - 9,00 m; height - 3,70 m; wing area - 19,50 m²; empty weight - 1680 kg; take-off weight - 2250 kg; maximum speed - 488 km / h; ceiling - 8000; range - 1100 m; armament - 3 × 7,92-mm MG17 machine gun.

Estimates in the air showed that the Bf 109 V1 has a better speed at 27 km / h. However, the test pilots of Rekhlin expressed concern about automatic slats that could work during sharp maneuvering, noted a high landing speed, a narrow chassis gauge and poor visibility from the aircraft cabin during landing. At the same time, they preferred He 112, which was devoid of such shortcomings and was more familiar to an experienced pilot. The first round was for Heinkel. The teams traveled to their firms to eliminate the identified comments, and the next round was scheduled for February 1936.

During this time, Messerschmitt managed to prepare and fly around the second prototype of the V2 (D-IUDE), on which the Jumo 210A engine of 610 l was installed. with. At the same time, taking into account the past sad experience, they reinforced the landing gear, provided places for mounting under-hood machine guns, and installed reinforcement plates on the fuselage in the tail area. At the end of February, the plane was distilled at Travemünde.

Heinkel also thoroughly worked on his car. Along with another engine (Jumo 210A), the aircraft acquired a new wing, which had a smaller area and span.

During the week, the testers examined both aircraft, squeezing the flight parameters from them. Especially carefully checked the work of automatic slats Bf 109, which caused the greatest concern among the pilots, but they behaved immaculately. The competition was pumped by a demonstration of pilotage "branded" pilots. Herman Wurster showed a spectacular cascade of figures on the Bf 109 V2. Next up on He 112 is Gerhard Nitschke. He made a series of energetic maneuvers, but one of them fell into a flat spin, and he had to throw himself out with a parachute. A large amount of work on the new prototype did not allow us to check the behavior of the aircraft in different flight modes.

Messerschmitt received an order for ten pre-production machines based on the Bf 109 V2 with the new designation Bf 109A (Anton), but Heinkel was not left with a nose. He recalled: “After testing both cars and carefully weighing the opinions of the engineers of his department, Udet decided to put the Messerschmitt fighter into service with the Luftwaffe. The launch into mass production of one type of fighter promised, of course, savings in materials and labor, but did not rule out the danger of replicating any admitted miscalculation in thousands of copies. I expressed this idea when meeting with Udet. The success of his idea of ​​a diving bomber gave him confidence, he already considered himself to some extent infallible. Perhaps, in order not to offend, but rather as a consolation, he told me: “Your bird, of course, sits down and flies better. She has the chassis that is necessary. But if we can receive machines from Messerschmitt tomorrow, if not with such a beautiful appearance, but in the required quantity, then I make such a decision, without hesitation. You can sell your car to the Turks or the Japanese, and if you like, to the Romanians. They will kiss you in the ass for this. ” Having a good long-standing relationship with Milch and knowing his dislike for Messerschmitt, Heinkel received the order to make the pre-production lot He 112 without any problems, especially since the car, despite the failure of the prototype, received the support of military pilots.

In the autumn of 1936, the third prototype of the V3 (Bf 109A, D-IOQV, serial number 760) was completed. Two engineered MG 17 machine guns of 7,92 mm caliber with an Argus synchronizer (Argus) were mounted on top of the engine on it. The possibility of mounting the Rheinmetall-Borsig motor-gun, licensed by Oerlikon (MG FF / M caliber 20 mm) was envisaged. Strictly speaking, the term "motor-gun" for Bf 109 is not quite suitable, since the gun itself was attached behind the engine, and a pipe connecting the barrel and the hollow screw bushing passed through the camber of the cylinders. But we will keep this familiar term. It was followed by V4 (D-IALY), which was the first plane out of ten ordered. V4 received the Jumo 210A engine and the third machine gun, firing through the hollow shaft of the screw. In November 1936, the aircraft passed a test cycle. Serious design differences V4 from Bf 109A became the basis for assigning to it a new (unofficial) designation - Bf 109B-01 (Bruno).

In December, V5 (Bf 109B-02) and V6 (Bf 109B-03) were ready in Augsburg. They had an improved Jumo 210B engine with a battle mode that increased its power to 5 mines to 640 l. with., the general air intake of cooling two machine guns, a modified cabin visor and a modernized wing (removed reinforcing pads on the upper surface of the wing in the chassis niches, characteristic of the V1-V4).

The Spanish Civil War presented the Luftwaffe (and not only) a great opportunity to experience the new fighter in combat conditions. And the situation in the sky of Spain was not in favor of the main fighter of the army, Franco He 51. He could not stand the competition in the fight against the Soviet I-15 and I-16.

At the beginning of December, 1936 Bf 109 V3 was urgently dispatched to Spain, and the following month Bf 109B-01 (V4) followed it. Already on December 14, the famous pilot Trautloft (Hannes Trautloft) flew around V3 in the sky of Spain. Within seven weeks, the fighters passed military trials and were sent back to Germany. The conducted air battles did not reveal superiority over the Soviet fighters, but there was also no noticeable lag in flight technical data (LTD). Encouraged by the fact that the plane had good prospects for development.

At the air show, held in Zurich-Dubendorf (Zurich-Dubendorf) at the end of July 1937, the Bf 109 and He 112 aircraft made a strong impression. Messerschmitt sent prototypes V8, V9, V10, V13 and V14 there. On the V8 and V9 engines were Jumo 210Ga, and on the V10, V13 and V14 - DB 600Aa. German pilots won all the prizes of the competition. It should be noted that the French monoplane fighter D.510 designer Devuatin (Dewoitine) with a motor power 860 hp, but with a non-retractable landing gear, barely reached the speed 400 km / h. All the experts could see for themselves what advantage the aerodynamic perfection of the aircraft gives.
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  1. Free wind
    Free wind 5 December 2015 07: 25
    a good plane, but I hate it, hate eats me when I see its thin silhouette.
    1. avt
      avt 5 December 2015 10: 32
      Quote: Free Wind
      good plane

      Quote: fa2998
      Me-109- aircraft era

      Quote: Free Wind
      but I hate him

      Yes-ah .... Blood of us he drank fiercely with accomplices on aviation ....
  2. fa2998
    fa2998 5 December 2015 07: 49
    The Me-109 is an aircraft of the era. The first failures of the Germans from low-power engines, and the system was run in. The Me-109 had all the advanced-thin wing, a liquid-cooled engine, guns, retractable landing gear. If we recall at that time, potential opponents flew biplanes from "star", with rifle-caliber machine guns, and from the chassis. The work was carried out by all - someone will make a monoplane, someone will hide the chassis, but together in one design of the Me 109 first. hi
  3. aszzz888
    aszzz888 5 December 2015 07: 55
    Free Wind (3) RU Today, 07: 25 New
    nice plane, but I hate it, hate eats me when I see its thin silhouette

    And these "good" ones fell to the ground knocked down, just as well.
    1. pilot8878
      pilot8878 5 December 2015 12: 47
      Quote: aszzz888
      And these "good" ones fell to the ground knocked down, also good

      Fell, but at what cost.
    2. Bayonet
      Bayonet 6 December 2015 15: 35
      Quote: aszzz888
      And these "good" ones fell to the ground knocked down, just as well.

      Actually, an article about the aircraft, the history of its creation, and how we crashed we all know. request
    UNAUTHORIZED 5 December 2015 09: 27
    I-17 is essentially a record car with the most compressed fuselage, put weapons on it, a radio station, make an acceptable range and ... this is another plane
    1. avt
      avt 5 December 2015 13: 01
      Quote: UNMANDLER
      I-17 is essentially a record car with the most compressed fuselage, put weapons on it, a radio station, make an acceptable range and ... this is another plane
      The other and Polikarpov understood this perfectly and prepared the I-200, which was developed by the designer of his design bureau, Mikoyan in particular, but
      Quote: avt
      At the same time, Mikoyan was handed over the draft of a new I-200 fighter (future MiG-1), which Polikarpov sent to the People’s Commissariat of the Aviation Industry (NKAP) for approval before his trip to Germany.

      laughing And then
      Quote: avt
      New Experienced Design Department,

      in Polikarpov's design bureau became
      Quote: avt
      On December 8, 1939, by an order of the NKAP, Mikoyan was appointed head of KB-1 and deputy chief designer of plant No. 1. This day is considered the day of the foundation of the A. Mikoyan Design Bureau.

      But don't tell anyone else wassat, but ....
      Quote: Aspeed
      You know that your statements that Mikoyan made the MiG MiG from the VMG I-17 are nonsense, because he received the finished VMG from Polikarpov, and it was completely different, under a different engine. And knowing all this, you did not say anything in essence.
    UNAUTHORIZED 5 December 2015 10: 12
    He didn’t set records, but he had a very tight cockpit, poor visibility, and short range. The motor gun was REALLY PROVIDED and no more.
  6. Stas57
    Stas57 5 December 2015 10: 23
    how good it is that articles about weapons and battles have again gone, it is necessary to dilute the work of Rostov journalists.
  7. Cap.Morgan
    Cap.Morgan 5 December 2015 11: 34
    The engine of course plays a very important role.
    Same story with the Mustang. Initially, this outstanding aircraft did not show any interesting results. But then they put the engine on it ...
  8. Kostya Andreev
    Kostya Andreev 5 December 2015 12: 17
    It seems to me that one of the best WWII fighters was made by the tactics of its use.
    The lantern on the i-16 was redone at the request of the pilots, to improve visibility and leaving the aircraft.
    The cannons began to be put on i-16 earlier than on the messer - this is i-16P 2 cabinets and 2 shvak.
  9. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 5 December 2015 13: 09
    The problems of airplanes are not only problems of designers, but also materials and production technologies. Open cabin lights - not a whim of pilots, but the poor quality of plexiglass. The thick wing profile - a consequence of the use of wood in the structure - a lack of aluminum and a weak technological base of aircraft manufacturing plants. The Germans also unwound, consider, from scratch, the winners in the WWII, especially the French, frolic well in German factories, and took out a lot of equipment for reparations. The Germans managed two years faster. The results are known to all.
  10. anip
    anip 5 December 2015 19: 46
    The strange name is D-IUDE.
  11. motorized rifle
    motorized rifle 5 December 2015 23: 02
    For some reason, always, discussions slide into gossip, conspiracy theories and personal attitude to the subject. Well, what does the alleged, let's say, squabble in the People’s Commissariat of the aviation industry before the war have to do with Messer? And then I-17 and MiG? Indeed, it wasn’t that the plane was a fascist! It is necessary to consider the design, from an engineering point of view, and not political. Be that as it may, the fact that the plane took place, and how it should be considered an airplane, and we will take out the personal connections of Willy Messerschmitt and Rudolf Hess.
    So, the article mentioned Udette's statement: "But if we can receive cars from Messerschmitt tomorrow, albeit not with such a beautiful appearance, but in the required quantity, then I do not hesitate to make such a decision." Here she is the key phrase that decided the fate of Messer! Let's analyze in more detail what served as the basis for this. The point here is that one hundred Me-109, whose appearance was somewhat angular, was distinguished by a great degree of thoughtfulness of both the scheme itself and the manufacturing technology.
    The aircraft was equipped with an inverted water-cooled engine, which led to a good mating of the fuselage widened downwards with the wing. Its midship turned out to be minimal and equaled 0,955 sq. meters. \ Structurally, the fuselage was divided into three compartments, with the greatest interest being the middle compartment (from the canopy to the tail unit). The transverse set of this section consisted of 13 splits formed by flanging sheathing sheets, which were reinforced with spars and stringers. The assembly diagram is shown in the drawing (position 22). It was as if two halves of the "shell" were assembled - left and right, which were then connected along the vertical axis of the connector with using a special profile, which simultaneously served as a stringer (position 20, 21), a light technological design was obtained.
    retractable cantilever-type chassis, mounted on the power unit of the fuselage. Harvesting was carried out in the wing, along the span. And although it was believed that such a scheme (with a small track) makes the aircraft unstable on take-off, the wing turned out to be very light. One Me-109 E-3 console without weapons weighed only 170 kg (Me-109 B ID even less, about 150 kg). The connection scheme of the wing with the fuselage (pos25) allowed the installation of the wings with a minimum of technical personnel. It was believed that the wing can be installed by one person (at first the plane was hooked by the lower butt assembly, then lifted by a jack, after which the upper power assembly and then the front articulated assembly were fixed).
    The tail unit had a design similar to the fuselage. In particular, the stabilizer was going to their two separately assembled halves - the upper and lower. Then, a cast \ duralumin sock was attached to the screws (20-22 each). The discarded cockpit light caused a certain interest. Its design helped the pilot quickly leave the plane in an emergency. On Soviet aircraft, such a device appeared later.
    \ left the plane a favorable impression with its flight data. First of all, this concerned stability and controllability of the Messers was stable in all flight modes and could fly with an abandoned handle, which the I-16 pilot, for example, could not afford.
    I think it became more clear why exactly the Messer was adopted by the backlash waffe. But the shortcomings (and whoever doesn’t have them) were compensated by advanced methods of use, radio stations and pilot training.
  12. motorized rifle
    motorized rifle 5 December 2015 23: 05
    drawings separately because I can not attach
  13. The comment was deleted.
  14. motorized rifle
    motorized rifle 5 December 2015 23: 11
    Another drawing.
    1. Alex_623
      Alex_623 April 5 2016 10: 34
      Thanks for the drawings - pulled into the collection!
  15. fa2998
    fa2998 6 December 2015 09: 52
    Quote: Cap.Morgan
    The engine of course plays a very important role.

    But there are examples that are completely reverse. Instead of an in-line, they put a good "star" - they got a magnificent La-5. And the Americans especially did not bother with the liquid-cooled engine - they fought on the stars-2000-2500 hp during the whole war. hi
  16. rubin6286
    rubin6286 6 December 2015 10: 31
    On the VO website, the Me-109 aircraft is described in sufficient detail. Is it worth repeating all over again. In the world there are many other machines that have left their mark on the history of aviation, for example, the Soviet Yak-25, Tu-124, DVB-2, MDR-6, MTB-6, foreign: Devuatin-520,
    Beaufeiter, Hempden, Heinschel 126, Blom and Foss 138
    A-4 “Skyhawk”, A1 “Skyraider”, A-6 “Intruder”, “Mirage-4”,
    “Bukanir”, A-5 “Vigilent”, “Hindustan-24” and so on.
    Tell us about them.
  17. Bayonet
    Bayonet 6 December 2015 15: 42
    Anyone interested can find a book about Willy Messerschmitt and his cars.
  18. Alex_623
    Alex_623 April 5 2016 10: 27
    Quote: Cap.Morgan
    The engine of course plays a very important role.
    Same story with the Mustang. Initially, this outstanding aircraft did not show any interesting results. But then they put the engine on it ...

    I do not agree!
    Mustang originally (!!!) created as a direct support aircraft - that is, a fighter-bomber. Moreover, in two versions - a dive with air brakes and a clean attack plane with four guns.
    From this point of view, its speed and maneuverability were quite at the level - it would be futile to use it as a front-line fighter to gain dominance in the air, to fight enemy fighters, while dropping bombs he could perfectly defend himself!

    On the other hand, by the 44th year, Alisson also achieved impressive results with its engine:
    take a look at the Wikipedia article on the Allison V-1710-117 engine -
    The performance of this engine is remarkable - 1500l.s. at an altitude of 9000 meters - this is no worse than Merlin's 44th year.
    By the way, Kingcobra was tested both with Packard Merlin and Alisson, why Kingcobra went to the series not with Merlin but with Alisson - because of the lack of Merlin or because Alisson was not inferior to her - I don’t know this ...

    One way or another - but it seems to me that the Americans hurried up launching Merlin in a series, it is quite possible that the Alissons were no worse than the Merlins and the P-51D with Alisson would have shown results no worse than with Alisson.

    However, I certainly could be wrong ...