Military Review

The Internet was created for war.

18

The creation of the Internet, like many other "peaceful" achievements of mankind, was associated with military confrontation. During the “cold war” (in fact, it was the Third World War), the American authorities decided to create a network that can operate even in the conditions of a nuclear war. The telephone networks used at that time did not provide adequate stability, since the loss of only one large node could divide the network into isolated sections.


Therefore, the US Department of Defense turned to the RAND corporation (the RAND, abbreviation from Research and Development - “Research and Development”). American engineer and inventor in the field of computer science Paul Baran developed a mechanism for transferring information from computer to computer.

In the 1957 year, in connection with the launch of the first satellite by the Soviet Union, President Eisenhower issued a decree establishing the Agency for Advanced Research Projects (ARPA, then DARPA), which collected the best American scientists. It was this agency that a few years later concentrated its activities on the use of computers for military communication needs. Computer network development was assigned to the University of California, Los Angeles, Stanford Research Center, the University of Utah, and the University of California at Santa Barbara.

The first test of technology occurred on October 29 1969. The network consisted of two terminals that were as far apart as possible from each other to test the system in maximum modes. The first terminal was located at the University of California, and the second at a distance of 600 km from it, at Stanford University. The test task was that the first operator entered the word “LOGIN”, which was the login command, and the second had to confirm that he sees it on his screen. The first experiment was only partially successful: only the letters “L”, “O” and “G” were displayed. An hour later, the experiment was repeated and was successful.

The computer network was named ARPANET (from the English. Advanced Research Projects Agency Network); in the framework of the 5 project of December 1969 of the year she united four head scientific institutions. All work was funded by the military. Then the ARPANET network began to grow and develop actively. The network began to use scientists from different fields of science. 1971 terminals were also connected to the 15 year. In 1973, the first foreign organizations from England and Norway were connected to the network, and the network became international.

In 1983, the military part of the ARPANET was separated into a separate network - MILNET (from the English Military Network, that is, translated as “Military Network”). MILNET passed unclassified information. MILNET then became part of the Defense Data Network (DDN) - US military networks within the country and abroad. The Defense Data Network subnets included, besides MILNET, Defense Secure Network One (DSNET 1) for transferring secret information; Defense Secure Network Two (DSNET 2) for the transfer of sensitive information; Defense Secure Network Three (DSNET 3) for the transfer of sensitive information of special importance. In the future, this system has been developed.

In addition, it is worth noting the contribution of England and France to the development of the network. In 1965, Donald Davis, a scientist at the National Physical Laboratory in England, proposed the creation of a packet-based computer network in England. By 1970, he was able to create a similar network to meet the needs of a multidisciplinary laboratory and to prove that this technology works in practice.

However, this breakthrough was still not enough for universal communication between computers. Still, every computer on the network had to completely download information from the sender, and only then, manually connecting, send it to the next computer in the chain. A small local network CYCLADES, in which experiments were financed by the French government, was able to solve this problem by creating a TCP data management protocol, which made it possible to verify the completion of data transfer. And only after the commissioning of a full-fledged TCP data management protocol (1976), the Internet was finally established in the world.

By 1990, ARPANET lost to its rival, the NSFNet inter-university network created by the US National Science Foundation (NSF). In 1991, the World Wide Web (WWW) project was implemented. The foundation of what we understand today as WWW was laid in the 1980s by Tim Berners-Lee in the process of creating a hypertext system at the European Laboratory for Elementary Particle Physics (European Center for Nuclear Research). As a result of these works, in 1990, the first text browser was introduced to the scientific community, allowing you to view on-line text files associated with hyperlinks. Access to this browser was granted to the general public in 1991, but its spread outside the scientific community was slow. New historical a stage in the development of the Internet is due to the release of the first Unix version of the Mosaic graphical browser in 1993, developed in 1992 by Mark Andersen at the National Center for Supercomputer Applications.

Since 1994, after the release of Mosaic versions for Windows and Macintosh, followed by Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer, the explosive spread of WWW popularity and, consequently, the Internet among the general public, first in the United States and then throughout the world. In 1995, NSF transferred responsibility for the Internet to the private sector, and since then the Internet has existed as we know it today.

In 1977, the number of Internet users was 100 people, in 1984 - 1000, in 1986 there were already more than 5000, in 1989 - more than 100 thousand. In 1997, there were already 19,5 million users of the network, and in 2015 g - 3,2 billion people. Leading countries by number of users: China - 668 mln., India - 350 mln., USA - 277 mln., Japan - 110 mln., Brazil - 110 mln., Russia - 87,5 mln., Germany - 72 mln., Indonesia 71 mln., Nigeria - 70 mln., Mexico - 59 mln. The highest level of network penetration is in Europe: 75% by the end of 2014. Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Finland occupy the positions of Internet penetration leaders each year. countries in the world wide web out more than 90% of the population.

Thus, the USSR stimulated the creation of the Internet. The threat of a big war became the motive for creating a network. The United States began to create a network, England and France completed the process.

I must say that the network has become an excellent help, and then almost the main tool of the special services. If earlier it was necessary to directly monitor a person, using rather cumbersome equipment, then with the advent of the mass Internet, the task was greatly eased. Recent scandals with the NSA of the USA and other special services have shown that “Big Brother” controls not only potentially dangerous groups, but also the whole society, including politicians, government officials (including state leaders), prominent public figures, etc. Spread all the necessary information to the network, you only need to track and analyze. For such surveillance, the NSA has a sort of another secret Internet that monitors the first Internet.
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  1. corporal
    corporal 2 December 2015 06: 04
    11
    Well, at least something useful fighters did wink
    But now we can all breed srach on specialized sites. laughing
    Yes, and yet- the topic of boobs unusually disclosed wassat
  2. venaya
    venaya 2 December 2015 06: 05
    +7
    the network has become an excellent tool, and then almost the main tool of the special services. People themselves upload all the necessary information to the network, you just need to track and analyze it.

    A very good article. The author is undoubted (+) ! Quite in detail what was known fragmentarily. I will add a little that the network was also used to coordinate in managing the launch of strategic missiles through the already established and therefore cheap telephone network, which saved finances. Once again, thank you for the article, and do not forget fellow forum users that we are on the world wide web with all the ensuing consequences.
    1. marsel1524
      marsel1524 2 December 2015 09: 01
      +7
      The idea of ​​a real-time computer control system belongs to the creator of BESM, Sergey Alekseevich Lebedev, who submitted a memorandum to the Presidium of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in early 1951. Computers M-40 and M-50 (1958-1959) were previously designed for collective work in the network. Back in 1956, the construction of System A began in Kazakhstan - an experimental missile defense complex based on a computer network, which had wireless segments, scalable and working in real time without problems. The general rate of information flow via microwave links exceeded 1 MHz, which can be approximately compared to 1 Mbps in the units that are now familiar.
      See full: http://politrussia.com/society/kakie-preimushchestva-v-410/
      1. user
        user 2 December 2015 10: 14
        +4
        If the communication equipment in the Russian Federation were made and certified in FAPSI (this is the way, by the way, and not the delirium of the couch paranoid), then everything would be fine.
        And today, all the major hubs are located on the territory of NATO countries or controlled by these countries, naturally both the NSA and Mi-6 and many who have direct access to communication channels with all the consequences.
        Well, online toys are certainly great to drive.
      2. Astrey
        Astrey 2 December 2015 22: 38
        0
        An article from a parallel universe. Computer networks have names, or at least codes. The Internet became the World Wide Web at the behest of the NSA.
        Quote: venaya
        the network became a great help, and then almost the main tool of the special services


        The author does not mention the events of 1992 in LA. As a result, 250 people disappeared. IN USA! The only means of communication in the flaming third most important city in the United States were the networks to forget about this turn of the special services and launched a project to hide the truth under the masses of information.

        Pedivikia (not a source, but an illustration) broadcasts about the uprising in LA as follows: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los-Anglean_Riot
  3. Al_oriso
    Al_oriso 2 December 2015 06: 44
    +2
    The Internet is, of course, good, but only from such a sedentary war, very large assholes are growing for many.
  4. Mantykora
    Mantykora 2 December 2015 06: 55
    +5
    Quote: Al_oriso
    The Internet is, of course, good, but only from such a sedentary war, very large assholes are growing for many.

    I’m fighting while lying, so I don’t need a template)))

    And any civilian technology was first military. Nuclear power near the atomic bomb. And the internet is no exception. He is still for the war. And if war, God forbid, we will be left without an Internet, they will say: "We turn it on, when we win, the sooner we win, the faster we turn it on." Motivation will be steeper than grandfather's 100 grams of front-line.
  5. CONTROL
    CONTROL 2 December 2015 07: 01
    +3
    TV will carry
    under the bells
    to the world doomsday
    for his affairs.

    People will destroy cancer
    bomb, phone.
    True, he will survive.
    but not so strong.

    Pulleys, belts are buzzing.
    Full Turn -
    and time machine
    Pushkin will return.
    (E. Evtushenko, 1972)
    ... Internet .... Is it good? ...
  6. bubalik
    bubalik 2 December 2015 07: 39
    +2
    And what about the USSR did not say?
    Based on CIA reports in October 1962, President John F. Kennedy’s closest adviser, Arthur Schlesinger Jr., wrote a secret memorandum that “the Soviet decision to rely on cybernetics” will give the Soviet Union a “huge advantage”:

    “... by the 1970 year, the USSR may have a completely new production technology, covering entire enterprises and industry complexes and controlled by a closed feedback loop using self-learning computers.” And if America continues to ignore cybernetics, the expert concluded, “we will be finished.”


    http://nnm.me/blogs/oakenbeard/nnm-sssr-ili-pochemu-sssr-ne-sozdal-internet/
    1. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 3 December 2015 10: 37
      0
      Yeah. Let's remember about OGAS, for example.
  7. Nick1953
    Nick1953 2 December 2015 07: 58
    +1
    Sensational information was published on the WikiLeaks website, which was almost immediately blocked by US intelligence. According to published data, the Internet was invented by the Soviet inventor Afanasy Zaitsev in 1964. Since during this period the USSR experienced difficulties in connection with the removal of Khrushchev, the invention was not given a move. This was used by the Americans, who stole Zaitsev with the drawings when he was on vacation in Jurmala.
  8. atos_kin
    atos_kin 2 December 2015 09: 21
    0
    The Internet has created a monster - social networks. Mankind has already begun to scoop up this evil with a full spoon.
    1. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 3 December 2015 10: 36
      0
      Group "Metal Corrosion" - "Computer-Hitler!" ;)
  9. gridasov
    gridasov 2 December 2015 11: 35
    +2
    "Not smart people see only the result, but smart people also see the place of this result in the process."
    The Internet is a stage in a process in the development of a person and the embodiment of his abilities. The question for many is where are we going and what are the criteria for new aspirations and achievements. Sooner or later, but obvious. that many people understand that the information space has reached such a level of its parameters when a new level is important for a person - this is the level of ability to analyze information. Analyze in such a way as to determine the vectors of rational and rational development and behavior towards those goals that are not obvious to perception. Therefore, one can endlessly prove the correctness of the polar views that the Internet was created for war and for peace. One thing is clear, that on the previous foundations of mathematics or the science of numbers, dimension, vectoriality, etc., it is impossible to move forward.
  10. Ajjh
    Ajjh 2 December 2015 12: 45
    +1
    Everything was known before. Apart from some details - nothing new.
    This is a very big topic and there is more than one article, here the cycle must be created
  11. Boris55
    Boris55 2 December 2015 14: 56
    0
    The Internet was created for war.

    Was the fence invented for the war with a neighbor? laughing Books, paintings, newspapers, magazines, cinema and other media are just a means of ideological power to promote a particular concept in society.
  12. Denis Skiff
    Denis Skiff 2 December 2015 15: 28
    0
    It is necessary to turn off and no. Urgently!
  13. vladimirvn
    vladimirvn 2 December 2015 20: 15
    +1
    Human speech is 80 percent water.
  14. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 3 December 2015 10: 35
    0
    "made for war" - so what? Computers were originally "made for war". Why, all the electronics and glad, starting with the first spark transmitter Popov were "created for war"
  15. 12571752dima
    12571752dima 4 December 2015 16: 14
    0
    The Internet is a catcher of human souls. am