Military Review

The first jet fighters AS Yakovlev. Part II

66



The chassis with a tail wheel, preserved from the piston Yak-3, was one of the weak points of the Yak-15 fighter. Along with the limitation of the review during taxiing, it entailed such unpleasant consequences as the destruction of the airfield's coating from the effects of the hot jet of the engine and damage to the horizontal tail of the chipped particles of the concrete coating. It was recognized the need for introduction on the aircraft chassis with a nose strut. This work was carried out in parallel with reference to single and double options.

It turned out that the double training machine with a nose wheel was the first to be tested, it received the designation Yak-21T in the prototype, where T means "three-wheeled chassis". The first prototype of the Yak-21T was built at the plant number 464 with extensive use of parts and assemblies of the serial version of the Yak-15. The car received the 01464 serial number (the first jet aircraft of the 464 plant) and the 22 tail number. Common to the double and single options were changes in the design associated with the installation of a new chassis. In the lower part of the nose gondola on two box spars the nose wheel hubs were installed. The nose support was made semi-removable: it was pressed against the fuselage and closed with a shield. Behind the retracted nose wheel, there was a fairing (it was absent from the Spark). The main pillars with the new chassis scheme had to be moved back beyond the center of gravity of the aircraft, now they were behind the first spar, which resulted in changes in the design of the wing root. In the nose of the wing spars and ribs were added to increase stiffness and allow the installation of kerosene tanks. In the middle (along the chord) part of the wing, the root kerosene tanks were cut along the edges of the chassis and separated from it by correspondingly curved spars.

The second cabin was installed on the Yak-21T in place of the rear fuselage kerosene tank of the Yak-15 aircraft, as a result of which the fuselage shape was changed accordingly - the spars of the fuselage were extended and two frames were added. Ahead of the fuselage side members, four attachment points for the detachable front part of the fuselage (the nose gondola) and two engine attachment points were welded.

The first jet fighters AS Yakovlev. Part II


For the Yak-21T, a new lamp, modified as compared with the Yak-21, was developed, having two sliding parts, similar to the lantern of the Yak-18 aircraft (the binding of the faceted visor on the first prototype differed from the subsequent serial ones). Each cabin had pedals, an aircraft control knob, a throttle valve, a fire hydrant control lever, an emergency chassis release valve, a trimmer control wheel, the instruments necessary for aerobatics and engine control.

The vertical tail of the new geometry was installed, it became more angular. At the same time, the area of ​​the keel increased, and the steering wheel area slightly decreased. It is curious that in the preliminary draft of January 1947, the modified Yak-21 already had a nose wheel, but still kept the cockpit canopy and vertical tail as the original Yak-21.

To speed up the start of the test, the customer made a decision to allow a car to them without installing weapons. The plane made the first flight in May 1947 of the year and after two weeks of factory tests was handed over to state tests, which ended on July 1 on the 1947 of the year (according to other sources, on August 10 officially ended). The Act on the results of state tests said that "according to its flight-tactical and flight characteristics tested, the aircraft meets the requirements of the Air Force and can be used for removal and training of pilots in schools and combat units for training on jet planes." This conclusion was made, despite the presence of a number of significant drawbacks. So, the plane had almost twice the smaller range than indicated in the task. With a full fuel tank (580 l.) Flight range at the instrument speed in 380 km / h was 370 km, and the duration of the flight - 49 min. The permissible flight duration for variable engine operation at an altitude of 3000-3500 m was only 25 minutes, however, according to the commission, this allowed for a training flight to perform aerobatics.

There was a car and its advantages - the plane steadily kept at high angles of attack, virtually without delay carried out the spin, and allowed the execution of aerobatic figures with overload in 8g. Taking into account the urgent need for a jet training aircraft for the Air Force, the Research Institute of the Air Force recommended the Yak-21T for mass production, suggesting that the standard aircraft be equipped with a single NS-23 cannon and a C-13 photo-gun. It was suggested that the first 20 serial aircraft be subjected to troop testing.



At the same time, it was proposed to eliminate a number of shortcomings in the series that were revealed during the past tests. Thus, it was stated that “an insufficient amount of rear cockpit equipment (there is no chassis control, landing plates, front cockpit brakes off, engine start aggregates in flight, engine stop assemblies and the possibility of radio transmission), a low position of the instrument panel in the front cockpit making it difficult to observe the instruments in flight, as well as the presence of other defects complicates the implementation of export and training flights. These deficiencies are subject to mandatory elimination before adopting ".

It was noted that the aircraft allows the implementation of a full range of aerobatic maneuvers, but without creating negative overloads; Therefore, it is necessary to alter the fuel system in order to ensure the possibility of performing maneuvers and pilotage figures with negative overloads.

The aircraft was mass-produced at the aircraft factory No. 31 under the name Yak-XNUMHUTI (there is also the designation UTI Yak-17; first, the Spark was simply called Yak-17, but then this designation was given to the single-seater). From April to June 17, military tests of 1948 modified serial Yak-10UTI were conducted with RD-17 aircraft engines, which took place in 10 IAP 162 OVER 309 Air Force. The conclusion of the test results stated that the Yak-XNUMHUTI has good take-off and operational properties and is well suited for training cadets, hauling and training of pilots in combat units of the USSR Air Force. Aerobatic properties were especially noted: “Aerobatics on an airplane are performed easily. Unlike airplanes with vintomotor group, it is very stable and well obey the rudders. Flight qualities of the aircraft are excellent. " However, some of the previously noted deficiencies of the experimental machine were still not eliminated.



In the series on the Yak-17UTI, no weapons were installed (such was the serial Yak-17UTI No. 20041, issued by 31 in April 1948, which from 18 June to 20 in July 1948, was tested in the Civil Code Air Force Institute). According to the results of state tests of the experimental machine, as well as military tests of ten Yak-XNUMHUTI aircraft, a series of improvements were made in the series. So, it was necessary to take measures to eliminate the ingress of gases from the engine into the cabin, increase the rear cover of the cockpit canopy, correct the glazing defects that distorted visible objects, expand the set of rear cabin equipment, adapt the fuel system to negative overloads, and others. installed TRD RD-17А with 20041-hour resource instead of RD-10 with 50-hour resource. The capacity of the fuel system was increased by 10 L, however, the range decreased to 25 km versus 30 in the prototype - which was the result of the increased fuel consumption of the engine in this instance.

A little later, the Sparky experienced an experienced single-seat fighter with a new chassis, which received the factory name Yak-15U ("improved"). In some documents, it was also referred to as the “Yak-15U RD-10 with a three-wheel chassis layout and outboard fuel tanks.” The design of the nose support and the converted main landing gear was similar to that used on the Yak-21T. As in the "Spark", the shape of the tail was changed, with the vertical and horizontal tail increased in area. In the longitudinal control channel, a spring and a rocking chair were installed, which increased the gear ratio from the handle to the elevator by 20%. The wing tips modified to provide a suspension of two fuel tanks with a total capacity of up to 331 l of kerosene. In order to improve the pilot's working position, the cockpit on the Yak-15U was increased both in length and height, the curved visor of the flashlight, distorting the view, was replaced with a flat, recruited from three glasses, and the teardrop cap was retained. The Yak-15U passed state tests from August 27 to November 15 1947. The training fighter carried armament from the 2 NS-23 guns, the ASP-1 sight and the PAH-22 gun mounted gun in the right console. The normal take-off weight of the aircraft was 2890 kg, and taking into account the outboard tanks - 3240 kg. Following the test, the aircraft was recommended for adoption. After some modifications and repeated state tests, the new fighter, 20 March 1948, was approved for mass production at the aircraft factory number 31 with the assignment of the name Yak-17 (the second with this designation). Single Yak-17 was built together with a double version of the Yak-XNUMHUTI.

From December 1948 of the year to 10, January 1949 conducted control tests of the serial Yak-17 No. 1046 with the RD-10A engine, released in October 1948 of the year. This and other samples of the later series had a number of detailed differences in equipment, engine and armament from the specimen that passed state tests. So, it was installed front armored glass. The armor thickness was increased from 6 to 8 mm. The vehicles were equipped with an ASP-1H sight. In the right plane of the wing, they installed a C-13 photo-pistol, instead of a PAH-22 photo-pistol. Above the ASP-1H sight on the canopy of the flashlight was installed a control photo-gun C-13, designed for simultaneous photographing of the target and the moving reticle of the sight. Ammunition was increased to 70 ammunition for each gun. The capacity of the fuel system has been increased by 40 l. Machine number 1046 had a normal flight weight 2972 kg (versus 2890 kg for an experienced Yak-15У); Apparently, this is connected with the fact that its maximum speed at an altitude of 5000 m was only 726 km / h versus 748 km / chuYak-15, which, of course, cannot be called impressive against the background of other jet fighters of that time.



There were other changes in the serial Yak-17 compared to the experimental version. The horizontal tail span increased from 3,25 to 3,6. The HC-23 cannons were replaced with the HC-23K with extended barrels. Some machines installed telescopes АСП-ЗМ and counters of the rest of cartridges CSS-1. Airplanes of the late series had engines RD-10А with a resource increased to 50 hours. A total of 430 Yak-17 and Yak-XNUMHUTIs were produced, including 17 copies in 279 year. Their production ended in 1948.

The arrival of the Yak-17 fighters in the combat units was a long process; for example, the 472-IAP, stationed in the Kursk area (Kursk Vostochny base), received Yak-17 airplanes in the spring of 1950. Already 22 July, he was recognized as having reached full combat readiness and put on combat duty in the air defense system. Six months later, at the end of 1950, they began to rearm this regiment with more modern MiG-15.

The Yak-17, like its progenitor Yak-15, did not have high flight data - as noted above, the maximum speed was not high, especially the flight range was not enough. Reactive Yakovlev firstborn found in the Soviet air force relatively limited use, soon giving way to more advanced machines. However, the value of the Yak-15 / 17 family of fighters should not be underestimated - they played an important role as transitional ones in mastering the fundamentally new for that time jet technology. The essential point was that they maintained continuity with the piston fighters of Yakovlev and had good aerobatic properties. This helped to overcome the caution shown by the pilots in relation to jet technology. On the Yak-15, Yak-17 and Yak-XNUMHUTI aircraft, hundreds of Air Force pilots were trained.



These machines were exported to Bulgaria, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Poland and China. In the Bulgarian Air Force, both combat and training versions of this fighter were used according to some sources, according to others - only the Yak-17UTI, which arrived at two air regiments and aviation School "George Benkowski".

In Romania, the Yak-XNUMHUTI was used in parts of the 17 th IAD. One Yak-XNUMHUTI, board 97, is now an exhibit of the Museum of Science and Technology "Stefan Prokopi" in Yasy.

A small number of Yak-17 aircraft (probably from the Soviet Air Force) entered Czechoslovakia. One of them - the 30 board - is preserved as an exhibit of the Aviation Museum at the airport of Kbely, Prague.



More interesting was the career of the Yak-17 in Poland. At the end of 1949 - the beginning of 1950. The governments of the USSR and Poland were considering the deployment of a licensed Yak-17 building at an aircraft factory in Mielec, where the car was even assigned the C-1 brand designation. However, these plans were soon abandoned in favor of introducing more advanced models (licensed production of the MiG-15 fighter was deployed in Poland). Later, the aircraft engine plant in Rzeszow produced under license a lot of X-NUMX RD-30A engines intended for Yak-10YI aircraft entering Poland. The Polish Air Force received its first three Yak-17 copies in July 17. In the Polish military units this fighter received the unofficial name Agatha. Along with the combat version, a number of training Yak-1950UTIs arrived in Poland, which in Poland were named Yak-17В. These machines received a school of pilots in Radom, created in 17, which used them as transitional ones to train pilots for the Yak-1951 fighter. The Yak-23B were used for a short time and were soon replaced with UTI MiG-17. In 15, two Yak-1957В aircraft were transferred to the Warsaw Aviation Institute. One of them had a tail number "17-red", the second - "1-red." Later, the Quartet received civil registration marks SP-GLM and was used to train the institute pilots who were to test the jet trainer of the Polish design TS-4 Spark. The aircraft was also used for test flights related to the study of stability and controllability. Yak-11В SP-GLM ended the flight service in February 17 of the year, and in 1960-m was written off and transferred to the museum, where on board the aircraft next to the civil registration marks caused military "shahnitsy". Now this copy (already only in military designations, with the tail number “1963”) is retained as an exhibit of the Museum of Aviation and Astronautics in Krakow.

In 1950, large deliveries of Soviet aircraft began in China, where, with the assistance of Soviet instructors, training of flight personnel and technical personnel for the PRC Air Force was launched. A small number of MiG-9 and Yak-17UTI aircraft were used for retraining to jet fighters. Assistance in the training of Chinese pilots on the Yak-XNUMHUTI was rendered, in particular, by the 17-th IAD transferred to the PRC 29-th GvIAP.





Sources:
N. Yakubovich. USSR Reactive Firstborn - MiG-9, Yak-15, Su-9, La-150, Tu-12, Il-22, etc. M .: Yauza, 2015. C. 25-43.
Gordon E. Reactive First-born Yakovlev // Aviation and Time. 2002. No.6. C. 5-17.
Shvydkin A. Yak-15: jet “hawk” // Aviapanorama. 2004. No.5. C. 12-16.
Komissarov S. Jet fighters of the Yak-15 / 17 family // Wings of the Motherland. 2007. No.7. C. 27-31.
Yakubovich N. Reactive "pen". Yak-17 // Wings of the Motherland. 1999. No.12. C. 1-3.
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  1. inkass_98
    inkass_98 3 December 2015 08: 04
    +5
    Still, the redesigned scheme was initially dead end, here Yakovlev did not guess with the prospects, which is why he lost the lead in fighters to Mikoyan, who went the other way, putting the whole plane on the engine laughing
    1. mark1
      mark1 3 December 2015 09: 05
      +7
      Quote: inkass_98
      Still, the redesigned scheme was initially dead end, here Yakovlev did not guess with the prospects, which is why he lost the lead in fighters to Mikoyan, who went the other way, putting the whole plane on the engine

      Mikoyan also started with a redrawn scheme (MiG-9), like Lavochkin, but there is nothing particularly reprehensible in this. By the way, the famous F-4 "Phantom" is also made according to a new scheme. wink
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 3 December 2015 08: 24
    +3
    I read the second article with interest. Thanks to the author.
  3. Predator-74
    Predator-74 3 December 2015 09: 09
    +5
    Quote: inkass_98
    Still, the redesigned scheme was initially dead end, here Yakovlev did not guess with the prospects, which is why he lost the lead in fighters to Mikoyan, who went the other way, putting the whole plane on the engine

    Where were you with your "helpful advice" 70 years ago? smile
  4. rubin6286
    rubin6286 3 December 2015 10: 05
    +2
    Good, informative article. Thanks to the author.
  5. qwert
    qwert 3 December 2015 11: 11
    +2
    Quote: inkass_98
    the redan scheme was initially deadlock, here Yakovlev did not guess

    There was no choice. If you use a glider piston aircraft with a heavy engine in front, then it is impossible to transfer this mass to the rear of the fuselage. The center of mass will go somewhere under the stabilizer. The question is different, why did Yakovlev create the next-generation car, the Yak-23, according to this scheme?
  6. 0255
    0255 3 December 2015 12: 29
    +3
    An article about the Yak-30 with swept wings will be?
    1. kugelblitz
      kugelblitz 3 December 2015 13: 13
      +2
      I join, and about the Yak-50 too? !!
    2. kugelblitz
      kugelblitz 3 December 2015 13: 17
      0
      ... and about this it would not hurt.
      1. 0255
        0255 3 December 2015 14: 51
        0
        Quote: kugelblitz
        ... and about this it would not hurt.

        http://topwar.ru/61340-konkurenty-legendarnomu-mig-21-chast-pervaya-yak-140.html
  7. Taoist
    Taoist 3 December 2015 14: 04
    +3
    The main disadvantage of "Yakovlev" machines is that the designers thought least of all about the operational characteristics of the equipment. The persistent introduction of a bicycle chassis, ultra-dense layouts, and in the end the inclusion of operating hatches and connectors in the power circuits, which is why they were planted on a huge number of screws ...
    I somehow thought for the sake of interest - in the process of ongoing maintenance of the ed. Each time I had to unscrew the VM and tighten almost one and a half hundred screws "on the cross" ... Despite the fact that in the neighboring squadron on the MiG 21, the same screwdriver was almost not needed ...
    1. iouris
      iouris 3 December 2015 18: 56
      0
      This is not a drawback, but a "feature" of all Soviet cars of this period. There was even a saying: "The designer is" dry ", the plane is" wet ", and the technician is" wet ".
      Until now, one of the most important properties of maintainability is called maintainability.
      1. Taoist
        Taoist 3 December 2015 20: 29
        +2
        Well, I had the opportunity to compare in kind ...
        So I can quite authoritatively say that according to the degree of "friendliness" to the operators, the equipment of our design bureaus can be allocated completely 1 place out of competition is the Yak, followed by Sukhoi ... Well, the MiG and Tupolev share the 3rd place. Well, damn it is not the case when, in order to suspend the BC, the aircraft must be hung on lifts ... Or to install a brake parachute, you need to lie on the concrete road and press the container with your feet? And that was ...
        This is all the same, first of all, the so-called. "design school" - because if the task is to squeeze out performance characteristics at any cost and there is even a flood ... then it will turn out that way.
    2. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 3 December 2015 23: 16
      0
      Quote: Taoist
      Persistent introduction of a bicycle chassis

      Dear colleague Aleksey, the idea of ​​a bicycle chassis to A. Yakovlev tossed up Bartini R.L. back in the war years. Bartini R.L. served his sentence in Novosibirsk, where he worked at SibNIA. As deputy commissar, Alexander Sergeyevich, when visiting Novosibirsk, not only met with Bartini, but also had lengthy conversations with him. And Bartini’s ideas were not measured. Some of these ideas are Yakovlev A.S. sold on His machines.
  8. Denimax
    Denimax 3 December 2015 14: 15
    0
    Quote: inkass_98
    Still, the redesigned scheme was originally a dead end.

    It’s good that the Germans didn’t think of it, they could rivet from Messers much more than twin-engine me-262.)
  9. Echo
    Echo 3 December 2015 17: 02
    10
    Quote: inkass_98
    Still, the redesigned scheme was initially dead end, here Yakovlev did not guess with the prospects, which is why he lost the lead in fighters to Mikoyan, who went the other way, putting the whole plane on the engine

    Here we need to start with the fact that Yakovlev, by definition, was not a fan of the construction of fighter jets. Alexander Sergeyevich was an experimental aircraft designer and father of domestic (oil, oil) small and training aviation, its protector and driving force. Build a good training aircraft is no easier than a fighter ... and this rule is true even today, when flying desks remained piston, and fighters stepped into the fifth generation.

    This was the irony of fate. Yakovlev, who did not design fighters at all before the creation of the Yak-1, turned out to be the author of the most massive Soviet fighter during the Great Patriotic War. Forcibly seated in the chair of the deputy minister of aviation, he honestly worked the entire war, after which he asked to resign. He wanted to do HIS business, unlike careerists, Yakovlev did not hold onto the ministerial portfolio, and in general. Yak-15 and Yak-17 Alexander Sergeevich ORDERED to create, and he created it as best he could, in the shortest possible time. After that, and several more fighters, designed by order, Yakovlev returned to what he wanted to do. Yak-12, Yak-18, Yak-50, Yak-52, Yak-55 - all of this is Yakovlev, he created the world's best training and sports aerobatic aircraft. Yakovlev was engaged in bold experiments in the field of aviation: the Yak-24 tandem helicopter, the Yak-38 GDP fighter and then the Yak-141 (by the way, the rotary nozzle now on the F-35 is an invention of Yakovlev), he created the Yak-40, the first Soviet aircraft which has been certified in the USA. Yak-42 is the first domestic airliner, in which the vast majority of units were "dry".

    Understand, brothers, Alexander Sergeevich Yakovlev was a peace-loving man, and he did not need the glory of the creator of the world's best fighters. He was a man who all his life dreamed that any Soviet boy could come to the flying club, and by the time he came of age, he would learn to twist barrels and loops on a light single-engine aircraft. Yakovlev fiercely defended the need for the production of light aircraft piston engines in the USSR, and the discontinuation of production of the poor M11 engine by Nikitushka was a personal slap in the face to Yakovlev. For Yakovlev remained a faithful Stalinist until the end of his days, and Nikitushka did not like this. Yakovlev knew better than all other aircraft designers and fat-ass nomenklatura workers that the aerospace power of the Motherland begins not with a fighter, but with a light single-engine aircraft, a flying desk that any high school student can master. Or a high school student. For this, "grateful" colleagues from the fifth column poured out a lot of slops and lies on Yakovlev. Especially after the death of Alexander Sergeevich.

    Here, just a cry from the soul.
    1. goncharov.62
      goncharov.62 3 December 2015 17: 55
      -2
      "he created the Yak-40" - Yakovlev had nothing to do with the Yak-40. In addition to selected fame, awards for this aircraft. It was made by another person in the YAK OKB, look on the net.
  10. Filxnumx
    Filxnumx 3 December 2015 23: 07
    -4
    Yes, the human being was the kindest soul. Only competitors (Polikarpov, Pashinin, Mikoyan) from his Yak-1 in the cracks and other bed factories dispersed, and could have killed. There was still time. So Yak became the most massive. And also due to the fact that the number of non-combat losses on them exceeded the number of military ones, which caused the trial in June 1945. And somehow quickly AS Yakovlev resigned as deputy minister.
    1. Alf
      Alf 3 December 2015 23: 53
      +1
      Quote: Fil743
      Yes, the human being was the kindest soul. Only competitors (Polikarpov, Pashinin, Mikoyan) dispersed from their Yak-1 through cracks and other bed factories,

      And how did the cars of Polikarpov, Mikoyan and Pashinin compete with Yakovlev?
      1. Kostya Andreev
        Kostya Andreev 4 December 2015 00: 58
        0
        And why were Yakovlev’s cars better than their designs?
        1. Alf
          Alf 4 December 2015 19: 00
          +2
          Quote: Kostya Andreev
          And why were Yakovlev’s cars better than their designs?

          I-185 Polikarpova-all-metal + unreliable non-serial engine. Enough?
          MIG Mikoyan-high-altitude fighter, Yak-low-altitude. Enough?
          I-21 Pashinina-

          According to calculations, the take-off weight did not exceed 2400 kg. It was expected that the maximum speed at the ground would reach 523 km / h, and at an altitude of 5000 m - 613 km / h (specialists of the Air Force Research Institute believed that it would not exceed 605 km / h). Climbing time of 5000 meters - 4,75 minutes.
          In the future, it was planned to install M-21 or M-107 turbocompressors and engines on the I-120. (Alph-these engines never appeared)
          The design is mixed. Monocoque fuselage, pine frame, bent beam frames; The front of the fuselage is a transitional truss made of steel pipes. Spars as in I-16, duralumin ribs, plywood wing sheathing on aluminum rivets flush. Removable wooden keel, one-piece stabilizer, rudders and ailerons of the I-16 type. Aircraft cockpit without bulletproof glass.
          Armament: one ShVAK gun and two ShKAS machine guns.
          The design was very light, rational. A rare I-1940 advantage was the teardrop-shaped lantern of the cockpit, providing a circular view.
          July 11, 1940 pilot P.U. Fokin tested the I-21 in flight. The plane turned out to be longitudinally unstable, and he was returned to the factory for revision. At the same time, a tendency to stall on the wing was revealed at large angles of attack.
          According to preliminary data obtained in the autumn of 1940, the maximum speed of the experimental vehicle at the ground reached 628 km / h, and the flight range was 780 km.
          Unlike the military, Pavel Ulyanovich Fokin believed that on the take-off run the plane had no tendency to turn, it listened well, and its take-off and landing were much simpler than the I-16. (Alf-Yak had the same take-off and landing characteristics)
          It seems that the NKAP considered the car promising, and in late September, People's Commissar A.I. Shakhurin ordered the construction of a couple of more experienced fighters. They were ordered to eliminate all previously identified deficiencies, and on the fourth - also to place reinforced weapons.
          Repeated state tests of the fighter ended on the eve of 1941, but their results were depressing. In addition to the previously identified defects, it turned out that the speed of the I-21 did not exceed 573 km / h, (Alf-Yak is the same) and other characteristics worsened.
          The second I-21 was also built with the M-105P engine instead of the planned M-107. His factory tests were completed in October 1940.
          The third I-21 was built in January 1941 and on April 5 made its first flight. It had a modified wing and more powerful weapons (instead of a 20 mm ShVAK gun, a 23 mm BT-23 gun was installed).
          By order of the NKAP of November 10, 1940, OKB OK was transferred to plant No. 21. Lavochkina. The same document ordered the company to finish the development and testing of the third I-21, in May - June of the next 1941 the aircraft was tested in the LII. The leadership of the Flight Research Institute sent an opinion on the results of the tests to the Deputy People's Commissar for Experimental Aircraft Engineering, A.S. Yakovlev. It noted:
          “The I-21 was tested twice at the Air Force Research Institute, where it was identified, defects due to which, without completing the tests, it was returned to the designer for fine-tuning. For the third time, the I-21 with improvements was presented for control tests in the LII, as a result of which the main conclusions of the NI and the Air Force were confirmed. ”
          As a result, the specialists of the Flight Research Institute considered that I-21 should not be transferred to state tests. So the last point in the history of this fighter was set.

          If you have any objections, I’m ready to fight honestly. I beg !
          1. Kostya Andreev
            Kostya Andreev 5 December 2015 15: 14
            +1
            And I generally fight. but trying to find the truth!
            1. I-185 Polikarpova-all-metal + unreliable non-serial engine. Enough? no. not enough La-5-7-9-11 flew with a floor of al-82. also flew in the series and yak-9 u with very raw m 107.
            2. The moment with low-altitude motors AM was also a low-altitude fighter, but the production of IL-2 is more important.
            3. Yes, the Pashinin fighter had a lot of not enough. (Tests and serve to eliminate them). but they didn’t let them be eliminated, and they didn’t start the series, and the yak also had a huge bunch of flaws. and breaking wings. was put into series.
            1. Kostya Andreev
              Kostya Andreev 5 December 2015 15: 54
              0
              and what is all-metal bad?
              1. Alf
                Alf 5 December 2015 16: 27
                0
                Quote: Kostya Andreev
                and what is all-metal bad?

                An all-metal fighter is fine, that's just one problem - duralumin was not enough for him. They would have started it in a series and would have sat right there.
                1. Kostya Andreev
                  Kostya Andreev 5 December 2015 17: 10
                  0
                  how do you know?
            2. Alf
              Alf 5 December 2015 16: 25
              +1
              Quote: Kostya Andreev
              And I generally fight. but trying to find the truth!
              1. I-185 Polikarpova-all-metal + unreliable non-serial engine. Enough? no. not enough La-5-7-9-11 flew with a floor of al-82. also flew in the series and yak-9 u with very raw m 107.

              As pointed out by a colleague, Aspid-LA-5 and the 185th were approximately the same in terms of performance characteristics, with the exception of range.
              Further, the 185th was originally planned with the 71st engine, but it just did not go, as with the M-90.
              On the Yak-9 with the 107th engine, the pilots did not like to fly, not only that the resource was only 25 m / h, but with a sharp increase in gas, the 107th was often stalled. That is why not a single YAK-9U with M-107 did not get into the troops, they were only in Moscow air defense.
              Quote: Kostya Andreev
              2. A moment with low-altitude motors AM was also a low-altitude fighter.

              At the suggestion of test pilot S.P. Suprun, two regiments were formed on the MiG-3 with a large percentage of testers familiar with them. Indirectly, this helped in eliminating the flaws of piloting, but the main disadvantage of the MiG-3 remained unsolved: surpassing all fighters in speed at altitudes of more than 5 m, it was inferior to fighters Yak, La and German at low and medium altitudes, which, together with weak weapons, did not allow fully use the MiG-000 as a front-line fighter.

              Flight characteristics
              Maximum speed:
              at the ground: 495 km / h
              at height: 640 km / h on 7800 m

              7800 meters is low altitude?
              1. Kostya Andreev
                Kostya Andreev 5 December 2015 17: 09
                0
                In 42, a version was made with a low-altitude AM, which stood on the silts. the fighter, in principle, turned out to be not bad, but the sludge needed this motor, and the plant that produced the engines could not provide two types at once.
                As pointed out by a colleague, Aspid-LA-5 and the 185th were approximately the same in terms of performance characteristics, with the exception of range.
                I do not argue, look at the filing of the journal "Wings of the Motherland" for 90 years, compare tabular data. I can't post the screen, because the magazine in the basement is littered with. broke to look, but I remember that the superiority is significant.
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 4 December 2015 02: 11
      +3
      Quote: Fil743
      Only competitors (Polikarpov, Pashinin, Mikoyan) from his Yak-1 in the cracks and other bed factories dispersed

      Do not confuse God's gift with scrambled eggs! Everyone is good. Read the history of Soviet aviation. Why was Tupolev put in prison? And for the fact that, being the head of the SUAI, he made it as difficult as possible for designers to access TsAGI and forbade the purging of aircraft models of other design bureaus in the TsAGI wind tunnels. And Yakovlev's design bureau also tried to destroy Tupolev. Because of this, there was a constant war between them. For one thing, read how I-200 Polikarpov became MiG-1 and MiG-3. And if anyone cracked down on competitors in all available ways, it was Tupolev. It is his "merit" that the already flying T-4 Sukhoi was closed in favor of the Tu-22 and Tu-160. By the way, the Tu-160 was still only in general forms, and the Tu-22 is the first aircraft on which pilots were afraid to fly because of tail shaking. If you wish, you can find books of memoirs of old aircraft designers, and then draw conclusions who is who.
      1. Alf
        Alf 4 December 2015 19: 03
        0
        Quote: Amurets
        And Yakovlev’s design bureau also tried to destroy Tupolev

        And I ruined the chapel too?
        Yakovlev made fighters, Tupolev bombers. Benefit Tupolev destroy Yakovlev?
      2. Gamdlislyam
        Gamdlislyam 4 December 2015 19: 24
        +1
        Quote: Amurets
        And Yakovleva’s design bureau also tried to destroy Tupolev. Because of this, there was a constant war between them.

        At the time when Tupolev A.N. was on the bunk (1937), Yakovlev A.S. there was nobody. So, the head of a small group (about 20 people) of light engine designers who design sports aircraft and training aircraft for Osoaviahim.
        In this case, you, dear colleague Nikolai, are wrong. They had very different weight categories, so that A.N. Tupolev drew attention to Yakovlev A.S.
    3. motorized rifle
      motorized rifle 4 December 2015 04: 19
      +1
      Dispersed Mikoyan? Yes, wake up, Mikoyan the whole war, after the MiG-3, what the hell did he do with his design bureau and, as you know, happily sat out (the war). Polikarpov? Pashinin? Enough testers were killed on the I-180, the I-185 was released and ended up for military trials on the Kalinin Front, thanks to the Deputy People's Commissar. And then, if without the permission of the State Defense Committee (consider IV Stalin), the designers could not even change the nut on their product, then neither Shakhurin, nor even Yakovlev simply could "disperse" someone.
      1. Kostya Andreev
        Kostya Andreev 4 December 2015 09: 06
        -1
        on yaks not only testers were killed not a few, but also combatant pilots.
      2. Kostya Andreev
        Kostya Andreev 4 December 2015 14: 19
        +1
        Quote: motorized infantryman
        then, if without the permission of the State Defense Committee (consider IV Stalin), the designers could not even change the nut on their product, then neither Shakhurin, nor even Yakovlev could simply "disperse" someone.

        And at the same time, despite the requirements, they did not launch the i-180 series. read how I passed the test Yak-1, how I gained altitude and maximum speed.
        P. s. I can not understand the reason for the rejection of the i-180?
        I don’t criticize Yakovlev, because the idea is good, but the plane does not fly without an engine, and the engine m-105 during the whole war, hence the problems with strength, range, speed.
        1. Gamdlislyam
          Gamdlislyam 4 December 2015 19: 36
          +1
          Quote: Kostya Andrei
          And at the same time, despite the requirements, they did not launch the i-180 series

          Yes, you are right, dear colleague Andreev Konstantin. However, it was slowed down because the plant director planned to launch the production of the I-21 fighter, which was designed by the factory design bureau under the leadership of Pashinin. But the Order on the cessation of work on the I-21 fighter (as well as on two dozen projects and experimental aircraft) was signed by A. Yakovlev on the eve of the war.
          1. Kostya Andreev
            Kostya Andreev 4 December 2015 20: 55
            +1
            What kind of director of the plant is that, without Stalin’s permission, the plane can choose which one to do ?. Even in modern democratic Russia, few dare to do so.
            1. Gamdlislyam
              Gamdlislyam 5 December 2015 09: 36
              +1
              Quote: Kostya Andreev
              What kind of director of the plant is that, without Stalin’s permission, the plane can choose which one to do ?. Even in modern democratic Russia, few dare to do so.

              Dear colleague Konstantin, do not demonize Joseph Vissarionovich to such an extent. To understand the reasons that prompted the director of the plant to do so, you need to know the rules of financing the company in those years. The first People’s Commissar of the Aviation Industry, Mikhail Moiseyevich Kaganovich (1939-1940), allowed the factory design bureaus to design their own combat vehicles. A lot of money was allocated for this, and for their manufacture, limits on raw materials, machine tools, other equipment, additional personnel. For the plant, they were manna from heaven (large salaries, bonuses for the management of the plant and designers). So it was not only at this factory, but also at others. Alas, this experiment did not give a positive result. Before the war (in 1941), by the Order of A. Yakovlev, in fact, this experiment was closed (for which Yakovleva is still being poured with “mud”). After the outbreak of the war, all factory design bureaus became branches of the design bureau, whose aircraft were produced at these plants.
              But the story with the director of the plant is quite interesting. I got the impression that he was "unsinkable." Allowed himself not to execute the orders of the People's Commissariat without any consequences for himself. And only during the war years retribution overtook him.
  11. kvs207
    kvs207 4 December 2015 00: 47
    0
    Quote: Fil743
    Yes, the human being was the kindest soul. Only competitors (Polikarpov, Pashinin, Mikoyan) dispersed from their Yak-1 through cracks and other bed factories,

    Yakovlev A.S. "The purpose of life"
    “Soon I was summoned to the head of the Main Directorate of the Aviation Industry. I had to wait a long time in the waiting room, until finally I was invited to enter the office.
    A surprisingly full, black-haired man sat at a huge desk. Without greeting him or even not inviting me to sit down, giving me an unfriendly look, he got down to business without further ado: [86]
    - Are you being evicted from the factory? Do it right. So ... I gave instructions to place your design office and production workers in the bed workshop on Leningradskoye Shosse. Clear? Do not count on more. Go ahead. And run with complaints less ... And that ... In general, go.
    He warned, among other things, that the production of beds behind the workshop was being maintained.
    This is how our design office ended up in a bed workshop. "
  12. Echo
    Echo 4 December 2015 06: 33
    0
    Quote: Fil743
    Yes, the human being was the kindest soul. Only competitors (Polikarpov, Pashinin, Mikoyan) from his Yak-1 in the cracks and other bed factories dispersed, and could have killed. There was still time. So Yak became the most massive. And also due to the fact that the number of non-combat losses on them exceeded the number of military ones, which caused the trial in June 1945. And somehow quickly AS Yakovlev resigned as deputy minister.

    But this, I'm sorry, a lie. And not your lies, but the lies of pests and envious Yakovlev. Moreover, the lies are stupid, crooked, and completely implausible. You just repeat the lies, not even understanding its meaning.
    In his works, Yakovlev always helped Polikarpov with everything he could, and even more, sometimes the help of Alexander Sergeyevich overstepped the boundaries of what was permitted. Remember that the famous I-185 and ITP were created in Novosibirsk, with the direct participation of aircraft plant number 153 (now NAPO named after Chkalov). You know that the 153rd was supervised by Yakovlev, who personally ordered - if Polikarpov needs any materials or scarce work, give it immediately and in full! But the fact that the MiG-3, allegedly Mikoyan and Gurevich, is actually an I-200 designed by Polikarpov, you obviously do not know. Well, and also about the whining of Shlyoma Lavochkin, you need to remember how "Yakovlev stole the oil cooler" from him. The fact that Shlema stole an entire plane from another engineer, he somehow does not remember.
  13. kugelblitz
    kugelblitz 4 December 2015 13: 46
    -1
    Quote: Fil743
    Yes, the human being was the kindest soul. Only competitors (Polikarpov, Pashinin, Mikoyan) from his Yak-1 in the cracks and other bed factories dispersed, and could have killed. There was still time. So Yak became the most massive. And also due to the fact that the number of non-combat losses on them exceeded the number of military ones, which caused the trial in June 1945. And somehow quickly AS Yakovlev resigned as deputy minister.

    Well, here, in principle, they talked well, but I’ll add about the post-war designs of Yakovlev as a family of interceptors and reconnaissance bombers Yak-25-28 (the pilots liked them because of the easy piloting). Despite the fact that he, along with Mikulin, advanced the idea of ​​a small-sized economical AM-5, which then, after modernization, stood on other fighters and cruise missiles. And if you compare with the ugly designs of Sukhov and Lavochkin, then everything becomes clear. The first high-altitude stratospheric scout was created in their own design bureau. No matter how scolded the Yak-38, in fact, he was more progressive than Harrier. And if we talk about training aircraft, then a real competitor was made to him only in the Sukhov Design Bureau, and then many years later. And now they have a beautiful Yak-130 ... probably says a lot about the traditions of this design bureau?
  14. qwert
    qwert 4 December 2015 15: 55
    0
    Quote: goncharov.62
    he created the Yak-40 "- Yakovlev had NOTHING to do with the Yak-40. In addition to the selected glory, awards for this aircraft. It was made by another person in the Yak Design Bureau, look on the net.

    And not OKB YAK, but in the design bureau of Antonov and Beriev
  15. BV330
    BV330 5 December 2015 04: 48
    0
    Quote: Echo
    Quote: Fil743
    Yes, the human being was the kindest soul. Only competitors (Polikarpov, Pashinin, Mikoyan) from his Yak-1 in the cracks and other bed factories dispersed, and could have killed. There was still time. So Yak became the most massive. And also due to the fact that the number of non-combat losses on them exceeded the number of military ones, which caused the trial in June 1945. And somehow quickly AS Yakovlev resigned as deputy minister.

    But this, I'm sorry, a lie. And not your lies, but the lies of pests and envious Yakovlev. Moreover, the lies are stupid, crooked, and completely implausible. You just repeat the lies, not even understanding its meaning.
    In his works, Yakovlev always helped Polikarpov with everything he could, and even more, sometimes the help of Alexander Sergeyevich crossed the boundaries of what was permitted. Remember that the famous I-185 and ITP were created in Novosibirsk, with the direct participation of aircraft factory number 153 (now NAPO named after Chkalov). You are aware that the 153rd was supervised by Yakovlev, who personally ordered that if Polikarpov need any materials or scarce work, give immediately and in full! But the fact that the MiG-3, supposedly Mikoyan and Gurevich, is actually an I-200 designed by Polikarpov, you obviously do not know. Well, and more about whining Shlyoma Lavochkin need to remember how he had "Yakovlev stole the oil cooler". The fact that Shlema stole a whole plane from another engineer, he somehow does not remember.

    And what kind of radiator did Yakovlev have for Lavochkin? That's about the fact that the employees of the Lavochkin Design Bureau during the work on La-5 found a radiator from M-107 for Yakovlev in the corner of the workshop, and grabbed it onto an experimental car, I heard ...))
    And what plane did Lavochkin steal? The three were doing LaGG, La-5 was being redone on the go at the factory, 7 development of 5, 9 aluminum modernization of 7 ... If only from reagents. I found somewhere a drawing of the future La-15 and hid the vile ... ((
    1. Alf
      Alf 5 December 2015 16: 48
      0
      Quote: BV330
      , 9 aluminum modernization of 7 ...

      But nothing that the LA-9 has a completely different wing profile? But nothing that the LA-9 has 4 NS-23 guns versus the 2 ShVAKs of the LA-7?
      Modernization? Or the creation of a new aircraft?
      1. BV330
        BV330 5 December 2015 17: 00
        0
        S.A. Lavochkin responsibly approached the issue, and used the developments for not just modernizing La-7 and converting it to metal, but also possibly improving its performance characteristics, I agree. Including and wing profiles, and weapons. And under the new modification of the motor (ASh-83), which unfortunately did not go into the normal series.
        We can consider a new machine)).
        PS: smiled at the guns - 37mm on the Yak and Lagge, just a modification, as well as a series of 20-15-20-30mm on the Messer. )))
  16. Echo
    Echo 6 December 2015 05: 00
    -1
    Quote: BV330
    And what kind of radiator did Yakovlev have for Lavochkin? That's about the fact that the employees of the Lavochkin Design Bureau during the work on La-5 found a radiator from M-107 for Yakovlev in the corner of the workshop, and grabbed it onto an experimental car, I heard ...))

    Well, the story goes that, like, Yakovlev got all the oil coolers for his fighters, and Lavochkin did not give a single one. What makes you laugh.
    Quote: BV330
    And what plane did Lavochkin steal? The three were doing LaGG, La-5 was being redone on the go at the factory, 7 development of 5, 9 aluminum modernization of 7 ... If only from reagents. I found somewhere a drawing of the future La-15 and hid the vile ... ((

    I give a tip - Gu-82. Aircraft with LTX at La-5 level, but appeared ONE YEAR earlier than La-5. The plane was hacked off by Shakhurin and Kaganovich in order to give some time to Helmet Magazineur (aka Lavochkin) to swing, and as a result, in the most difficult days of the war, our pilots did not have a fighter with a 14-cylinder air-cooled engine. And then they blamed everything on Yakovlev. And why? But because Yakovlev and Gudkov are Russian, and who is Shakhurin, Kaganovich and Storer?
    1. BV330
      BV330 7 December 2015 01: 05
      0
      And what immediately did not Polikarpov have to steal from his I-185? "To steal so a million" (c)))
      The variant with the M-82A had a performance characteristic somewhere between La-5F and -FN, surpassing the shops, among other things, in armament and in range. And again, the cursed Jews killed such a car. And Lavochkin would fly, and how! hi
      Maybe the fact is that when they tumbled in haste on cars with double stars, that is, in 1941 in a fire order, then no one succeeded in a normal plane, neither Yakovlev, MiGs, nor Gudkov (((. And Polikarpov was crippled , although he did it quite well, but he didn’t put it on the M-82, everything clung to the M-71, take a shot ... ((
      1. Gamdlislyam
        Gamdlislyam 7 December 2015 02: 23
        0
        Quote: Echo
        I give a tip - Gu-82. Aircraft with LTX at La-5 level, but appeared ONE YEAR earlier than La-5. The plane was hacked off by Shakhurin and Kaganovich in order to give some time to Helmet Magazineur (aka Lavochkin) to swing, and as a result, in the most difficult days of the war, our pilots did not have a fighter with a 14-cylinder air-cooled engine. And then they blamed everything on Yakovlev. And why? But because Yakovlev and Gudkov are Russian, and who is Shakhurin, Kaganovich and Storer?

        Dear colleague Anton, you should not blame everything on the Zionists, especially since Mikhail Moiseyevich Kaganovich shot himself again on July 1, 1941, when no one had any thoughts on designing La-5.

        Quote: BV330
        Maybe the fact is that when they tumbled in a hurry on cars with double stars, that is, in 1941 in a fire order, then no one got a normal plane, neither Yakovlev, MiGs, nor Gudkov

        Dear colleagues Vadim and Anton, do not look for a black cat in a dark room, especially since it is not there. The story of the appearance of combat vehicles with the M-82 engine is much more prosaic. Here, before the war, two M-82 and M-71 engines were launched in a series. Both were raw. With the beginning of the war, by the order of Shakhurin A.I. M-71 production was discontinued in favor of the M-82, as a more promising engine. Motors were produced, but no one put them on airplanes (they too suffered from childhood diseases). In November 1941, Shakhurin A.I. ordered by order of all the chief aircraft designers to put this engine on their cars. If you look carefully, you will find that all planes, both production and experimental, were developed with an alternative air-cooled engine.
        Yakovlev A.S. turned out to be trickier. He complied with the order of the People's Commissar originally. Until 1943, a fighter with an M-82 engine was manufactured, and then it was tested until mid-1945. After which the project was closed due to irrelevance. And the M-82 engine itself was brought to acceptable parameters only by the end of 1945. This was one of the reasons why Shakhurin and Novikov, after the war, ended up on their bunks for a long 7 years.
  17. Echo
    Echo 7 December 2015 05: 06
    +1
    Quote: Gamdlislyam
    Dear colleague Anton, you should not blame everything on the Zionists, especially since Mikhail Moiseyevich Kaganovich shot himself again on July 1, 1941, when no one had any thoughts on designing La-5.

    Here we are not talking about Zionists, they had nothing to do with wrecking in aviation. There was simply a group of careerists who crushed everyone outside their camarilla and openly stole ideas from other designers to the detriment of their homeland. And the nationality of these pests is the twentieth business.